New American Bible
|New American Bible|
|Full name||New American Bible|
|Derived from||Confraternity Bible|
|Textual basis||NT: Novum Testamentum Graece 25th edition. OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia with Septuagint and Dead Sea Scrolls influence. Deuterocanonicals: Septuagint, Dead Sea Scrolls, and some Vulgate influence.|
|Translation type||Formal equivalence (from the Preface), moderate use of dynamic equivalence.|
|Reading level||High School|
The New American Bible (NAB) is a Catholic Bible translation first published in 1970. It is the basis of the revised Lectionary, and is the only translation approved for use at Mass in the dioceses of the United States and the Philippines.
Stemming originally from the Confraternity Bible, a translation of the Vulgate by the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, the project transitioned to translating the original biblicallanguages in response to Pope Pius XII's 1943 encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu. The effort eventually became the New American Bible under the liturgical principles and reforms of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965).
First Edition – NAB
The text of the first edition of the New American Bible is composed of:
- The New Testament directly translated from Greek, appearing in portions from 1964 and completed in 1970.
- The Old Testament (except Genesis): the Confraternity Bible text translated in stages between 1952 and 1969 from the original languages, with minor revisions to the text and notes in 1970.
- Genesis newly translated from the Hebrew in 1970, replacing the 1948 translation.
The spelling of proper names found in this edition departs from the ones found in older Catholic Bible versions, such as the Douay, and instead adopts those commonly found in Protestant Bibles. The notes in many places present 20th century theories still current, for example the Q source or different sources for the Pentateuch. Catholic scholars translated this version with collaboration from members of other Christian denominations. The NAB is one of the versions authorized to be used in services of the Episcopal Church.
Second Edition – RNAB
In the 1986 second version a tradeoff was made: while traditional phraseology — absent from the 1970 edition — was restored to the New Testament, several non-traditional gender-neutral terms were incorporated. The New Testament was almost completely revised, and bears a much closer resemblance to the 1941 Confraternity version, as opposed to the much more periphrastic 1970 NAB NT.
Third Edition – RNAB
In 1991 the Book of Psalms was completely rewritten to introduce the use of extensive gender-neutral language. Controversy ensued because of its use of vertical gender-neutral language (God and Christ) and some uses of horizontal gender-neutral language ("human beings" or "they" instead of "men" or "he"). These Psalms were rejected for liturgical use. The only difference between the 1986–1990 RNAB and the 1991–2011 RNAB is the book of Psalms, all 72 other books are identical.
Fourth Edition – NABRE
In 1994, work began on a revision of the Old Testament. However, since the 1991 Psalms were rejected for liturgical use, the text was modified by a committee of the Holy See and the Bishops for use in the Latin-Rite Catholic liturgy in 2000. This is the current text of the Lectionaries of the Catholic Church in the United States. The Holy See accepted some use of gender-neutral language, such as where the speaker is speaking of one of unknown gender (rendering "person" in place of "man"), but rejected any changes relating to God or Christ. On November 2008, the revised Grail Psalter was accepted by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and is currently awaiting Vatican approval. This will replace the current modified NAB Psalter for Lectionary use in the United States.
In 2002, the Old Testament (excluding the Psalms) was completed and sent to the Ad Hoc Committee to see if it was a suitable Catholic translation.
In June 2003, a re-revision of the Psalms was completed following publication of the instruction Liturgiam Authenticam, issued May 7, 2001, by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments in Rome. However, the US bishops' Ad Hoc Committee rejected it. It was again revised in 2008 and sent to the Bishops Committee on Divine Worship but rejected in favor of the revised Grail Psalter.
In September 2008, the last book (Jeremiah) of the Old Testament was accepted by the Ad Hoc Committee. In November of that year, the complete Old Testament (including footnotes and introductions) was approved by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. However, they would not allow it to be published with the 1991 Psalms. A final revision of the NAB Psalter was undertaken using suggestions vetted by the Ad Hoc Committee and stricter conformity to the Liturgiam Authenticam.
In January 2011, it was announced that the fourth edition of the NAB would be published on March 9 of that year. This latest text, known as the "New American Bible, revised edition" or NABRE, the fourth edition of the NAB includes the newly revised Old Testament and re-revised Psalms, and the revised New Testament from the second edition. While the NABRE represents a revision of the NAB towards conformity to Liturgiam Authenticam, there have not been any announced plans to use the NABRE for the lectionary in the United States.
Future editions of the NAB
In 2012, the USCCB "announced a plan to revise the New Testament of the New American Bible Revised Edition so a single version can be used for individual prayer, catechesis and liturgy." After they developed a plan and budget for the revision project, work began in 2013 with the creation of an editorial board made up of five people from the Catholic Biblical Association (CBA). The revision is now underway and, after the necessary approvals from the Bishops and the Vatican, is expected to be done around the year 2025.
- Catholic Bible
- Latin Vulgate
- Council of Trent
- Divino afflante Spiritu
- Second Vatican Council
- Dei verbum
- Liturgiam authenticam
- International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL)
- Nihil Obstat
English language Bibles approved for Catholics
- Douay-Rheims Bible
- Confraternity Bible
- Knox Bible
- Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition
- Jerusalem Bible
- New American Bible
- New Jerusalem Bible
- New Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition
- Good News Bible / Today's English Version - Catholic Edition
- Revised Standard Version, Second Catholic (or Ignatius) Edition
- CTS New Catholic Bible
- New American Bible Revised Edition
- "Liturgy: Questions about the Scriptures used during Mass". USCCB.
- "Liturgical Books In The English Speaking World". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- The Canons of the General Convention of the Episcopal Church: Canon 2: Of Translations of the Bible
- Chronology for the New Revision of the New American Bible Old Testament 
- "Grail Psalter". Grailsociety.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Tucker, Jeffrey A. (2008-12-20). "'''Grail Psalms''': A Path Forward". New Liturgical Movement. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- CNS STORY: Bishops choose Revised Grail Psalter for Lectionary use in US 
- USCCB news release: "Revised Edition of New American Bible Approved for Publication, Will Be Available in Variety of Formats March 9", January 6, 2011 
- Bauman, MIchelle. "New American Bible to be revised into single translation". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "NAB New Testament Revision Project". Catholic Biblical Association of America. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- The New American Bible - online access (official Vatican website)
- The New American Bible - online access (official USCCB website)