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The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr (Greek: νεο-, neo, the prefix for "new"; and μάρτυς, martys, "witness") of the Eastern Orthodox Church was originally given to martyrs who died under heretical rulers (the original martyrs being under pagans). Later the Church added to the list those martyred under Islam and various modern regimes, especially Communist ones, which espoused state atheism. Officially, the era of the New Martyrs begins with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Among those commemorated are not only those who gave their lives in martyrdom, but also those who are accounted as confessors for the Orthodox Faith.
Some New Martyrs are anonymous or known with non-Christian names, as they died withoud being officially baptized. According to the Orthodox belief, they were baptized in their own blood when executed.
New Martyrs under Ottoman rule
The first new martyrs were recorded after the Seljuk invasion of Asia Minor (11th century). In the Orthodox Church, the third Sunday after Pentecost is known as the "Commemoration of All New Martyrs of the Turkish Yoke."
- Ahmed the Calligrapher or Ahmed Kalfas)
- Akylina of Chalkidike
- Anthimos the Georgian
- Athanasios the Neomartyr
- Boris the Pomak
- Chrestos the Albanian
- Chrysostomos of Smyrna
- Constantin Brâncoveanu
- Constantine Hagarit
- Cosmas of Aetolia
- Cyril VI of Constantinople, ethnomartyr
- Demetrios Doukas
- Demetrios of Philadelphia
- Demetrios the Neomartyr
- Gabriel I of Pec
- Patriarch Gabriel II of Constantinople
- George of Ioannina
- George the New
- Gregory V of Constantinople
- John Calphas ("the Apprentice")
- John of Ioannina, a.k.a. John the Tailor
- John the New of Suceava
- Makarios the Monk
- Michael Mavroudis
- Niketas the Young
- Paisius and Habakkuk
- Panteleimon Dousa
- Paul of Constantinople, April 6/19, 1683
- Paul the Russian
- Theocharis of Nevsehir (Neapoli)
- Teodor of Vršac
- Theodore Gabras
- Theodore of Komogovina
- Thomas Paschidis
- Zlata of Meglen
New Martyrs under Communist rule
In the Russian Orthodox Church, the Sunday closest to January 25 (February 7 on the Gregorian Calendar) is the "Sunday of the Holy New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia." The date of January 25 was chosen because that was the date in 1918 of the martyrdom of St. Vladimir (Bogoiavlensikii), Metropolitan of Kiev, who is referred to as the "Protomartyr of the communist yoke in Russia."
- Alexander Hotovitzky
- Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia
- Anastasia Hendrikova
- Andronic Nikolsky
- Bishop Arcadius, 1938
- Bishop Arkady Ostalsky,
- Bishop Arseny Jadanovsky, who was the last abbot of the Chudov Monastery which was also destroyed
- Nun Barbara
- Bishop Basil of Kineshma, July 29/August 11, 1945.
- Catherine Schneider
- Archbishop Dimitry Dobroserdov,
- Bishop Dimitry of Gdov
- Elizabeth Feodorovna
- Dr. Eugene Botkin (see Romanov sainthood)
- Bishop Hermogenes
- Metropolitan Benjamin of Petrograd
- John Kochurov
- John of Tsarskoye Selo
- Archpriest John Vostorgov
- Metropolitan Joseph, 1938
- Archimandrite Kronid Lubimov
- Archpriest Makary Kvitkin
- Margarete of Menzelinsk
- Maria of Gatchina, c. 1930
- Bishop Maxim of Serpukhov June 23/July 6, 1931
- Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia
- Mykola Leontovych
- Nicholas II of Russia with his immediate family and servants (see Romanov sainthood)
- Fr. Nicholas Zagorovsky, 1943 (confessor)
- Bishop Nikita Dilektorsky,
- Nikodim of Solovki
- Archbishop Nikolay Dobronravov,
- Father Pavel Florensky
- Father Peter of Krutitsy
- Metropolitan Seraphim Chichagov of St. Petersburg
- Patriarch Tikhon, 1925 (confessor)
- Sister Varvara Yakovleva
- Veniamin Kazanskii
- Vladimir N. Beneshevich
- Metropolitan Vladimir First victim of the Soviet.
- Platon (bishop)
New Martyrs under Nazism
Serbian New Martyrs
The feast of "All New Martyrs of Serbia" is celebrated on June 28 [O.S. June 15].
New Martyrs of the Boxer Rebellion
Other New Martyrs
- Daniel Sysoyev Moscowian priest and missionary assassinated by Islamic terrorist.
- Yevgeny Rodionov A Russian soldier fought in First Chechen War who was taken as prisoner, tortured and eventually murdered for his refusal to convert to Islam.
Both martyrs listed above are not glorified by the Russian Orthodox Church yet despite widespread popular worship.
- Derived with permission from New Martyrs at OrthodoxWiki.
- Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity, 341-43
- Vaporis, Rev. Nomikos Michael. Witnesses for Christ: Orthodox Christian Neomartyrs of the Ottoman Period 1437-1860
- Byzantinoslavica. Academia, Slovanský ústav v Praze. Byzantologická komise. 1996. p. 104.
- Ahmed the Calligrapher. Article in Orthodoxwiki.org
- Saint Ahmed, Synaxaristes (Compedium) of Neomartyrs, editions "Orthodoxos Kypsele" (Orthodox Bee-hive)
- Hieromonk Job Gumerov. Can one consider the death of Father Daniel Sysoev to be a martyrdom?
- Fr Peter Alban Heers - Podcasts on New Martyr Fr. Daniel Sysoev