Standard antibody representation.
|Function||Neutralization of Antigens|
A Neutralizing antibody, or NAb is an antibody which defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by inhibiting or neutralizing any effect it has biologically. An example of a neutralizing antibody is diphtheria antitoxin, which can neutralize the biological effects of diphtheria toxin.
Most antibodies work by binding to an antigen, signaling to a white blood cell that this antigen has been targeted, after which the antigen is processed and consequently destroyed. The difference between neutralizing antibodies and binding antibodies is that neutralizing antibodies neutralize the biological effects of the antigen, while binding antibodies flag antigens. This difference can be shown with IFN-beta;
"Antibodies can simply bind to IFN-beta or glatiramer acetate (binding Ab, or BAb) with no subsequent effect on function, or they can block or neutralize (neutralizing Ab, or NAb) their biological activity." --Mark S. Freedman, MD, MSc
This difference is what gives neutralizing antibodies the ability to fight viruses which attack the immune system, since they can neutralize function without a need for white blood cells (excluding production)
Neutralizing antibodies have shown potential in the treatment of retroviral infections. Medical professionals and researchers have shown how the encoding of genes which influence the production of this particular type of antibody could help in the treatment of infections which attack the immune system. Professionals in the field have used HIV treatment as an example of infections these antibodies can treat. Recently, potent and broadly neutralizing human antibodies against influenza (such as CR6261), HIV and hepatitis C have been reported, and have suggested possible strategies to generate an improved vaccine that would confer long-lasting immunity. Another disease which has been linked to the production of neutralizing antibodies is multiple sclerosis. The use of medicines which modify diseases is nothing new, used in regulation for multiple sclerosis since 1998 when the National Multiple Sclerosis Society Consensus Statement recommended their use.
|Multiple Sclerosis||There is some promise but there have been issues with Pharmaceuticals||Yes|
|HIV||Research has shown that NAb's may be able to block viral receptors||No|
Although this type of antibody has the ability to fight retroviral infections, in some cases it attacks pharmaceuticals administered to the body which would otherwise treat multiple sclerosis. Recombinant protein drugs, especially those derived from animals, are commonly targeted by neutralizing antibodies. A few examples are Rebif, Betaseron and Avonex.
- "Deliberate removal of T cell help improves virus-neutralizing antibody production". Nature.com. 8 August 2004. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- Stachowiak, Julie (August 15, 2008). Julia Stachowiak "Neutralizing Antibodies and Disease-Modifying Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis". About.com. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Neutralising antibody". Biology-Online. 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- "AssessScience". McGraw-Hill. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- Freedman, Mark S. (August 30, 2003). "The Role of Neutralizing Antibodies in MS Treatments". Medscape. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- Satiago, Mario L.; Mauricio Montano, Robert Benitez, Ronald J. Messer, at al. (2008). "Apobec3 Encodes Rfv3, a Gene Influencing Neutralizing Antibody Control of Retrovirus Infection". Science Magazine (AAAS). Retrieved 2009-07-04.