||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (October 2011)|
NewSpace, alt.space, and entrepreneurial space are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy often affiliated with, but not synonymous with, an emergent private spaceflight industry. Specifically, the terms are used to refer to a community of relatively new aerospace companies working to develop low-cost access to space or spaceflight technologies and advocates of low-cost spaceflight technology and policy.
The term alt.space was first used in the early 1980s to describe companies that were making serious efforts to reach outer space without cooperation with NASA, other governmental agencies, or their contractors.[dead link] Near the end of the 1990s, a dramatic increase in companies engaging in this process led to the common usage of the phrase "new space companies"; "NewSpace" and "entrepreneurial space" are now the most commonly used terms, though "alt.space" is still occasionally found.
NewSpace is a term that has had some variation in meaning since "supplanting the geekier 'alt.space' moniker" after about 2006.
NewSpace is defined by HobbySpace.com as covering "approaches to space development that differ significantly from that taken by NASA and the mainstream aerospace industry". Definitions of what exactly is and is not NewSpace vary but typically include several of the following criteria:
- Development of launch systems principally with private funding, with only secondary or no involvement with government spaceflight programs and contractors. Private companies that conduct aeronautical efforts, such as Boeing, are generally not considered part of NewSpace due to their heavy reliance on NASA development funding as part of their business model. NewSpace companies need not universally avoid NASA, often participating in projects such as Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, but tend to focus primarily on consumers in the private sector.
- Low cost approaches or budgeting plans. Due to the highly expensive nature of spaceflight and lack of government funding, many NewSpace companies consequently take a low-cost approach to constructing launch vehicles and other necessary components. NewSpace companies commonly participate in, or are created to participate in, projects such as the Ansari X Prize and the Google Lunar X Prize.
- Primary drive towards innovation. "A NewSpace company might use innovative new technologies that will lead to low cost, robust space systems. Or a company might simply combine currently available, "cheap-off-the-shelf" (COTS) technologies in an innovative manner that provides a new and highly capable system at lower costs."
- Incremental development that is profitable even at initial low-levels of space system complexity and capability. Many NewSpace development projects follow the "model of other technologies such as computer chips and LCD displays. Start with systems of limited capability but with markets that can provide a profit and thus pay for the development necessary to make the next step up in capability. Over time this can have a tremendous pay off as hardware improvements are compounded and markets expand."
- Aim to increase human presence in outer space. Many NewSpace companies, such as Bigelow Aerospace and XCOR Aerospace, have publicly stated goals to send civilian humans into outer space on a mass scale and/or at low end-user costs.
Mojave, California has been described as "the Silicon Valley of NewSpace". Mojave is home to Masten Space Systems, Scaled Composites, XCOR Aerospace, and the Mojave Spaceport, the world's first private space launch facility.
Following the successful third flight of the Dragon spacecraft in May 2012 by private company SpaceX, some financial industry analysts are now handicapping NewSpace companies and the projected performance of infrastructure vs. application companies in the evolving industry.
Among the verticals are:
- Energy harnessing
- Funeral Services with Space Burial. Both Elysium Space and Celestis offer mass-market services.
- Imagery for Earth and Space with companies such as Skybox Imaging
- Mining of asteroids and planets (notable companies include Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries.)
- Real Estate with Bigelow Aerospace
- Scientific Research brokerage with NanoRacks
- Tourism with Space Tourism, Private Spaceflights. See the list of private spaceflight companies. Such companies include Space Adventures (live) and Virgin Galactic (in progress).
Much of the alt.space activity is now involved in government licensing activities and regulation development for proposed spaceflights, managed by the Federal Aviation Administration
The following are companies and organizations generally regarded as both alt.space and successfully active (or previously successfully active).
- Altius Space Machines
- Andrews Space
- Astrobotic Technology
- B612 Foundation
- Bigelow Aerospace
- Blue Origin
- BOOSTER Space Industries
- Celestial Circuits
- Copenhagen Suborbitals
- Cosmica Spacelines
- Clyde Space
- Dauria Aerospace
- Deep Space Industries
- Digital Solid State Propulsion
- Ecliptic Enterprises
- Effective Space
- Elysium Space
- Escape Dynamics
- Fast Forward Project
- Final Frontier Design
- Firefly Space Systems
- Galactic Suite Design
- Garvey Spacecraft
- Generation Orbit
- Golden Spike Company
- Innovative Space Propulsion Systems
- Inspiration Mars Foundation
- JP Aerospace
- Made in Space (company)
- Masten Space Systems
- Mars One
- Moon Express
- OpenLuna Foundation
- Planet Labs
- Planetary Resources
- Raptor Space Services
- Rocket Racing League
- Scaled Composites
- Shackleton Energy Company
- Sierra Nevada
- Skybox Imaging
- Swiss Space Systems
- Space Pharma
- Stratolaunch Systems
- Terminal Velocity Aerospace
- The Spaceship Company
- UP Aerospace
- Virgin Galactic
- XCOR Aerospace
- Zero Gravity Corporation
- Astronauts for Hire
- Commercial Spaceflight Federation
- National Space Society
- Space Access Society
- Space Frontier Foundation
- Space Settlement Institute
- Space Studies Institute
- Space Tourism Society
- Students for the Exploration and Development of Space
- Yuri's Night
- Mars One
- Rotary Rocket
- Rocketplane Kistler
- SpaceDev–acquired by Sierra Nevada Corporation in 2008
- PanAero, headed by Len Cormier
- Pioneer Rocketplane
- X Prize Cup competition
- List of private spaceflight companies
- Private spaceflight
- Space Frontier Foundation
- X Prize Foundation
- [dead link]
- David Anderman. "The New Commercial Space Companies". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Foust, Jeff (2007-03-05). "Current issues in NewSpace". The Space Review. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
- Foust, Jeff (2011-08-16). "The evolving ecosystem of NewSpace". The Space Review. Retrieved 2011-08-15. "Since the term came into vogue about five years ago, supplanting the geekier “alt.space” moniker, it’s been most commonly associated with entrepreneurial ventures developing suborbital and orbital vehicles. ... While an exact, widely-accepted definition of NewSpace still eludes the space community, it’s increasingly clear that constraining the scope of NewSpace to vehicle developers is too limiting. ... SpaceX, Virgin Galactic, XCOR Aerospace, ... New companies are emerging that seek to develop technologies that can either enable or be enabled by low-cost access to space and thus can arguably be considered part of NewSpace. [Examples include] Altius Space Machines ... Masten Space Systems ... Innovative Space Propulsion Systems ... Celestial Circuits [and] Final Frontier Design. ... NewSpace ... is a way of doing business and NewSpace is an industry doing business in a new way. ... NewSpace is an industry that’s doing business for a purpose ... a NewSpace company is a company that is built, formed, operated by, funded by, or has as part of its business plan the opening of the space frontier, and making a profit while doing so ... It is the industrial engine that will power the movement towards a more fundamental goal of space settlement."
- Lindsey, Clark S. "NewSpace: The alternative route to space...". Hobby Space. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Lindsey, Clark S. "Defining NewSpace". Hobby Space. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- "Space Frontier Foundation - Join Us at NewSpace 2008!". Space-frontier.org. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Foust, Jeff (2008-12-28). "The Silicon Valley of NewSpace". The Space Review. Retrieved 2012-12-05.
- "That "NewSpace Moment": Silicon Valley Redux". Big Think. 2012-06-27. Retrieved 2012-07-04.
- "New Space Watch". Newspacewatch.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06. (subscription required (. ))
- Velazco, Chris (2013-03-31). "Ambitious Startups Could Signal The Coming Of A Second Space Age". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Newspace Directory". Space Frontier Foundation. 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-30. "Andrews Space, Armadillo Aerospace, ... Commercial Spaceflight Federation, ... Masten, Moon Express, Nanoracks, National Space Society, Odyssey Moon, Orbital Outfitters, Paragon Space Development Corporation, Planetary Resources, ... Scaled Composites, Space Access Society, Space Adventures, Space Angels Network, Sierra Nevada Corporation–Space Systems, SpaceX, Space Island Group, The Space Settlement Institute, Space Studies Institute, The Spaceship Company, Space Tourism Society, Stratolaunch Systems, Tethers Unlimited, UP Aerospace, Virgin Galactic, X-Prize Foundations, XCOR Aerospace, Xtraordinary Adventures, zero G"
- "SpaceX Lands Contract To Fly To Moon". Aviation Week. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2011-02-08. "Pittsburgh-based Astrobotic Technology, a Carnegie Mellon University spin-off company, has signed a launch services contract with Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) for a Falcon 9 rocket to deliver a lander, small rover and up to about 240 lb. of payload to the surface of the Moon"
- "B612 Foundation". B612 Foundation. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Fildes, Jonathan (2006-07-14). "Technology | Inflatable space module puffs up". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Higginbotham, Adam (2013-05-02). "Robert Bigelow Plans a Real Estate Empire in Space". Business Week. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- Lindsey, Clark (2013-01-03). "NewSpace flights in 2013". NewSpace Watch. Retrieved 2013-01-04. (subscription required (. ))
- Levy, Stephen (2011-11-13). "Jeff Bezos Owns the Web in More Ways Than You Think". Wired. Retrieved 2011-12-09.
- "BOOSTER Space Industries". Boosterindustries.eu. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Celestis Website". Celestis.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Copenhagen suborbitals webpage: Mission overview, accessed 2010-01-29.
- "Cosmica Spacelines Website". Cosmicspacelines.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Clyde Space Website". Clyde-space.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Dauria Aerospace Website". Dauriaspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "D-Orbit Website". Deorbitaldevices.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Rincon, Paul (January 22, 2013). "New venture 'to mine asteroids'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Messier, Doug (2014-04-06). "Digital Solid State Propulsion is Headed to ISS". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
- Lindsey, Clark (2013-02-25). "Earth2Orbit - bringing space private enterprise to India". NewSpace Watch. Retrieved 2013-02-25. (subscription required (. ))
- "Ecliptic Enterprises Website". Eclipticenterprises.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Effective Space Website". Effective-space.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "The Elwing corp Website". Elwingspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Elysium Space Website". Elysiumspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Hamish McKenzie (2013-08-09). "The real Elysium: Send your dead loved one into space for $2K". Pando Daily. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- Kim-Mai Cutler (2013-08-09). "Have A Space Burial As Elysium Sends Your Ashes Into Orbit". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- Josh Ong (2013-08-09). "Elysium Space will launch your loved ones’ ashes into orbit for $2,000". TheNextWeb. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- "Fast Forward Project Website". Fastforwardproject.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Introducing Firefly Space Systems, Hedgeye, accessed 2014-02-18
- "Firefly Space Systems Website". Firefylspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Jason Paur (2012-08-09). "China to Launch Spanish Team’s Lunar X PRIZE Robot". Wired. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- Messier, Doug (2013-04-04). "Garvey Nanosat Launcher Selected for NASA SBIR Funding". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- Messier, Doug (2013-10-24). "Generation Orbit Wins First Prize in NewSpace Business Plan Competition". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- Mann, Adam. "Golden Spike Company Unveils Plans to Fly Commercial Crews to the Moon - Wired Science". Wired.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "GOMSpace Website". Gomspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "ISIS Website". Isispace.nl. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Lasermotive Website". Lasermotive.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Biggs, John (2013-08-14). "Made In Space, Makers Of The Only 3D Printer In Orbit, Answer Some Pressing Questions About Manufacturing And Yoda". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- "Mars One website". Mars-one.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "MoonEx aims to scour moon for rare materials". Los Angeles Times. 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2011-08-20. "The company is among several teams hoping to someday win the Google Lunar X Prize competition, a $30-million race to the moon in which a privately-funded team must successfully place a robot on the moon's surface and have it explore at least 1/3 of a mile. It also must transmit high definition video and images back to Earth before 2016. ... should be ready to land on the lunar surface by 2013"
- Knapp, Alex (2013-03-04). "The Space Station Is The Final Frontier Of Bio Research". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Messier, Doug (2013-10-11). "NovaWurks Awarded Contract for DARPA Phoenix Project". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- "Foundation, Inc". OpenLuna. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "PlanetIQ website". Planetiq.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Planet Labs website". Planet-labs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Belfiore, Michael (2012-11-15). "Mass-Produced Sats Will Offer Low-Cost Access to Space Read more: Mass-Produced Sats Will Offer Low-Cost Access to Space - Popular Mechanics". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "Aero-TV: Rocket Racing League - Diamandis Plans 2010 Exhibition Racing | Aero-News Network". Aero-news.net. 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Skybox Imaging website". Skyboxinaging.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Start-up Profile: Skybox Imaging". IEEE Spectrum. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "Space Ground Amalgam Wins 2012 NewSpace Business Plan Competition!". Space Frontier Foundation. 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2012-12-05.
- "Swiss Space Systems website". S-3.ch. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Space Pharma website". Space4p.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Terminal Velocity Aerospace website". tvaero.com. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
- "UP AEROSPACE, LOCKHEED MARTIN Launch from Spaceport America" (Press release). Spaceport America. 2009-10-12. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
- Messier, Doug (2012-07-02). "DARPA Awards 6 Small Airborne Launch Vehicle Contracts". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "Ventions, LLC to launch liquid-fueled rocket from Wallops this week". NewSpace Watch. 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2012-11-06. (subscription required (. ))
- Foust, Jeff (2013-08-01). "Carmack: Armadillo Aerospace in "hibernation mode"". NewSpace Journal. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
- Weil, Elizabeth (2003). They All Laughed At Christopher Columbus: An Incurable Dreamer Builds the First Civilian Spaceship. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-38236-5.
- Cooper, Scott (7 July 2010). "Rocketplane, which received $18 million in Oklahoma tax credits, filed for bankruptcy last month". Oklahoma Gazette. Retrieved 2014-02-06.