|Symbols||; FLJ21841; Nbla00170|
|RNA expression pattern|
Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament (IF) protein. These intermediate filament proteins are expressed mostly in nerve cells where they are implicated in the radial growth of the axon. Seven genes encode for the heavy (NF-H), medium (NF-M) and light neurofilament (NF-L) proteins, nestin and α-internexin in nerve cells, synemin α and desmuslin/synemin β (two alternative transcripts of the DMN gene) in muscle cells, and syncoilin (also in muscle cells). Members of this group mostly preferentially coassemble as heteropolymers in tissues. Steinert et al. has shown that nestin forms homodimers and homotetramers but does not form IF by itself in vitro. In mixtures, nestin preferentially co-assembles with purified vimentin or the type IV IF protein -internexin to form heterodimer coiled-coil molecules.
Structurally, nestin has the shortest head domain (N-terminus) and the longest tail domain (C-terminus) of all the IF proteins. Nestin is of high molecular weight (240kDa) with a terminus greater than 500 residues (compared to cytokeratins and lamins with termini less than 50 residues).
After subcloning the human nestin gene into plasmid vectors, Dahlstrand et al. determined the nucleotide sequence of all coding regions and parts of the introns. In order to establish the boundaries of the introns, they used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a fragment made from human fetal brain cDNA using two primers located in the first and fourth exon, respectively. The resulting 270 base pair (bp) long fragment was then sequenced directly in its entirety, and intron positions precisely located by comparison with the genomic sequence. Putative initiation and stop codons for the human nestin gene were found at the same positions as in the rat gene, in regions where overall similarity was very high. Based on this assumption, the human nestin gene encodes a protein with 1618 amino acids, i.e. 187 amino acids shorter than the rat protein.
Nestin is expressed by many types of cells during development, although its expression is usually transient and does not persist into adulthood. One instance of nestin expression in adult organisms, and perhaps that for which nestin is best known, are the neuronal precursor cells of the subgranular zone. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in dividing cells during the early stages of development in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in myogenic and other tissues. Upon differentiation, nestin becomes downregulated and is replaced by tissue-specific intermediate filament proteins. During neuro- and gliogenesis, nestin is replaced by cell type-specific intermediate filaments, e.g. neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Interestingly, nestin expression is reinduced in the adult during pathological situations, such as the formation of the glial scar after CNS injury and during regeneration of injured muscle tissue.
Although it is utilized as a marker of proliferating and migrating cells, very little is known about its functions or regulation. In-depth studies on the distribution and expression of nestin in mitotically active cells indicate a complex role in regulation of the assembly and disassembly of intermediate filaments, which, together with other structural proteins, participate in remodeling of the cell. The role of nestin in dynamic cells, particularly structural organization of the cell, appears strictly regulated by phosphorylation, especially its integration into heterogeneous intermediate filaments together with vimentin or α-internexin. Furthermore, nestin expression has been extensively used as a marker for central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells in different contexts, based on observations indicating a correlation between nestin expression and this cell type in vivo.
Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells and their immediate, differentiated progeny. The hair follicle bulge area is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing pluripotent adult stem cells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP), whose expression is driven by the nestin regulatory element in transgenic mice, serves to mark hair follicle stem cells. These cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. Thus, hair follicle stem cells provide an effective, accessible, autologous source of stem cells for treatment of peripheral nerve injury.
Nestin has recently received attention as a marker for detecting newly formed endothelial cells. In a study, Teranishi et al. examined and came to the conclusion that nestin is a novel angiogenesis marker of proliferating endothelial cells in colorectal cancer tissue.
- Guérette D, Khan PA, Savard PE, Vincent M (2007). "Molecular evolution of type VI intermediate filament proteins". BMC Evol. Biol. 7: 164. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-164. PMC 2075511. PMID 17854500.
- Michalczyk K, Ziman M (April 2005). "Nestin structure and predicted function in cellular cytoskeletal organisation". Histol. Histopathol. 20 (2): 665–71. PMID 15736068.
- Steinert PM, Chou YH, Prahlad V, et al. (April 1999). "A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament protein. Limited co-assembly in vitro to form heteropolymers with type III vimentin and type IV alpha-internexin". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (14): 9881–90. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.14.9881. PMID 10092680.
- "About intermediate filaments". Cytoskeleton, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Dahlstrand J, Zimmerman LB, McKay RD, Lendahl U (1 October 1992). "Characterization of the human nestin gene reveals a close evolutionary relationship to neurofilaments". J. Cell. Sci. 103 (2): 589–97. PMID 1478958.
- Hoffman RM (March 2007). "The potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells in regenerative medicine". Expert Opin Biol Ther 7 (3): 289–91. doi:10.1517/14712522.214.171.1249. PMID 17309321.
- Teranishi N, Naito Z, Ishiwata T, et al. (March 2007). "Identification of neovasculature using nestin in colorectal cancer". Int. J. Oncol. 30 (3): 593–603. PMID 17273760.
- Sahlgren, Cecilia M; Mikhailov Andrey, Vaittinen Samuli, Pallari Hanna-Mari, Kalimo Hannu, Pant Harish C, Eriksson John E (Jul 2003). "Cdk5 regulates the organization of Nestin and its association with p35". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 23 (14): 5090–106. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.14.5090-5106.2003. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 162223. PMID 12832492.
- Wiese C, Rolletschek A, Kania G, et al. (2004). "Nestin expression--a property of multi-lineage progenitor cells?". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (19–20): 2510–22. doi:10.1007/s00018-004-4144-6. PMID 15526158.
- Tiede S, Kloepper JE, Ernst N, et al. (2009). "Nestin in human skin: exclusive expression in intramesenchymal skin compartments and regulation by leptin". J Invest Dermatol. 129 (11): 2711–20. doi:10.1038/jid.2009.148. PMID 19554024.
- Dahlstrand J, Zimmerman LB, McKay RD, Lendahl U (1993). "Characterization of the human nestin gene reveals a close evolutionary relationship to neurofilaments". J. Cell. Sci. 103 (2): 589–97. PMID 1478958.
- Hockfield S, McKay RD (1986). "Identification of major cell classes in the developing mammalian nervous system". J. Neurosci. 5 (12): 3310–28. PMID 4078630.
- Lothian C, Lendahl U (1997). "An evolutionarily conserved region in the second intron of the human nestin gene directs gene expression to CNS progenitor cells and to early neural crest cells". Eur. J. Neurosci. 9 (3): 452–62. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1997.tb01622.x. PMID 9104587.
- Yaworsky PJ, Kappen C (1999). "Heterogeneity of neural progenitor cells revealed by enhancers in the nestin gene". Dev. Biol. 205 (2): 309–21. doi:10.1006/dbio.1998.9035. PMID 9917366.
- Cassiman D, van Pelt J, De Vos R, et al. (1999). "Synaptophysin: A novel marker for human and rat hepatic stellate cells". Am. J. Pathol. 155 (6): 1831–9. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65501-0. PMC 1866940. PMID 10595912.
- Messam CA, Hou J, Major EO (2000). "Coexpression of nestin in neural and glial cells in the developing human CNS defined by a human-specific anti-nestin antibody". Exp. Neurol. 161 (2): 585–96. doi:10.1006/exnr.1999.7319. PMID 10686078.
- About I, Bottero MJ, de Denato P, et al. (2000). "Human dentin production in vitro". Exp. Cell Res. 258 (1): 33–41. doi:10.1006/excr.2000.4909. PMID 10912785.
- Sanchez-Ramos J, Song S, Cardozo-Pelaez F, et al. (2000). "Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro". Exp. Neurol. 164 (2): 247–56. doi:10.1006/exnr.2000.7389. PMID 10915564.
- Woodbury D, Schwarz EJ, Prockop DJ, Black IB (2000). "Adult rat and human bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neurons". J. Neurosci. Res. 61 (4): 364–70. doi:10.1002/1097-4547(20000815)61:4<364::AID-JNR2>3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 10931522.
- Akiyama Y, Honmou O, Kato T, et al. (2001). "Transplantation of clonal neural precursor cells derived from adult human brain establishes functional peripheral myelin in the rat spinal cord". Exp. Neurol. 167 (1): 27–39. doi:10.1006/exnr.2000.7539. PMID 11161590.
- Sahlgren CM, Mikhailov A, Hellman J, et al. (2001). "Mitotic reorganization of the intermediate filament protein nestin involves phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (19): 16456–63. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009669200. PMID 11278541.
- Messam CA, Hou J, Berman JW, Major EO (2002). "Analysis of the temporal expression of nestin in human fetal brain derived neuronal and glial progenitor cells". Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 134 (1–2): 87–92. doi:10.1016/S0165-3806(01)00325-X. PMID 11947939.
- Safford KM, Hicok KC, Safford SD, et al. (2002). "Neurogenic differentiation of murine and human adipose-derived stromal cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 294 (2): 371–9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00469-2. PMID 12051722.
- Gu H, Wang S, Messam CA, Yao Z (2002). "Distribution of nestin immunoreactivity in the normal adult human forebrain". Brain Res. 943 (2): 174–80. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(02)02615-X. PMID 12101039.
- Vanderwinden JM, Gillard K, De Laet MH, et al. (2003). "Distribution of the intermediate filament nestin in the muscularis propria of the human gastrointestinal tract". Cell Tissue Res. 309 (2): 261–8. doi:10.1007/s00441-002-0590-3. PMID 12172785.
- Piper K, Ball SG, Turnpenny LW, et al. (2003). "Beta-cell differentiation during human development does not rely on nestin-positive precursors: implications for stem cell-derived replacement therapy". Diabetologia 45 (7): 1045–7. doi:10.1007/s00125-002-0864-z. PMID 12187925.
- Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.
- About I, Mitsiadis TA (2003). "Molecular aspects of tooth pathogenesis and repair: in vivo and in vitro models". Adv. Dent. Res. 15: 59–62. doi:10.1177/08959374010150011501. PMID 12640742.