|Discovered||August 14, 2002|
|Mean Orbital elements |
|Epoch June 10, 2003|
|Semi-major axis||0.33 AU, 3,220 Neptune radii, 49.285 Gm|
|Orbital period||9740.73 d
|Mean diameter||60 km **|
*to the ecliptic**based on the albedo
Neso (// NEE-soh; Greek: Νησώ), also known as Neptune XIII, is the outermost irregular natural satellite of Neptune. It was discovered by Matthew J. Holman, Brett J. Gladman, et al. on August 14, 2002, though it went unnoticed until 2003.
Neso orbits Neptune at a distance of more than 48 Gm (million km), making it (as of 2015) the most distant known moon of any planet. At apocenter, the satellite is more than 72 Gm from Neptune; this distance is of such an order that it exceeds Mercury's aphelion of approximately 70 Gm from the Sun. Neso is also the moon with the longest orbital period, 26.67 years. It follows a highly inclined and highly eccentric orbit illustrated on the diagram in relation to other irregular satellites of Neptune. The satellites above the horizontal axis are prograde, the satellites beneath it are retrograde. The yellow segments extend from the pericentre to the apocentre, showing the eccentricity.
Neso is named after one of the Nereids. Before the announcement of its name on February 3, 2007 (IAUC 8802), Neso was known by its provisional designation, S/2002 N 4.
- JPL (2011-07-21). "Planetary Satellite Discovery Circumstances". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Green, Daniel W. E. (October 1, 2003). "S/2001 U 2 and S/2002 N 4". IAU Circular 8213. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Jacobson, R. A. (2008). "NEP078 – JPL satellite ephemeris". Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Sheppard, Scott S.; Jewitt, David C.; Kleyna, Jan (2006). "A Survey for "Normal" Irregular Satellites around Neptune: Limits to Completeness". The Astronomical Journal 132: 171–176. arXiv:astro-ph/0604552. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..171S. doi:10.1086/504799.
- Holman, M. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Grav, T. et al. (2004). "Discovery of five irregular moons of Neptune" (PDF). Nature 430 (7002): 865–867. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..865H. doi:10.1038/nature02832. PMID 15318214. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Physical parameters from JPL