New Monasticism, Neomonasticism, or Lay Monasticism refers to a modern movement within Protestant Christianity modelled on a monastic way of life in a contemporary context to expand the way of life of traditional monastic communities to lay people.
The origin of the new monastic movement is difficult to pinpoint. Some communities now identified with new monasticism have been in existence since the 1970s and 80s in the UK. Other well-known communities, such as the Simple Way in Philadelphia, formed in the mid-90s.
The notion and terminology of “new monasticism” was developed by Jonathan Wilson in his 1998 book called Living Faithfully in a Fragmented World. Wilson was, in turn, building on ideas of theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer, who said in 1935: “the restoration of the church will surely come only from a new type of monasticism which has nothing in common with the old but a complete lack of compromise in a life lived in accordance with the Sermon on the Mount in the discipleship of Christ.” Wilson also built on ideas of philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre. Noting the decline of local community that could sustain the moral life, MacIntyre ended his book After Virtue, by voicing a longing for "another... St. Benedict." By this, he meant someone in the present age to lead another renewal of morality and civility through community. Wilson identified with that longing in his own book, but outlined a vision to carry it forward within the Protestant Christian tradition.
Calling the vision a "new monasticism", he proposed four characteristics that such a monasticism would entail: (1) it will be "marked by a recovery of the telos of this world" revealed in Jesus, and aimed at the healing of fragmentation, bringing the whole of life under the lordship of Christ; (2) it will be aimed at the "whole people of God" who live and work in all kinds of contexts, and not create a distinction between those with sacred and secular vocations; (3) it will be disciplined, not by a recovery of old monastic rules, but by the joyful discipline achieved by a small group of disciples practicing mutual exhortation, correction, and reconciliation; and (4) it will be "undergirded by deep theological reflection and commitment," by which the church may recover its life and witness in the world.
The middle months of 2004 became a defining moment for the movement, when there was a gathering of a number of existing communities and academics in Durham, North Carolina, where they drew together something like a "rule of life," referred to as the "12 marks" of new monasticism. The gathering took place at a new monastic community called "Rutba House," of which some founding members were Jonathan and Leah Wilson-Hartgrove. Not coincidentally, Leah Wilson-Hartgrove is a daughter of Jonathan Wilson whose writing has galvanized the movement.
Most new monastic communities emphasize the following:
- Thoughtful, prayerful, and contemplative lives
- Communal life (expressed in a variety of ways depending on the community)
- A focus on hospitality
- Practical engagement with the poor
The "Twelve Marks" of new monasticism express the common thread of many new monastic communities. These "marks" are:
- Relocation to the "abandoned places of Empire" [at the margins of society]
- Sharing economic resources with fellow community members and the needy among us
- Hospitality to the stranger
- Lament for racial divisions within the church and our communities combined with the active pursuit of a just reconciliation
- Humble submission to Christ’s body, the Church
- Intentional formation in the way of Christ and the rule of the community along the lines of the old novitiate
- Nurturing common life among members of an intentional community
- Support for celibate singles alongside monogamous married couples and their children
- Geographical proximity to community members who share a common rule of life
- Care for the plot of God’s earth given to us along with support of our local economies
- Peacemaking in the midst of violence and conflict resolution within communities along the lines of Matthew 18
- Commitment to a disciplined contemplative life
Differences from traditional Christian monasticism
The movement differs from other Christian monastic movements in many ways.
- Traditional monastic vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience are not normally taken, as with members of traditional monastic orders, such as the Benedictines, Cistercians, Carthusians, and Basilians.
- Communities do not always live in a single place, but geographic proximity is emphasized by the movement.
- The movement allows married couples. Most traditional forms of Christian religious life do not admit married couples. (Certain centuries-old Roman Catholic and more recent Anglican groups, known as "third," "secular," or "lay" orders, also admit married individuals who profess the spirituality of the order (including the Franciscans and Dominicans), but these are neither new nor monastic.)
- Members of the movement do not wear religious habits. This contrasts with the long-established Roman Catholic third orders, whose members may wear some form of the religious habit of the order with which they are associated.
Roman Catholic lay movements
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2011)|
"New Monasticism" within the Catholic Church takes many forms, and experienced vigorous growth after the Second Vatican Council's call[specify] to encourage the laity to be more involved in religious life. There was then a growth in the number of lay movements linked to religious orders. These lay organisations, such as the Lay (or Third Order) Franciscans, have existed for centuries, and so cannot be classified as "new". Far from being classified as "monastic", they do not fall even under the broader term of "religious". The Franciscan friars themselves, although classified as religious, are not monks. They encourage the laity to take on the principles behind certain religious orders and try to live them in the secular world away from the monastery, friary or priory to which the religious community is linked. An example is the Lay Dominicans. They are called to live by the Four Pillars of Dominican life. These are study, prayer, community, and preaching. So Lay Dominicans are encouraged to study the faith regularly, pray and meditate daily, build strong communities of faithful and to evangelise. Whichever religious lay movement someone belongs to, they are encouraged to go on retreat at least once a year to a monastery or friary of that community. Lay groups usually meet once a month in church or in people's homes.
The New Monastic movement within Catholicism[clarification needed] is ubiquitous and significant in numbers. For example, the Dominicans of Ireland website states a worldwide lay membership of 150 000 for their religious institute alone, but these are, like the 14th-century Saint Catherine of Siena or the later Saint Rose of Lima, members of the long-established Third Order of Saint Dominic, known since 1972 as Lay Fraternities of Saint Dominic or Lay Dominicans.
Religious institutes that have associated lay groups include Cistercians, Benedictines, Franciscans, Carmelites, Augustinians, Carthusians and Dominicans. In line with canon 303 of the Code of Canon Law, these "associations whose members share in the spirit of some religious institute while in secular life, lead an apostolic life and strive for Christian perfection under the higher direction of the same institute are called third orders or some other appropriate name". They are not called new monastics, a name that would be doubly inappropriate, both because of their centuries-old history and because even the religious institutes with which they are associated are not all monastic.
All lay members of religious communities are expected to pray the Divine Office of the Church every day. This involves praying of Scripture texts at certain times throughout the day.
- Dorothy Day
- Catherine Doherty
- Movement for a New Society
- Radical Orthodoxy
- Tolstoyan movement
- Catholic Worker Movement
- "the simple way" (website). Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- Byassee, Jason. The Christian Century, "The New Monastics: Alternative Christian Communities", 24 April 2008.
- "The Northumbria Community" (website). Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- MacIntyre, Alasdair. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (2nd ed.). Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-268-00610-5. OCLC 10751724. ISBN 0-268-00610-5. ISBN 0-268-00611-3. ISBN 978-0-268-00611-2.
- (Wilson 1998, p. 69)
- (Wilson 1998, pp. 72–75)
- Rob Moll, Christianity Today, "The New Monasticism", 24 April 2008.
- Divinity Online Edition - Fall 2005 Feature Article - The New Monasticism In Durham’s Walltown, a Covenant Community
- (Rutba House 2005, pp. xii-xiii)
- (Rutba House 2005, p. 124)
- Mike Broadway and Isaac Villegas, "A New Monasticism", Radix vol. 31 no. 4 (2005): pp12–28.
- Cross, Simon (2010). Totally Devoted, the challenge of new monasticism. Authentic Media. ISBN 978-1-85078-868-3.
- Dekar, Paul R. (2008). Community of the Transfiguration: the journey of a new monastic community. New Monastic Library: resources for radical discipleship. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books. ISBN 978-1-55635-430-4.
- Stock, Jon R.; Otto, Tim; Wilson-Hartgrove, Jonathan (2007). Inhabiting the Church: biblical wisdom for a new monasticism. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books. ISBN 978-1-59752-990-7.
- Rutba House (2005). Schools for Conversion: 12 marks of a new monasticism. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books. ISBN 978-1-59752-055-3.
- Wilson-Hartgrove, Jonathan (2008). New Monasticism : what it has to say to today's church. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Brazos Press. ISBN 978-1-58743-224-8.
- Sine, Tom (2008). The New Conspirators: creating the future one mustard seed at a time. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Books. ISBN 978-0-8308-3384-9.
- Claiborne, Shane. The Irresistible Revolution: living as an ordinary radical. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-26630-3.
- Claiborne, Shane; Haw, Chris (2008). Jesus for president: politics for ordinary radicals. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-27842-9.
- Bessenecker, Scott A. (2006). The New Friars: the emerging movement serving the world's poor. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Books. ISBN 978-0-8308-3601-7.
- Freeman, Andy; Greig, Pete (2007). Punk Monk: new monasticism and the ancient art of breathing. Ventura, California: Regal Books. ISBN 978-0-8307-4368-1.
- Wilson, Jonathan R. (1998). Living Faithfully in a Fragmented World: lessons for the church from MacIntyre's "After Virtue". Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International. ISBN 978-1-56338-240-6.
- Zdero, Rad (2004). The Global House Church Movement. Pasadena: William Carey Library Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87808-374-9.
- Zdero, Rad (2007). NEXUS: The World House Church Movement Reader. Pasadena: William Carey Library Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87808-342-8.
- Zdero, Rad (2011). Letters to the House Church Movement: Real Letters, Real People, Real Issues. Xulon Press. ISBN 978-1-61379-022-9.
- Simpson, Ray (2009). High Street Monasteries: Fresh Expressions of committed. Kevin Mayhew. ISBN 978-1-84867-168-3.
- Graham Cray, Ian Mobsby and Aaron Kennedy, Edited by (2010). New Monasticism as Fresh Expressions of Church. Canterbury Press. ISBN 978-1-84825-044-4.