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Stereotactic guided insertion of DBS electrodes in neurosurgery
Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Education and training
In different countries, there are different requirements for an individual to legally practice neurosurgery, and there are varying methods through which they must be educated.
In the United States, a neurosurgeon must generally complete four years of college, four years of medical school, and seven years of residency (PGY-1-7). Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of basic science or clinical research. Neurosurgeons may pursue an additional training in a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident. These fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care, functional and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, radiosurgery, neurovascular surgery, Interventional neuroradiology, peripheral nerve, spine surgery and skull base surgery. In the U.S., neurosurgery is considered an extremely competitive specialty composed of only 0.6% of all practicing physicians and attracts only the top students of medical schools per year (with a <60% match rate and highest average USMLE scores).
In the United Kingdom, students must gain entry into medical school. MBBS qualification (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) takes 4–6 years depending on the student's route. The newly qualified Doctor must then complete Foundation training lasting two years; this is a paid training program in a hospital or clinical setting covering a range of medical specialties including surgery. Junior doctors then apply to enter the neurological pathway. Unlike other surgical specialties, it currently has its own independent training pathway which takes around eight years (ST1-8); before being able to sit consultant exams with great amounts of experience and practice behind them.
Main divisions of neurosurgery
General Neurosurgery is the the practice where a neurosurgeon handles most of the neurosurgery conditions including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage. Most level 1 hospitals have this kind of practice.
Specialized branches have developed to cater special and difficult conditions. These specialized branches co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. To practice these higher specialization within neurosurgery, additional higher fellowship training of 1-2 years is expected from the neurosurgeon. Some of these divisions of neurosurgery are, 1.Vascular and Endovascular neurosurgery 2.Stereotactic, Functional and Epilepsy neurosurgery 3.Oncological neurosurgery 4.Spine neurosurgery 5.Peripheral nerve surgery 6.Pediatric neurosurgery
The pathology confronted by neurosurgeons could be either congenital, acquired or degenerative. Conditions like congenital hydrocephalus, pediatric tumors and myelomeningocele are encountered in pediatric age group. Trauma with head or spine injury and AVM bleeds are encountered in young adults. Degenerative spine disease, aneurysm bleeds and Parkinson's disease are encountered in much older population.
The science of Neuropathology is a well developed branch of pathology which immensely help the modern day neurosurgeon.
For a satisfactory neurosurgery outcome a reasonable pre-operative diagnosis is essential. Neuroradiology plays a key role not only in diagnosis but also in the operative phase of neurosurgery.
Neuroradiology methods are used in modern neurosurgical diagnosis and treatment. They include computer assisted imaging computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and the stereotactic radiosurgery. Some neurosurgical procedures involve the use of intra-operative MRI and functional MRI.
In conventional open surgery the neurosurgeon opens the skull, uses a large opening to access the brain. Technique of using smaller openings and using microscopes and endoscopes were developed later. With this smaller openings and high clarity microscopic visualization of neural tissue excellent results can be obtained. But, the open methods are still used in trauma or emergency situations.
Microsurgery is utilized in many aspects of neurological surgery. Microvascular techniques are used in EC-IC by-pass surgery and in restoration carotid endarterectomy. The clipping of an aneurysm is performed under microscopic vision. Minimally invasive spine surgery utilizes microscopes or endoscopes. Procedures such as microdiscectomy, laminectomy, and artificial disc replacement rely on microsurgery.
Using Stereotaxy neurosurgeons can approach a minute target in the brain through a minimal opening. This is used in functional neurosurgery where electrodes are implanted or gene therapy is instituted with high level of accuracy as in the case of Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Then in the combination method of open and stereotaxy intraventricular hemorrhages could be evacuated successfully.
Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery is utilized by neurosurgeons. Techniques such as endoscopic endonasal surgery is used in pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, chordomas, and the repair of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Ventricular endoscopy is used in the treatment of intraventricular bleeds, hydrocephalus, colloid cysts and neurocysticercosis. Endonasal endoscopy at times is carried out with neurosurgeons and ENT surgeons as a team.
Repair of craniofacial disorders and disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation is done by neurosurgeons, and at times teaming up with maxillofacial and plastic surgeons. Conditions such as chiari malformation, craniosynostosis, and syringomyelia are treated.
Neurosurgeons are involved in Stereotactic Radiosurgery along with Radiation Oncologists for tumor and AVM treatment. Radiosurgical methods such as Gamma knife, Cyberknife and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery are used.
Endovascular Neurosurgery utilize endovascular image guided procedures for the treatment of aneurysms, AVMs, carotid stenosis, strokes, and spinal malformations, and vasospasms. Techniques such as angioplasty, stenting, clot retrieval, embolization, and diagnostic angiography are utilized.
Neurosurgery of the spine covers cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. Some indications for spine surgery are spinal cord compression from trauma or arthritis or spondylosis. Patients may have gait difficulty, balance issues, numbness and tingling in hands or feet, for cervical cord compression. Spondylosis is spinal disc degeneration and arthritis that compresses the spinal canal resulting in bone spurring and disc herniation. A drill and special instruments are used to drill the arthritis out of the spinal canal. Disk herniations from spinal vertebral disks are removed by Kerrison instruments and the remander of the disk is left. This is called a lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. Laminectomies are cutting part of the bone of the spine or the lamina to make room for the compressed nerve. Minimally invasive, radiology assisted spine surgery include vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty where some kinds of spinal fractures are managed.
Other conditions treated by neurosurgeons include:
- Meningitis and other central nervous system infections including abscesses
- Spinal disc herniation
- Cervical spinal stenosis and Lumbar spinal stenosis
- Head trauma (brain hemorrhages, skull fractures, etc.)
- Spinal cord trauma
- Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves
- Tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
- Intracerebral hemorrhage, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, interdepartmental, and intracellular hemorrhages
- Some forms of drug-resistant epilepsy
- Some forms of movement disorders (advanced Parkinson's disease, chorea) – this involves the use of specially developed minimally invasive stereotactic techniques (functional, stereotactic neurosurgery) such as ablative surgery and deep brain stimulation surgery
- Intractable pain of cancer or trauma patients and cranial/peripheral nerve pain
- Some forms of intractable psychiatric disorders
- Vascular malformations (i.e., arteriovenous malformations, venous angiomas, cavernous angiomas, capillary telangectasias) of the brain and spinal cord
- Moyamoya disease
- Harvey Cushing – known as the father of modern neurosurgery
- Gazi Yaşargil – known as the father of microneurosurgery
- Ludvig Puusepp – known as one of the founding fathers of modern neurosurgery, world's first professor of neurosurgery
- Walter Dandy – known as one of the founding fathers of modern neurosurgery
- Hirotaro Narabayashi – a pioneer of stereotaxic neurosurgery
- Alim-Louis Benabid – known as one of the developers of deep brain stimulation surgery for movement disorder
- Wilder Penfield – known as one of the founding fathers of modern neurosurgery, and pioneer of epilepsy neurosurgery
- Joseph Ransohoff – known for his pioneering use of medical imaging and catheterization in neurosurgery, and for founding the first neurosurgery intensive care unit
- Robert F. Spetzler – The most prolific vascular neurosurgeon in the world and director of the Barrow Neurological Institute
- Lars Leksell – Swedish neurosurgeon who developed the Gamma Knife
- Benjamin Carson – renowned pediatric neurosurgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital, pioneer in hemispherectomy, and pioneer in the separation of craniopagus twins (joined at the head)
- John R. Adler – Stanford University neurosurgeon who invented the CyberKnife
- Wirginia Maixner – pediatric neurosurgeon at Melbourne's Royal Children's Hospital. Primarily known for separating conjoined Bangladeshi twins, Trishna and Krishna
- Sid Watkins – world renowned neurosurgeon who served for 26 years as the Formula One Safety and Medical Delegate (race doctor)
- Frank Henderson Mayfield – invented the Mayfield skull clamp
- American Association of Neurological Surgeons
- Congress of Neurological Surgeons
- Polyaxial screw
- AANS – Patient Information
- "The society of British neurological surgeons". Retrieved 2011-03-11.[dead link]
- Cyber Museum of Neurosurgery
- Stereotactic Radiosurgery Program | UCLA Neurosurgery
- Neuroradiology – Information for Patients & Referring Physicians
- The Brain that Changed Everything by Luke Dittrich – Esquire, November 2010