|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2010)|
|Key people||Engelhardt Robbe (CFO)|
|Products||Rail transport, rail construction, services|
|Revenue||€3.628 billion (2011)|
|Operating income||€272 million (2011)|
|Net income||€211 million (2011)|
|Parent||State of the Netherlands|
Northern Rail 50%
Railway tracks in the Netherlands (2013)
|Dates of operation||1938–present|
|Predecessor||Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij (HSM)
Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen (SS),
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈneːdərlɑntsə ˈspʊːrʋeːɣə(n)]) (English: Dutch Railways) or NS is the principal passenger railway operator in the Netherlands. NS provides rail services on the Dutch main rail network (hoofdrailnet). The rail infrastructure is maintained by network manager ProRail, which was split off from NS in 2003. Freight services, formerly operated by NS Cargo, merged with the DB Schenker group in 2000.
NS runs 4,800 scheduled domestic trains a day, serving 1,1 million passengers. In addition, NS provides international rail services from the Netherlands to other European destinations and carries out concessions on a number of foreign rail markets.
- 1 History
- 2 Coverage
- 3 Types of train service
- 4 Fares and tickets
- 5 Logo
- 6 Divisions of NS
- 7 Policy
- 8 Technological assistance for train staff
- 9 Statistics
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The NS was founded in 1938 when the two largest Dutch railway companies, the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij (HSM) and the Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen (SS), formally merged. These two companies, however, had been intensively cooperating as early as 1917. There were both economic and ideological reasons for the cooperation.
As a result of the First World War, the Netherlands' economy had declined causing HSM and SS to fall from profitability. Given their national importance, allowing them to slip into bankruptcy was not considered acceptable. While remaining independent companies, HSM and SS improved overall efficiency by cooperatively integrating their operations. The Dutch government further supported HSM and SS by purchasing shares in both firms. In 1938, the government merged the two companies to form the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS). In the process, the government bought all remaining shares, yet never nationalised the company. Therefore, NS remained, and still is, a private company solely owned by the Dutch government.
NS as a state enterprise
During the Second World War the NS remained an independent company, but was forced to do the Germans' bidding; the NS was forced to construct the railway lines to camp Westerbork and help in the deportation of almost a hundred thousand Jews to extermination camps. The NS went on a strike once during the war, in the winter of 1944-45, after it had declined to participate in one a year earlier.
The NS played a pivotal role in the reconstruction of the country. There was little alternative transport in the country besides the train, while there was a huge demand for logistical services which the NS could provide.
While the 1950s were generally a good time for the company, it started to decline in the 1960s, like most other railways around the world. Not only did the NS suffer from the competition of the car and other modes of transport, it also suffered from a loss of income when natural gas started to replace coal as the main fuel in powerplants and homes after a gas field was found near Slochteren. The NS had been involved in the transport of coal from the mines in Limburg to the remainder of the country.
The NS responded with an aggressive strategy named Spoorslag '70. This strategy meant, among other things, that the NS substantially increased the number of trains per hour and also introduced the Intercity services. However, it was quite clear that this would never return the company to profitability. Nevertheless the company was declared to be of national importance, meaning that it would receive large amounts of subsidies every year.
Reforms of the 1990s
In the early 1990s, the government started to question the subsidies given to the NS. Not only were there questions regarding the way the NS spent the subsidies, but, after the neo liberal reforms of the 1980s, it was also considered not done to award generic subsidies to companies. The government decided on the verzelfstandiging of the NS. (Although technically, this is not the case, but instead refers here to withdrawal of the subsidies.) The idea was that not only rail transport was economically viable, but that there could be competition as well.
There were two external circumstances which allowed for this to happen. Firstly, the European Union passed Directive 91/440, which prescribed, among other things, the (formal) separation of the national railways into two separate companies, one which deals with the infrastructure, and the other which deals with the transport activities. Secondly, the old CEO of the NS, Leo Ploeger, retired, which allowed the government to name a new CEO which would execute the government's plans. The new CEO was Rob den Besten.
The plans entailed that the government would remain responsible for the rail infrastructure, while the NS would provide the (passenger) transport on a commercial basis. Where the services would prove to be economically inviable the government would subsidise that route. The division which was responsible for the infrastructure would later be turned into NS Railinfratrust.
To facilitate the government plans for the commercial operation of the NS, den Besten planned to split the NS into many smaller independent divisions. The idea was that these smaller divisions would be better able to respond to the market. The plans, however, received massive opposition from the unions, which meant that the only divisions created were NS Reizigers, and locomotive maintenance company NedTrain. There were also other internal changes in the company. The routemanagers got de facto control over the operation, but they were dependent of a different organ in the company.
These reforms were never much of a success and left the company in an uncontrollable state. Result was that the company started to decline rapidly, and that the employees started many unorganised strikes. Following this, the complete board of directors felt it necessary to resign in late 2001.
In 2002 Karel Noordzij was named as new CEO of the NS with the mission to restore the confidence in the company. In essence, he did this by reversing most the reforms of the late 90s and restoring the company to the old state. Meanwhile, the government had changed its opinion of the railways, it no longer considered competition on (passenger) transport a viable goal. Thus, the government started to commission railway operators to run routes on the network. The NS was granted (by the national government) the concession to run on the main lines, whereas other companies received a number of the concessions on the secondary lines. The goal is to give individual concessions for the individual lines, but (at least) until 2025 the NS holds the concessions for main lines.
The NS covers most of the country, with almost all cities connected, mostly with a service frequency of two trains an hour or more (and at least four trains per hour between all of the largest 5 cities: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Eindhoven as well as some larger cities: Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Arnhem, 's-Hertogenbosch, Dordrecht and Leiden). From December 2008 train frequencies were increased on following services: Arnhem-Nijmegen (8 trains per hour) and Den Haag - Rotterdam (12 trains per hour), Amsterdam Centraal-Hoofddorp (16 trains per hour). A night train service was added between Utrecht, Gouda and Rotterdam. "Train routes in the Netherlands" shows all the routes of the NS and private companies. Trains usually run between 6:00 am and midnight, although there is also a night line which connects major cities in the Randstad throughout the night, and in weekends also some major cities in Brabant.
In addition to its domestic services, NS is also a partner (along with Stena Line and their British railway company Abellio Greater Anglia) in the Dutchflyer service. NS has also entered into a partnership with KLM to operate services on the new HSL-Zuid under the name NS International.
The hoofdrailnet is the official core internal passenger railnetwork of the Netherlands. Currently NS has a concession until 1 January 2015 to provide all passenger services on this network, except that on some stretches there is an overlap with lines for which other operators have a concession. Some of the most notable of these stretches are those from Elst railway station to Arnhem railway station, where NS shares tracks with Arriva, and further on to Arnhem Velperpoort. Here the tracks are shared by three operators, as Breng, ultimately part of Transdev, operates there in addition to the two previously mentioned operators. Officially the overlaps do not constitute competition on the same lines.
The concession was free of charge until 2009, and costs an increasing amount since then, up to €30 million for the year 2014.
The concession distinguishes main stations and other stations. Except on New Year's Eve, the main stations have to be served twice an hour per direction from 6:00-24:00, and the other stations once an hour. Exceptions are possible until the start of the next concession
The next concession period is 2015-2025. Therefore, before 2015 it has to be decided whether NS will keep the concession, and under what terms. Requirements will include:
- for every train service where on average more than one-third of the passengers travel longer than 30 minutes, a train with a toilet is used
- every newly ordered train has a toilet
- in 2025 every train has a toilet
Currently trains on the hoofdrailnet without a toilet include:
Types of train service 
There are two kinds of passenger trains:
- A 'Sprinter' stops at all stations, and is mainly used for local traffic. On some smaller lines, though, it is the only kind of service. The former name for this train type is "Stoptrein" ('stop train'), but NS abandoned this name although other Dutch rail operators still use this name. The Sprinter is the equivalent to the Swiss RegioExpress. The name is derived from the 'Sprinter' (2900 class) rolling stock; however, the service is sometimes operated using older style rolling stock (such as 'Plan V/T': 400, 500, 800 and 900 class).
- 'Intercity's only stop at larger stations, and were introduced in the 1970s to provide fast train connections throughout the country. As with the formerly widely used 'Sneltrein' service, Intercities services are usually operated by 'DD-IRM' and 'ICM/Koploper' class trains. On some stretches intercity trains stop at all stations, including small ones; this applies on the stretches Haarlem - Zandvoort, Alkmaar - Den Helder, Hoorn - Enkhuizen, Leiden - Woerden, and Deurne - Venlo; in these cases the label "intercity" indicates that the train does not stop at all stations elsewhere on its route. See also Intercity services in the Netherlands and lijst van Nederlandse Intercitystations (in Dutch).
The name "Sneltrein" (in the English section of the old paper time tables, this was translated as "semi fast train" and was a class between Stoptrain and Intercity) was abandoned by NS in 2008; Sneltrein services are now called Intercity although they stop more often than "real" Intercities. The result is that some stations (i.e. Woerden) are served by some Intercities while others pass it. Other Dutch railway operators still use the name Sneltrein.
Fares and tickets
The OV-chipkaart is the only accepted form of fare payment on any form of public transport in The Netherlands. On the buses and trams expensive hourly tickets are for sale for those who don't have enough credit to travel but who do have cash. For train travel one can also buy a disposable one-time chip card.
Traditional paper tickets were finally abandoned in July 2014 for both NS and regional rail operators. Single or return tickets, used by incidental travellers and tourists, are still available at ticket machines and service counters, but are now loaded on a disposable OV-chipkaart which means that the ticket must be validized by "checking in" at a ticket barrier or card reader before boarding the train.
There is partly a common tariff system with four smaller passenger train operating companies — Syntus and Connexxion in the center and east, Veolia on the 'Maaslijn' and 'Heuvellandlijn' in the south east, Arriva in the north and most of the east of the country and on the 'Merwede-Lingelijn' (from Dordrecht to Geldermalsen).
None of the ticket machines accept banknotes, but since August / September 2014, all machines at all train stations accept MasterCard / VISA creditcards. There is a €0.50 supplement for paying by creditcard and a €1 supplement for buying a disposable, single-use, chipcard.
Increasingly, operators apply separate tariffs, partly related to the gradually introduced OV-chipkaart, which combines card integration with price differentiation. However, a series of new passes introduced by NS in 2011 are now also valid in trains of the other operators Arriva, Connexxion, Syntus, and Veolia.
Even so these developments require traveller awareness of the various companies, and often increase the fare for journeys requiring a change from one to another.
Travelling with the OV-chipkaart one has to register starting a journey (check in) and ending it (check out), and must always travel away from the point of one's latest check-in. Thus in the case of a voluntary detour, one has to check out and check in to register starting a new journey.
Off-peak discount passes
NS defines off-peak hours as weekdays 00:00-06:30, 09:00-16:00 and 18:30-24:00 and on Saturdays and Sundays the whole day. With a discount product on the pass one is automatically granted the discount based on the type of the discount product and the time of checking in. The term discount includes 100 percent discount, i.e. free travel.
There is an Off-Peak Discount Pass (in Dutch: Dal Voordeel) for €50 per year, allowing a 40 percent discount on journeys starting in off-peak hours. In the case of a group of up to four people, all get the discount even if only one has a pass. This card replaced the old off peak discount pass (in Dutch: Voordeelurenabonnement, which can still be renewed, but is otherwise no longer available). These are the advantages/disadvantages of Dal Voordeel compared to the Voordeelurenabonnement.
- Discount during the week from 04:00-06:30
- Slightly cheaper by €10
- Up to three free "kids vrij" passes (kids travel free with the cardholder of the Dal Voordeel)
- No discount in the busy afternoon rush hour
- No discount in the morning AND afternoon rush hours in July and August and in the period from 25 December to 31 December
- No discount on the NS-24 hours card (from 09:00 valid)
Travellers aged 60 years and older can buy a supplement for €14 for free travel during off-peak hours on 7 days of choice (with some limitations) during the year. It is not possible to buy multiple supplements for the same year.
For €295 per month, travelers can buy an unlimited travel pass which is always valid, even during the peak hours. Even with this card, checking in and out is always required; otherwise, the traveller risks a fine. Regulations involving time periods (they apply to NS; for other operators there may be differences):
- 5 minutes: margin in favor of traveller applied to times of start and end of off-peak hours, compared to those published
- 30 minutes: maximum allowed time between checking in and scheduled departure time of the train
- 1 hour: maximum allowed time between checking in and out at the same station without travelling; this is free of charge
- 6 hours: maximum allowed time between checking in and checking out
The Nederlandse Spoorwegen corporate logo was designed in 1968 by Gert Dumbar and Gert-Jan Leuvelink both of the graphic design company Tel Design. Introduced in that same year, it replaced an earlier design which had been used since 1946. The logo, pervasive within trains and railway stations in the Netherlands, plays a significant part in the NS' signage, promotions, advertising and graphic design.
The logo usually appears in blue or black on a dark yellow or white background. Since its introduction, NS livery has also had this same distinct dark yellow or white colour. The logo is a widened letter 'N' and a sideways (reversed) 'S'-shape. The two arrows in the logo represent the train's movement, and the two lines in the middle represent the track.
Divisions of NS
- Abellio (formerly NedRailways) is the international expansion of NS. In the UK Abellio and Serco run a joint-venture called Serco-Abellio which runs Merseyrail services in and around Liverpool and Northern Rail across the north of England. Abellio won the Greater Anglia franchise for East Anglia from 5 February 2012 to October 2016 and it operates this as Abellio Greater Anglia. They also put in a bid to run the South Central franchise under the name of NedRailways South Central Limited, however this did not win. NedRailways purchased the German bus and rail operator Abellio (Germany) from Star Capital Partners and the Essen public transit company. On 21 May 2009, it was announced that they were to buy Travel London, a bus operator, from National Express Group.
- NS Reizigers (NSR) - NS Travellers, responsible for passenger train services and for employing train drivers and conductors.
- NS Poort - the result of merging the former :
- NS Stations - in charge of the operation of all 390 railway stations in the Netherlands, i.e., also those served by other railway companies than NS Reizigers; see also station facilities.
- NS Vastgoed - owns 48 km² of land, often near stations, and develops and operates these areas as public traffic nodes, offices and apartments.
- NedTrain - train maintenance.
- NS Commercie - product- and customer management (business and product development, marketing, sales and customer service).
- NS International - operator, in conjunction with NS Reizigers and foreign partners, of high-speed international Fyra services on the HSL-Zuid, Thalys (from Amsterdam to Paris), ICE (to the German Ruhr area), Intercities (to Berlin and Brussels) and the Swiss CityNightLine (to Munich and Zurich).
- Nedkoleje - in a joint venture with Polish Railways (PKP), operates trains in West Pomeranian Voivodship (Zachodniopomorskie), Poland.
- Qbuzz Bus operator in The Netherlands
In dealing with the general public, these distinctions are not made and the terms Nederlandse Spoorwegen and NS are used.
On the 23 July 2010, NS concluded the sale of the construction company Strukton to Oranjewoud. This concludes the history of planning, designing and executing track development done by the NS.
There is a delay refund scheme entitling passengers to a partial or full refund of the ticket price if a journey is delayed by half an hour or more. The scheme does not apply on short-distance journeys and cases in which the delay is the result of planned cancellations that were announced some days in advance. Refunds are, in general, half the ticket price of a one-way trip after a delay of over 30 minutes, and the full ticket price after a delay of one hour or more. This applies to nearly all kinds of tickets. The refund is not considered a monetary compensation for lost time but rather as a reduction in charges where a poor service has been provided. Many do not claim because the system is perceived as cumbersome; however, the system has improved for holders of some rail passes. Part of the cost of the scheme is paid by ProRail, since they are responsible for part of the delays.
Since 1 January 2004, tobacco smoking is prohibited on domestic trains, station halls and covered parts of platforms. The smoking of cannabis was already prohibited, though it happens occasionally and is not as severely punished as in some other countries (that is, it is punished the same as tobacco smoking). Smoking is allowed near smoking-zones (Rookzones), posts with an ash-tray built in, scattered around stations.
Since June 2003, the sale of coffee, soft drinks, beer, sandwiches, candy, etc., has ceased aboard domestic trains. The increasing number of Servex convenience stores at railway stations and the relatively short duration of most train journeys in the Netherlands have lowered the demand for on-train services. In 2005 a much reduced in-train service of drinks and small snacks has been reintroduced on longer journeys. Nowadays the RailTender service primarily operates in the intercity trains on the trajectory between Utrecht and Zwolle.
Technological assistance for train staff
Conductors have a small computer called Railpocket with timetable, fares information, and capabilities to read the OV-chipkaart. The latest version is the HP iPaq h4350 Pocket PC, which can communicate through Bluetooth with their Sony Ericsson T610 GPRS-telephone. NS is currently studying the upgrade to a next generation platform.
- 14.73 billion passenger km per year (2005), which is 30% of the seat km.
- Dutch railway services
- Locomotives of Nederlandse Spoorwegen
- NS Railinfratrust
- Rail transport by country
- Rail transport in the Netherlands
- Railway stations in the Netherlands
- Train categories in Europe
- Train routes in the Netherlands
- Trains in the Netherlands
- Transportation in the Netherlands
- "Annual report 2010". Nederlandse Spoorwegen. 2011-01-01. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- "DB And NS Sign Freight Merger Deal.(Brief Article)(Statistical Data Included)". elibrary.ibtimes.com. International Railway Journal. 1 October 1999.
- "Welke kaart past bij u". Trans Link Systems B.V. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
- "Betalen met creditcard mogelijk bij grootste deel kaartautomaten". Treinreiziger.nl. 2014-08-13. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- "The e-ticket". Nederlandse Spoorwegen. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- For more passes see .
- "National Express Group PLC agreement to sell Travel London". National Express Group. 2009-05-21. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
- "NS agrees to sell Strukton". Railway Gazette International. 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trains of the Netherlands.|
- Concession for the hoofdrailnet 2005 – 2015 (after modification in 2010); in Dutch