The Netherlands first sent athletes to the UCI Road World Championships in the begin 1920s when only amateur cyclist competed. The nation's first medal, a bronze, was earned by Gerrit van den Berg in the men's amateur road race. Kees Pellenaars won the first gold medal for the Netherlands in the amateur road race. Theo Middelkamp won the first gold medal in the elite category in 1947.
Since the 2012 UCI Road World Championships there is the men's and women's team time trial event for trade teams and these medals are included under the UCI registration country of the team. Here are listed of the medalists who won a medal with a non-Dutch based team.