New London County, Connecticut
|New London County, Connecticut|
Location in the state of Connecticut
Connecticut's location in the U.S.
|Seat||None (formerly New London); since 1960 Connecticut counties no longer have a county government|
771.66 sq mi (1,999 km²)
665.91 sq mi (1,725 km²)
105.75 sq mi (274 km²), 13.70%
412/sq mi (158.9/km²)
New London County is a county located in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Connecticut bordering Long Island Sound. As of 2010 the population was 274,055. The total area of the county is 772 square miles (2,000 km2), including inland and coastal waters.
As is the case with all eight of Connecticut's counties, there is no county government and no county seat. In Connecticut, Towns are responsible for all local government activities, including fire and rescue, snow removal and schools. In a few cases, neighboring Towns will share certain resources (e.g. water, gas, etc.). New London County is merely a group of Towns on a map; it has no governmental authority.
It contains reservations of four of the five state-recognized Native American tribes, although the Paugassett were historically located further west.
Southeastern New England was dominated by the powerful Pequot people at the time of English encounter; they spoke the Mohegan-Pequot language and were one of the Algonquian-speaking tribes in the coastal areas. After years of conflict, the English and their Indian allies killed many and disrupted the Pequot in the Pequot War of 1637, ending their dominance. Two descendant Pequot tribes are recognized by the state today, as are three other tribes, all descended from Algonquian peoples.
New London County was one of four original counties in Connecticut that were established on May 10, 1666, by an act of the Connecticut General Court. The act establishing the county states:
- This Court orders that from the Paukatuck River wth
- Norridge to ye west bounds of Homonoscet Plantation shalbe
- for future one County, wch County is called the County of
- N: London. And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe
- held at N. London the first Wednesday in June and the third
- Thursday in Septembr yearly.
As established in 1666, New London County consisted of the towns of Stonington, Norwich, New London, and Saybrook. The "Homonoscet Plantation" referred to in the constituting Act was settled in March 1663, at first as Kenilworth but incorporated as the town of Killingworth in 1667. Several new towns were incorporated and added to New London over the next few decades: Preston in 1687, Colchester in 1699, and Lebanon in 1700. The settlements along the Quinebaug Valley were placed under New London jurisdiction in 1697 (later incorporated as Plainfield in 1699). By 1717, more towns were established in northeastern Connecticut (between the Quinebaug Valley and the Rhode Island border) and added to New London County.
Windham County was constituted from Hartford and New London counties on 12 May 1726, consisting of towns in northeastern Connecticut. New London County lost the towns of Voluntown, Pomfret, Killingly, Canterbury, Plainfield, and Lebanon to the newly-formed county. In 1785, Middlesex County was constituted, consisting of towns along the lower Connecticut River Valley, taking away the towns of Killingworth and Saybrook from New London County. Several additional boundary adjustments took place in the 19th century: the establishment of the town of Marlborough in 1803, the transfer of the town of Lebanon from Windham County in 1824, and the transfer of the town of Voluntown from Windham County in 1881.
According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 771.66 square miles (1,998.6 km2), of which 665.91 square miles (1,724.7 km2) (or 86.30%) is land and 105.75 square miles (273.9 km2) (or 13.70%) is water.
The terrain of the county is mostly level, becoming more elevated only in its northern extreme. The highest point in the county is Gates Hill in the Town of Lebanon at approximately 660 feet (201 m) above sea level, and the lowest point is sea level.
Adjacent counties 
- Windham County (north)
- Kent County, Rhode Island (northeast)
- Washington County, Rhode Island (east)
- Middlesex County (west)
- Tolland County (northwest)
- Hartford County (northwest)
- Suffolk County, New York (south) Water boundary only, with ferry access to Fishers Island
Cities, towns, and villages* 
- East Lyme
- New London
- North Stonington
- Old Lyme
* Villages are named localities within towns, but have no separate corporate existence from the towns they are in.
Government and municipal services 
As of 1960, counties in Connecticut do not have any associated county government structure. All municipal services are provided by the towns. In order to address regional issues concerning infrastructure, land use, and economic development, regional councils of governments throughout the state were established in 1989. Most of the towns of New London County are part of the Southeastern Connecticut Council of Governments, the exceptions being the towns of Lyme, Old Lyme, and Lebanon. Lyme and Old Lyme are part of the Connecticut River Estuary Regional Planning Agency, while Lebanon is part of the Windham Regional Council of Governments.
The geographic area of the county is coterminous with the New London judicial district, with the superior courts located in the cities of New London and Norwich.
Law enforcement 
Law enforcement within the geographic area of the county is provided by the respective town police departments. Prior to 2000, a County Sheriff's Department existed for the purpose of executing judicial warrants, prisoner transport, and court security. These responsibilities have now been taken over by the Connecticut State Marshal System.
Fire protection 
Fire protection in the county is provided by the towns. Several towns also have fire districts that provide services to a section of the town.
Water service 
Water service to 12 of the 21 towns of New London County is provided by a regional non-profit public corporation known as the Southeastern Water Authority. The Southeastern Water Authority supplies water to participating towns within New London County and is one of only two such county-wide public water service providers in the state. Seven towns receive water service from one or more private corporations. The city of Norwich and most of the town of Groton provide for their own water service.
Garbage disposal 
Several towns in New London County have organized the Southeastern Connecticut Regional Resources Recovery Authority. The participating towns are East Lyme, Griswold, Groton, Ledyard, Montville, New London, North Stonington, Norwich, Preston, Sprague, Stonington, and Waterford.
Education in the county area is usually provided by the individual town governments. The less populated towns of Lyme and Old Lyme have joined together to form a single, regional school district (Region 18).
|Historical census data source:|
As of the census of 2000, there were 259,088 people, 99,835 households, and 67,188 families residing in the county. The population density was 389 people per square mile (150/km²). There were 110,674 housing units at an average density of 166 per square mile (64/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 87.00% White, 5.29% Black or African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.96% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.05% from other races, and 2.68% from two or more races. 5.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.8% were of Irish, 12.7% Italian, 10.8% English, 7.9% German, 7.1% Polish and 6.4% French ancestry according to their self-identification in the Census 2000. 90.1% spoke English, 4.5% Spanish and 1.1% French as their first language.
There were 99,835 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.50% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.70% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the county the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $50,646, and the median income for a family was $59,857. Males had a median income of $41,292 versus $30,525 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,678. About 4.50% of families and 6.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.80% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over.
Demographic breakdown by town 
Data is from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, "Race alone or in combination with one or more other races."
See also 
- The Hammonasset River still bears this Pequot placename.
- "CCR: Volume 02, Page 39". Retrieved 2008-06-17.[dead link]
- Frances Manwaring Caulkins, History of New London, Connecticut: From the first survey of the coast in 1612, to 1852 (New Haven) 1852, p. 249: "New London County extended from Pawkatuck River to the west bounds of Hammonasset Plantation (Killingworth,) including all the eastern parts of the colony".
- Newberry Library -- Connecticut Atlas of Historical County Boundaries
- "Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- "Geostat Center: Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Accessed July 20, 2008.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-1-8.
||Hartford County and Tolland County||Windham County||Kent County, Rhode Island|
|Middlesex County||Washington County, Rhode Island|
|Long Island Sound||Block Island Sound|