Netherlands–United Kingdom relations

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British-Dutch relations

United Kingdom

Netherlands
Envoy
Ambassador Sir Geoffrey Adams Ambassador Laetitia van den Assum

The Netherlands and the United Kingdom have a political and economic partnership.[1] The United Kingdom and the Netherlands work closely with EU and foreign policy, social and employment policies and armed forces.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Over forty Dutch towns and cities are twinned with British towns and cities.[2] The English language and the Dutch language are both West Germanic languages, with Frisian, a minority language in the Netherlands being the closest relative of the English Language outside the British Isles. 87% of people in the Netherlands claim to speak English.[3]

The Netherlands has an embassy in London,[4] and the United Kingdom has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate in Amsterdam.[1] The UK also has a consulate in Willemstad, Curaçao.[5]

There are also strong ties[clarification needed] between the UK's overseas territory of Anguilla and Sint Maarten of the Netherlands.[6]

History[edit]

Anglo Dutch Wars[edit]

The Anglo-Dutch wars were battles between England (and the Kingdom of Great Britain during the fourth war) and the Dutch Republic during the 17th and 18th centuries. There were four wars in total, two were won by each side, and ended with the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. The wars were largely fought to secure trade routes and to enable colonial expansion.[7]

Glorious Revolution[edit]

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland and II of Ireland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch Republic stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange) who, as a result, ascended the English throne as William III of England.[citation needed]

The crisis besetting King James II came to a head in 1688, when the King fathered a son, James Francis Edward Stuart on 10 June (Julian calendar),[8] until then the throne would have passed to his daughter, Mary, a Protestant and the wife of William of Orange. The prospect of a Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms was now likely. Already troubled by the King's Catholicism and his close ties with France, key leaders of the Tories united with members of the opposition Whigs and set out to resolve the crisis by inviting William of Orange to England.[9]

The invasion ended all attempts by England, in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century, to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force. However, the personal union and the co-operation between the English and Dutch navies shifted the dominance in world trade from the Republic to England and then to the 18th century Kingdom of Great Britain.

Eight Articles of London[edit]

The Eight Articles of London, also known as the London Protocol of June 21, 1814, were a secret convention between the Great Powers: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Prussia, Austria, and Russia to award the territory of current Belgium and the Netherlands to William I of the Netherlands, then "Sovereign Prince" of the United Netherlands. He accepted this award on July 21, 1814.[10]

Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814[edit]

The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 (also known as the Convention of London) was signed between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands in London on 13 August 1814. It was signed by Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, for the British and Hendrik Fagel for the Dutch.

The treaty returned the colonial possessions of the Dutch as they were at 1 January 1803 before the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, in the Americas, Africa, and Asia with the exceptions of the Cape of Good Hope and the South American settlements of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice, where the Dutch retained trading rights. In addition, the British ceded to the Dutch Bangka Island in the Indonesian Archipelago in exchange for the settlement of Kochi and its dependencies on the coast of Malabar, in India. The Dutch also ceded the district of Barnagore, situated close to Calcutta, in exchange for an annual fee. The treaty noted a declaration of 15 June 1814, by the Dutch that ships for the slave trade were no longer permitted in British ports and it agreed that this restriction would be extended to a ban on involvement in the slave trade by Dutch citizens. Britain also agreed to pay £1,000,000 to Sweden to resolve a claim to the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe (see Guadeloupe Fund). The British and the Dutch agreed to spend £2,000,000 each on improving the defences of the Low Countries. More funds, of up to £3,000,000, are mentioned for the "final and satisfactory settlement of the Low Countries in union with Holland." Disputes arising from this treaty were the subject of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.

Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824[edit]

The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London in March 1824. The treaty sought to resolve disputes arising from the execution of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. For the Dutch, it was signed by Hendrik Fagel and Anton Reinhard Falck and for the UK, George Canning and Charles Watkin Williams Wynn.[11]

World War II[edit]

During World War II the United Kingdom and the Netherlands were close allies. After the German occupation of the Netherlands, Queen Wilhelmina and the Dutch government found refuge in Britain. The Royal Netherlands Navy brought most of its ships to England.[12]

A few Dutch pilots escaped and joined the Royal Air Force to fight in the Battle of Britain. In July 1940, two all-Dutch squadrons were formed with personnel and Fokker seaplanes from the Dutch naval air force: 320 Squadron and 321 Squadron (which afterwards moved to Sri Lanka). In 1943, an all-Dutch fighter squadron was formed in the UK, 322 Squadron.

Political relationship[edit]

Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte meets Britain's Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg at the Binnenhof in the Hague.

The United Kingdom and the Netherlands are both members of the European Union. Both countries are run under a constitutional monarchy. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands was around 830th in line to the British throne, when he lost his place by marrying a Catholic in 2002.

The United Kingdom and the Netherlands cooperate on a project to help people living in the developing world adapt to climate change.[13]

The Infrared Astronomical Satellite was the first-ever space-based observatory to perform a survey of the entire sky at infrared wavelengths. Launched in 1983, its mission lasted ten months. The telescope was a joint project of the Netherlands (NIVR), and the United Kingdom (SERC) as well as the USA.

While commenting on British-Dutch relations Doug Henderson stated in 1997 that:

We like fair play and straightforwardness. We have a deep interest and a sense of responsibility for what goes on in the wider world. We both share a commitment to global trade and have both traditionally promoted strong trans-Atlantic links. Furthermore, as former colonial powers, we both have important international interests.[14]

His Dutch counterpart Frits Bolkestein responded by saying:

In the past the Netherlands was a staunch supporter of British entry into the European community. Apart from feeling sympathy for the British people, this was motivated by our common value and interests, such as long-standing and deeply-rooted democratic tradition, the Atlantic outlook, the free market orientation and two large multi-nationals, Shell and Unilever, with a common Dutch-British origin.[14]

Economic partnership[edit]

See also: Icesave dispute

Royal Dutch Shell and Unilever are both joint British/Dutch businesses.[15][16][17] The Netherlands-British Chamber of Commerce was established in order to further economic cooperation between the two countries.[18] In 2006 the Netherlands imported £16.6bn worth of goods from the United Kingdom, making it the UK's fifth biggest export market.[19] Dutch-British trade is made simpler by good relations, transparent legal framework, sophisticated financial services system, good transport links and close geographical proximity.[19] It is possible to reach either country by train, Eurostar, ferry or aeroplane.[20]

Armed forces[edit]

Dutch Marines in a British made Rigid-hulled inflatable boat

The Royal Marines and Netherlands Marine Corps are allied through a 'Bond of friendship'.[21]

Since 1973, units of the Netherlands Marine Corps have formed part of the British 3 Commando Brigade during exercises and real conflict situations. Together, these form the UK/NL Landing Force. Either the First or the Second Marine Combat Group can be assigned as the Dutch contribution to this force.

The cooperation between the Korps Mariniers and the Royal Marines has led to extensive integration in the areas of operations, logistics and materials. Within NATO this is seen as a prime example of what can be achieved in military integration.

In combined RNLMC and Royal Marines actions by the British and Dutch navies during the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1713), amphibious operations were carried out, the most notable being the Siege of Gibraltar in 1704. During this action, a successful attack was carried out against the fortress of Gibraltar by an 1800-strong brigade of Dutch and British Marines under the command of Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt. Both corps share this battle honour.[citation needed]

The nickname of the Dutch Marines among their British Royal Marine counterparts is "Cloggies," due to the stereotype that most or all Dutch wear clogs, instead of "normal" footwear.[citation needed]

Royal Navy Submarine Service officers taking the Submarine Command Course use a Dutch submarine simulator for part of the course.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Ashton, Nigel. Unspoken Allies: Anglo-Dutch Relations since 1780 by ISBN 978-90-5356-471-4. Google Books
  • Jones, James Rees. The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the Seventeenth Century (Routledge, 2013)
  • Levy, Jack S. "The Rise and Decline of the Anglo-Dutch Rivalry, 1609-1689," pp 172-200 in William R. Thompson, ed. Great power rivalries (1999) online
  • Palmer, M. A. J. "The Military Revolution Afloat: The Era of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the Transition to Modern Warfare at Sea." War in history (1997) 4#2 pp: 123-149.
  • Raven, G. J. A., and Nicholas A. M. Rodger. Navies and armies: the Anglo-Dutch relationship in war and peace, 1688-1988 (John Donald, 1990).
  • Wigglesworth, Neil. Holland at War Against Hitler: Anglo-Dutch Relations, 1940-1945 (Psychology Press, 1990)
  • Wilson, Charles Henry. Anglo-Dutch commerce & finance in the eighteenth century (1941)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b UK in the Netherlands - About us
  2. ^ Country Profile: Netherlands
  3. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf
  4. ^ The Netherlands Embassy :: Visit/Contact the Embassy
  5. ^ Curaçao, British Consulate
  6. ^ http://www.anguillaguide.com/article/articleprint/9739/-1/129/
  7. ^ The First Anglo-Dutch War 1652-4
  8. ^ In this article "New Style" means the start of year is adjusted to 1 January. Events on the European mainland are usually given using the Gregorian calendar, while events in Great Britain and Ireland are usually given using the Julian calendar with the year adjusted to 1 January. Dates with no explicit Julian or Gregorian postscript will be using the same calendar as the last date with an explicit postscript.
  9. ^ Barry Coward, The Stuart Age (1980) 298-302
  10. ^ Colenbrander, p. LXX, fn. 1
  11. ^ http://www.antenna.nl/~fwillems/nl/dh/geschiedenis/traktaat.html
  12. ^ Neal Wigglesworth, Holland at War Against Hitler: Anglo-Dutch Relations, 1940-1945 (Psychology Press, 1990)
  13. ^ UK and Netherlands launch climate change adaptation study
  14. ^ a b Unspoken allies: Anglo-Dutch ... - Google Books
  15. ^ Too many UK companies fail to see the point of history Queen Mary, University of London
  16. ^ Royal Dutch Shell : Overview
  17. ^ BBC NEWS | Business | Qatar and Shell in $6bn gas deal
  18. ^ The Netherlands British Chamber of Commerce
  19. ^ a b https://www.uktradeinvest.gov.uk/ukti/appmanager/ukti/countries?_nfls=false&_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=CountryType1&navigationPageId=/netherlands
  20. ^ London to Amsterdam by train+ferry or Eurostar train | From £35
  21. ^ Royal Marines (RM) - Role, Command, Control and Organisation, Training, Traditions and insignia