In communication and computer network research, network simulation is a technique where a program models the behavior of a network either by calculating the interaction between the different network entities (hosts/packets, etc.) using mathematical formulas, or actually capturing and playing back observations from a production network. The behavior of the network and the various applications and services it supports can then be observed in a test lab; various attributes of the environment can also be modified in a controlled manner to assess how the network would behave under different conditions. When a simulation program is used in conjunction with live applications and services in order to observe end-to-end performance to the user desktop, this technique is also referred to as network emulation.
Network simulator 
A network simulator is a piece of software or hardware that predicts the behavior of a network, without an actual network being present. A network simulator is a software program that imitates the working of a computer network. In simulators, the computer network is typically modelled with devices, traffic etc. and the performance is analysed. Typically, users can then customize the simulator to fulfill their specific analysis needs. Simulators typically come with support for the most popular protocols / networks in use today, such as WLAN, Wi-Max, TCP, WSN, Cognitive radio etc
Most of the commercial simulators are GUI driven, while some network simulators require input scripts or commands (network parameters). The network parameters describe the state of the network (node placement, existing links) and the events (data transmissions, link failures, etc.). An important output of simulations are the trace files. Trace files can document every event that occurred in the simulation and are used for analysis. Certain simulators have added functionality of capturing this type of data directly from a functioning production environment, at various times of the day, week, or month, in order to reflect average, worst-case, and best-case conditions. Network simulators can also provide other tools to facilitate visual analysis of trends and potential trouble spots.
Most network simulators use discrete event simulation, in which a list of pending "events" is stored, and those events are processed in order, with some events triggering future events—such as the event of the arrival of a packet at one node triggering the event of the arrival of that packet at a downstream node.
Some network simulation problems, notably those relying on queueing theory, are well suited to Markov chain simulations, in which no list of future events is maintained and the simulation consists of transiting between different system "states" in a memoryless fashion. Markov chain simulation is typically faster but less accurate and flexible than detailed discrete event simulation. Some simulations are cyclic based simulations and these are faster as compared to event based simulations.
Simulation of networks can be a difficult task. For example, if congestion is high, then estimation of the average occupancy is challenging because of high variance. To estimate the likelihood of a buffer overflow in a network, the time required for an accurate answer can be extremely large. Specialized techniques such as "control variates" and "importance sampling" have been developed to speed simulation.
Examples of network simulators 
There are many both open-source and commercial network simulators.Examples of notable network simulation software are, ordered after how often they are mentioned in research papers:
Uses of network simulators 
Network simulators serve a variety of needs. Compared to the cost and time involved in setting up an entire test bed containing multiple networked computers, routers and data links, network simulators are relatively fast and inexpensive. They allow engineers, researchers to test scenarios that might be particularly difficult or expensive to emulate using real hardware - for instance, simulating a scenario with several nodes or experimenting with a new protocol in the network. Network simulators are particularly useful in allowing researchers to test new networking protocols or changes to existing protocols in a controlled and reproducible environment. A typical network simulator encompasses a wide range of networking technologies and can help the users to build complex networks from basic building blocks such as a variety of nodes and links. With the help of simulators, one can design hierarchical networks using various types of nodes like computers, hubs, bridges, routers, switches, links, mobile units etc.
Various types of Wide Area Network (WAN) technologies like TCP, ATM, IP etc. and Local Area Network (LAN) technologies like Ethernet, token rings etc., can all be simulated with a typical simulator and the user can test, analyze various standard results apart from devising some novel protocol or strategy for routing etc. Network simulators are also widely used to simulate battlefield networks in Network-centric warfare
There are a wide variety of network simulators, ranging from the very simple to the very complex. Minimally, a network simulator must enable a user to represent a network topology, specifying the nodes on the network, the links between those nodes and the traffic between the nodes. More complicated systems may allow the user to specify everything about the protocols used to handle traffic in a network. Graphical applications allow users to easily visualize the workings of their simulated environment. Text-based applications may provide a less intuitive interface, but may permit more advanced forms of customization.
See also 
- Channel model
- Mobility model
- Network Topology
- Network traffic simulation
- Queueing theory
- Traffic generation model
- Simulation language
- Simulation software
- Asmussen, Søren, Glynn, Peter W., 2007. "Stochastic Simulation: Algorithms and Analysis". Springer. Series: Stochastic Modelling and Applied Probability, Vol. 57, 2007.
- Banks, Carson, Nelson Nicol. "Discrete Event System Simulation". Pearson