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During the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the territory of the Attawandaron was mostly within the limits of present-day southern Ontario. There was a single population cluster to the east, across the Niagara River near modern-day Buffalo, New York. The western boundary of their territory was the valley of the Grand River, with population concentrations existing on the Niagara Peninsula and in the vicinity of the present-day communities of Hamilton and Milton, Ontario. Documentary sources indicate that the population of the historic Neutrals ranged from twelve thousand to forty thousand persons, with the lower number indicating the devastating effect of new European infectious diseases and periods of famine during the first part of the seventeenth century.
F. Douglas Reville's The History of the County of Brant (1920) stated that the hunting grounds of the Attawandaron ranged from Genesee Falls and Sarnia, and south of a line drawn from Toronto to Goderich.
St. Jean de Brébeuf and Chaumonot visited eighteen villages of the Neutrals in 1640-1641, and gave each a Christian name. The only ones mentioned in their writings were Kandoucho, or All Saints, the nearest to the Hurons; Onguioaahra, on the Niagara River; Teotongniaton or St. William, in the centre of their country; and Khioetoa, or St. Michael.
F. Douglas Reville described their territory as having been heavily forested and full of "wild fruit trees of vast variety", with nut trees, berry bushes, and wild grape vines. "Elk, caribou, and black bear; deer, wolves, foxes, martens and wild cats filled the woods." 
The French called the people "Neutral" (French: la Nation neutre) because they tried to remain neutral between the warring Huron and Iroquois peoples. A plausible reason for their neutrality during the Huron-Iroquois war was the presence of flint grounds within their territory near the eastern end of Lake Erie. Because the Attawandaron possessed this important resource, used for spearheads and arrowheads, they could maintain their neutrality. Once neighbouring nations began to receive firearms from the European powers, however, the possession of the flint grounds served as no advantage.
The chief of the Neutrals in their last years was named Tsouharissen ("Child of the Sun") who led several raids against the Mascouten, who lived in territory in present-day Michigan and Ohio. Tsouharissen died around 1646.
The Neutrals had an alliance with the Wenrohronon, both Iroquoian language peoples, to defend against the Iroquois Nations, but this dissolved in 1639, with devastating effects, particularly to the Wenro. They made an alliance with the Huron, who were located further away and could not offer much support.
Around 1650, during a period now loosely referred to as the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois Confederacy declared war on the Attawandaron; by 1653, the Confederacy had practically annihilated the smaller people, destroying their villages, including Kandoucho. The last mention of the Neutrals in French records was in 1671.
The Museum of Ontario Archaeology in London, Ontario is located adjacent to the site of another 500-year-old Neutral village. This village, designated as the "Lawson Prehistoric Iroquoian Village", has been under study since the early 1900s. A portion of the village, including its palisades and longhouses, has been reconstructed. A large collection of Neutral artifacts recovered there is displayed in the museum.
An Ontario Historical Plaque commemorates the role of the Lawson Prehistoric Indian Village Site in Ontario's heritage.
See also 
- Chris J. Ellis & Neal Ferris, ed. (1990). The Archaeology Of Southern Ontario To A.D. 1650. London Chapter of the Ontario Archaeological Society. pp. 410–411. ISBN 0-919350-13-5.
- Chris J. Ellis & Neal Ferris, ed. (1990). The Archaeology Of Southern Ontario To A.D. 1650. London Chapter of the Ontario Archaeological Society. p. 410. ISBN 0-919350-13-5.
-  Reville, F. Douglas. "The History of the County of Brant", p. 15. Brantford: Hurley Printing Company, 1920.
- Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Hurons"
- Reville, F. Douglas. The History of the County of Brant, p. 16.
- The Canadian Encyclopedia - "Neutral"
- Wenrohronon Indian Tribe History - Access Genealogy
- Reville, F. Douglas. "The History of the County of Brant", p. 20.
- Ontario Plaque
- History of the Neutral Natives
- Catholic Encyclopedia
- Quebec History
- Niagara Falls history
- Museum of Ontario Archeology (formerly Museum of Indian Archeology)
-  Reville, F. Douglas. "The History of the County of Brant". Brantford: Hurley Printing Company, 1920. See Chapter 1 for a history and description of the Neutrals.