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neurogranin (protein kinase C substrate, RC3)
Symbol NRGN
Entrez 4900
HUGO 8000
OMIM 602350
RefSeq NM_006176
UniProt Q92686
Other data
Locus Chr. 11 q24

Neurogranin is a calmodulin-binding protein expressed exclusively in the brain, particularly in dendritic spines, and participating in the protein kinase C signaling pathway. Neurogranin is the main postsynaptic protein regulating the availability of calmodulin, binding to it in the absence of calcium. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C lowers its binding ability. NRGN gene expression is controlled by thyroid hormones.[1] Human neurogranin consists of 78 amino acids.

One study tells of potential link of neurogranin gene to the heightened risk of schizophrenia in males,[2] another study gives evidence of lowered neurogranin immunoreactivity in the brains of people suffering from schizophrenia.[3]

Prior to its identification in the bovine and rat brain in 1991,[4] neurogranin was known as a putative protein kinase C-phosphorylated protein named p17. Human neurogranin was cloned in 1997 and turned out to be 96% identical to the rat protein.[5]

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  1. ^ Martinez de Arrieta, C.; Morte, B.; Coloma, A.; Bernal, J. (1999) The human RC3 gene homolog, NRGN contains a thyroid hormone-responsive element located in the first intron. Endocrinology 140: 335-343, 1999. PMID 9886843
  2. ^ Ruano D, Aulchenko YS, Macedo A, Soares MJ, Valente J, Azevedo MH, Hutz MH, Gama CS, Lobato MI, Belmonte-de-Abreu P, Goodman AB, Pato C, Heutink P, Palha JA. (2006) Association of the gene encoding neurogranin with schizophrenia in males. J Psychiatr Res. 2006 Nov 29; PMID 17140601
  3. ^ Broadbelt K, Ramprasaud A, Jones LB. (2006) Evidence of altered neurogranin immunoreactivity in areas 9 and 32 of schizophrenic prefrontal cortex. Schizophrenia Research 2006 Oct;87(1-3):6-14. Epub 2006 Jun 22. PMID 16797925
  4. ^ Baudier, J.; Deloulme, J. C.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Black, D.; Matthes, H. W. D. (1991) Purification and characterization of a brain-specific protein kinase C substrate, neurogranin (p17): identification of a consensus amino acid sequence between neurogranin and neuromodulin (GAP43) that corresponds to the protein kinase C phosphorylation site and the calmodulin-binding domain. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 229-237, 1991. PMID 1824695
  5. ^ Martinez de Arrieta, C.; Perez Jurado, L.; Bernal, J.; Coloma, A. : Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN). Genomics 41: 243-249, 1997. PMID 9143500