New Orleans Fire Department

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New Orleans Fire Department(NOFD)
Operational Area
Country United States
State  Louisiana
City New Orleans
Agency Overview
Established 1891
Staffing Career
Superintendent Timothy McConnell
IAFF 632
Facilities & Equipment
Divisions 1
Battalions 6
Stations 31
Engines 28
Ladders 6
Quints 1
Squads 2
Rescues 2
Fireboats 3
HAZMAT 2
EMS Level BLS First Responder
Airport crash 1
Website
www.nola.gov/nofd/
www.nolafirefighters.com/index

The New Orleans Fire Department (NOFD) provides fire protection and first responder emergency medical services to the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. The department serves 378,715 people living in a 350.2-square-mile (907 km2) area, 180.6 square miles (468 km2) of that is on land while the rest is water.[1]

Mission[edit]

"The New Orleans Fire Department will respond to all emergency situations in the City of New Orleans to protect and save life and property. Further, the Department will strive to reduce the incidence of fire and the loss of life and injuries to civilians and fire personnel."[2]

History[edit]

In 1829 a group of men joined to together to fight fires. These volunteers went under the name of the Firemen's Charitable Association, the (FCA), a title it was to keep for 62 years. In 1891, when the paid Fire Department became a reality, the title was officially changed to the New Orleans Fire Department, (NOFD).

On February 17, 1892 at 9 p.m., Box 12 struck-the corner of Canal and Bourbon Streets. The fire companies arrived on the scene. Kinked hose lines delayed the attack on the fire which extended to the next building. As at all major fires, a large crowd gathered, among them many volunteer firemen. As was always customary, they pitched in to help out their comrades-in-arms. Leaping over the restraining lines, they straightened the kinked hoses, enabling the fire at A.W. Schwartz' General Store to be extinguished. It was a scene which had occurred often, but would not be the rule in the future, for this was the first fire to be fought by the paid New Orleans Fire Department.

The Department came into existence on December 15, 1891, replacing the Firemen's Charitable Association. In a way, however, it was not a change, but an evolution. The present fire department is deeply rooted in the city of New Orleans and in the saga of the old Volunteers. Emphasizing the continuity was the man chosen to head the new, paid department, Chief Engineer Thomas O'Connor, leader of the volunteers, remained to become the first Chief of the New Orleans Fire Department. This was the man to bridge the transition, he would continue to lead it for the next twenty years.[3]

Organization[edit]

Office of the Superintendent[edit]

This office is commanded by the Superintendent of the NOFD, Chief Timothy McConnell.

Community Relations Division[edit]

Community Relations is an integral division of the New Orleans Fire Department, acting as liaison between citizens, city government and private industry. Community Relations is divided into four subdivisions: Public Information, Fire Education, Community Affairs, and Fire Recruitment.[4]

The Community Relations Division contains the Public Information Section and the Fire Education Section.

Office of the Deputy Superintendent of Planning[edit]

This office is commanded by Deputy Superintendent, Chief Roman Nelson.

Planning Division[edit]

Communications Division[edit]

The Fire Communications Divisions handles fire emergency call-taking and dispatching services for the New Orleans area. When citizens call 9-1-1, highly trained dispatchers from the Communications Division manage and allocate fire and rescue resources, insuring dispatch of proper equipment in a quick, efficient, and professional manner.[5]

Training Division[edit]

The Training Division is responsible for ensuring all new members of the New Orleans Fire Department receive complete training, and for assisting with the training of practiced officers moving up or transferring divisions within NOFD.[6]

Technology Division[edit]

The Technology Division responds to all technology-related concerns, issues, upgrades, and enhancement needs in order to provide the New Orleans Fire Department the most robust technological assistance possible.[7]

Office of the Deputy Superintendent of Operations[edit]

This office is commanded by Deputy Superintendent, Chief Robert Eiserloh.

Fire Suppression Division[edit]

The priorities of Fire Suppression are life safety, incident stabilization and property preservation. Fire Suppression members regularly participate in daily inspections, fire safety educational programs and numerous other fire-related duties.[8]

The Fire Suppression Division is the largest division within the NOFD and is commanded by a Deputy Chief per shift. This division comprises the NOFD's 31 Fire Stations, 29 Engine Companies, 6 Ladder Companies, 2 Squad Companies, and 2 Rescue Companies, as well as numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The 31 Fire Stations are organized into 6 geographical Districts, each commanded by a District Chief per shift.

Special Operations Division[edit]

The Special Operations Division is headed by the District Chief of Special Operations, and encompasses the Hazmat Unit, the Urban Search and Rescue Squad, the Water Rescue Squad and the Flying Squad. All members of the Special Operations Division are cross-trained to ensure a complete range of skills to respond to any and all events.[9]

Medical Division[edit]

The priorities of Medical Division are patient care, medical training and certification, Infectious Disease Control if personnel are exposed and constant quality control for the best possible patient care service for the citizens of New Orleans.[10]

Office of the Deputy Superintendent of Administration[edit]

This office is commanded by Deputy Superintendent, Chief Elbert Thomas. Other Divisions under the command of this office are the Logistics and Human Resource Divisions.

Administrative Division[edit]

The Administrative Division coordinates all non-emergency response activities within the Fire Department.[11]

Fire Prevention Division[edit]

The Fire Prevention Division regularly inspects buildings to assure adherence to fire codes.[12]

Operations[edit]

The New Orleans Fire Department currently operates 32 fire stations, located throughout the city in six districts. Each district is commanded by a district chief per shift, who in-turn report to an on-duty deputy chief per shift. The NOFD also operates a fire apparatus fleet of 29 Engines, 6 Ladders, 2 Rescues, 2 Squads, 2 Haz-Mat. Units, 2 Water Tenders, 2 Rescue Boats, 1 Decontamination(Decon.) Trailer, 1 Command Unit, 1 Fireboat, as well as numerous special, support, and reserve units. There is also a Special Operations Chief who commands the day-to-day Special Operations section of the department.

Fire Station Locations and Apparatus[edit]

There are, on average, 3 Engine Companies out of service daily since the aftermath of hurricane Katrina. The Louis Armstrong International Airport (MSY) Fire Station ARFF Unit and Medical Unit are staffed by the NOFD. The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility Fire Brigade is also staffed by the NOFD responding to all fire and medical emergencies as Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT).

Below is a complete listing of all fire station and apparatus locations in the city of New Orleans according to District.[13]

  • District 2 - 801 Girod St. (Quarters of Rescue 2, Squad 2)
    • 3 Engine Companies (SQT14, SQT16, E29)
    • 1 Ladder Company (L8)
    • 2 Rescue Companies (R2 & R7)
    • 2 Squad Companies (SQ2 & SQ7)
    • 1 Tour Commander/Deputy Chief's Unit (C500)
    • 1 Special Operations District Chief's Unit (C210)
    • 2 Hazardous Materials Units (HM1 & HM2)
    • 1 Decontamination (Decon.) Trailer (DT1)
    • 2 Special Operations Units (C215 & C602)
  • District 3 - 2118 Elysian Fields Ave. (Quarters of Squirt 27, Ladder 11)
    • 6 Engine Companies (E6, E8, E9, E12, SQT27, E39)
    • 1 Ladder Company (L11)
    • 1 Quint Company (QT24)
    • 1 Rescue Boat (RB27)
    • 1 Water Tender Unit (WT3)
    • 1 Command Unit
  • District 4 - 5401 Read Blvd. (Quarters of Engine 36, Ladder 13)
    • 6 Engine Companies (SQT4, E10, E31, E36, E37, E45)
    • 1 Ladder Company (L13)
    • 1 Fireboat (FB805)
    • 1 Rescue Boat (RB31)
    • 1 Water Tender (WT2)
    • 1 Special Operations Unit (C455)
  • District 5 - 436 S. Jefferson Davis Pkwy. (Quarters of Engine 26, Ladder 9)
    • 5 Engine Companies (E13, E18, SQT21, E26, E35)
    • 1 Ladder Company (L9)
  • District 6 - 4940 Clara St. (Quarters of Engine 38)
    • 4 Engine Companies (SQT1, E15, E25, E38)
    • 1 Ladder Company (L7)
    • 1 EMS Support Unit (C421)
  • District 8 - 2500 General DeGaulle Dr. (Quarters of Squirt 40)
    • 4 Engine Companies (E17, E20, E33, SQT40)
    • 1 Ladder Company (L6)
Engine Company Ladder Company Special Unit Chief District Address Neighborhood
Squirt 1 Car 421(EMS Support Unit) 6 2920 Magazine St. Irish Channel
Rescue 2, Squad 2 Car 502(2nd District Chief) 2 801 Girod St. Central Business District
Squirt 4 4 6900 Downman Rd. New Orleans East
Engine 6 3 4500 Old Gentilly Rd. Gentilly
Rescue 7, Squad 7, Haz-Mat. 1, Haz-Mat. 2, Decon. Trailers, Car 215(Special Operations), Car 602(Special Operations) Car 210(Special Operations Chief) 2 1441 Saint Peter St. Treme
Engine 8 Water Tender 3 3 3330 Florida Ave. Desire Area
Engine 9 3 449 Esplanade Ave. Faubourg Marigny
Engine 10 4 14069 Morrison Rd. New Orleans East
Engine 12 3 5600 Franklin Ave. Gentilly
Engine 13 5 987 Robert E. Lee Blvd. Lakeview
Squirt 14 2 200 S. Robertson St. Central Business District
Engine 15 6 1211 Arabella St. Uptown
Squirt 16 Ladder 8 2 2000 Martin Luther King Blvd. Central City
Engine 17 8 4115 Woodland Ave. Algiers
Engine 18 5 778 Harrison Ave. Lakeview
Engine 20 8 425 Opelousas Ave. Algiers Point
Squirt 21 5 3940 Paris Ave. St. Bernard
Quint 24 3 1040 Poland Ave. Bywater Area
Engine 25 Ladder 7 6 2430 S. Carrollton Ave. Carrollton
Engine 26 Ladder 9 Car 505(5th District Chief) 5 436 S. Jefferson Davis Pkwy. Mid-City
Squirt 27 Ladder 11 Command Unit, Rescue Boat 27 Car 503(3rd District Chief) 3 2118 Elysian Fields Ave. Gentilly
Engine 29 Car 500(Deputy Chief) 2 317 Decatur St. French Quarter
Engine 31 Water Tender 2, Rescue Boat 31 4 4300 Alba Rd. Venetian Isles
Engine 33 Ladder 6 8 3340 General Meyer Ave. Algiers
Engine 35 5 964 N. Carrollton Ave. Mid-City
Engine 36 Ladder 13 Car 504(4th District Chief) 4 5401 Read Blvd. New Orleans East
Engine 37 4 13400 Chef Menteur Hwy. New Orleans East
Engine 38 Car 506(6th District Chief) 6 4940 Clara St. Uptown
Engine 39 3 Caffin St. & N. Claiborne St. Lower Ninth Ward
Squirt 40 Car 508(8th District Chief) 8 2500 General DeGaulle Dr. Algiers
Engine 45(Michoud FD Engine 1) Mini-Pumper Unit(Michoud FD Engine 2) 4 NASA Assembly Plant Michoud
Fox 2, Fox 5, Fox 7, Fox 8, Medic 46 4 New Orleans International Airport (MSY) Airport
Fireboat 805 "Blaze", Car 455(Special Operations) 4 13800 Old Gentilly Road. Michoud

Other facilities[edit]

The NOFD Supply Shop is located at 821 Magazine St., the former quarters of Engine 5, in the Central Business District. The Supply Annex is located at 4330 St. Claude Ave.

The NOFD also operates a Fire Training Office in New Orleans East, located at 13400 Old Gentilly Rd. in the Michoud neighborhood. Located at the Training Facility are Cars 901 and 908, as well as several Spare Engines and Ladders.

The NOFD Fire Museum is located at 1135 Washington Ave. in the Garden District. The museum is a former firehouse, the past quarters of Engine 23 from 1891-1991.

The NOFD also operated Fireboat 805, The Phoenix, in the Lakeview area at 8130 Breakwater Dr. It has since been decommissioned from service. In 2012 the NOFD put the fireboat "BLAZE" into service. It is used for special incidents.

Disbanded fire companies[edit]

  • Engine 1 - 1377 Annunciation St. - Disbanded October 6, 1986
  • Engine 2 - 801 Girod St. - Disbanded August 4, 1986
  • Engine 3 - 1400 S. Broad Ave. - Disbanded August 29, 2005
  • Engine 5 - 821 Magazine St.
  • Engine 7 - 1441 Saint Peter St. - Disbanded January 15, 2013
  • Engine 11 - 2312 Louisiana Ave. - Disbanded August 29, 2005
  • Engine 13 - 801 Girod St. - Disbanded October 8, 1970 to form Flying Squad
  • Engine 22 - 2041 Egania St. - Disbanded August 29, 2005
  • Engine 23 - 1135 Washington Ave. - Disbanded 1991
  • Engine 24 - 1040 Poland Ave. - Disbanded on January 15, 2013 to form Quint 24
  • Engine 28 - 4131 Elysian Fields Ave. - Disbanded August 4, 1986
  • Engine 32 - 7311 Chef Menteur Hwy. - Disbanded January 1, 1980
  • Engine 34 - 2312 Louisiana Ave. - Disbanded August 4, 1986
  • Engine 41 - 1400 S. Broad Ave. - Disbanded 1982 to reorganize Engine 3
  • Engine 43 - 2041 Egania St. - Disbanded August 5, 1976
  • Engine 44 - 2201 Barracks St. - Disbanded 1967
  • Engine 47 - 7311 Chef Menteur Hwy. - Disbanded August 5, 1976
  • Ladder 2 - 200 S. Robertson St.(Quarters of Engine 14) - Disbanded January 15, 2013
  • Ladder 3 - 4500 Old Gentilly Rd.(Quarters of Engine 6) - Disbanded July 14, 2013
  • Ladder 4 - 1040 Poland Ave.(Quarters of Quint 24) - Disbanded January 15, 2013
  • Ladder 5 - 1211 Arabella St.(Quarters of Engine 15) - Disbanded July 14, 2013
  • Ladder 10 - 2312 Louisiana Ave. - Disbanded August 4, 1986
  • Ladder 12 - 987 Robert E. Lee Blvd.(Quarters of Engine 13)
  • Ladder 14 - 987 Robert E. Lee Blvd.(Quarters of Engine 13) - Disbanded in 1980
  • Ladder 15 - 1040 Poland Ave.(Quarters of Quint 24) - Disbanded 1982 to reorganize Ladder 4
  • Snorkel 1 - 1040 Poland Ave.(Quarters of Quint 24) - Disbanded October 2, 1975 to form Ladder 15
  • Flying Squad - 801 Girod St. - Disbanded January 15, 2013
  • Rescue Squad - 1441 Saint Peter St. - Disbanded January 15, 2013
  • Emergency Unit 1 - 1441 Saint Peter St. - Disbanded January 15, 2013
  • Salvage Unit 1 - 2201 Barracks St. - Disbanded October 6, 1986

Apparatus Specifications[edit]

Below is a complete list of all NOFD apparatus, their manufacturer and specifications, and date.[14]

Engine Companies[edit]

  • Engine 6 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 8 - 2004 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 9 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 10 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 12 - 1997 Pierce Saber 1250gpm./500gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 13 - 2004 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 14 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 15 - 2009 Pierce Impel 2000gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 17 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 18 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 20 - 1997 Pierce Saber 1250gpm./500gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 25 - 2009 Pierce Impel 2000gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 26 - 2005 American LaFrance Metropolitan 1500gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 29 - 2004 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 31 - 1997 Pierce Saber 1250gpm./1000gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 33 - 2009 Pierce Impel 2000gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 35 - 2005 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 36 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 37 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 38 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal. Pumper Truck
  • Engine 39 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./500gal. Pumper Truck

Squrt Companies[edit]

  • Squrt 1 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal./55' Squrt Pumper Truck
  • Squrt 4 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal./55' Squrt Pumper Truck
  • Squrt 16 - 2005 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal./55' Squrt Pumper Truck
  • Squrt 21 - 2005 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal./55' Squrt Pumper Truck
  • Squrt 27 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal./55' Squrt Pumper Truck
  • Squrt 40 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle 1250gpm./750gal./55' Squrt Pumper Truck

Ladder Companies[edit]

  • Ladder 6 - 2004 American LaFrance Eagle/LTI 110' Rear-Mount Aerial Ladder Truck
  • Ladder 7 - 2004 American LaFrance Eagle/LTI 110' Rear-Mount Aerial Ladder Truck
  • Ladder 8 - 2004 American LaFrance Eagle/LTI 110' Rear-Mount Aerial Ladder Truck
  • Ladder 9 - 1998 Pierce Dash 105' Rear-Mount Aerial Ladder Truck
  • Ladder 11 - 2005 American LaFrance Eagle/LTI 1500gpm./500gal. 100' Rear-Mount Aerial Ladder Quint
  • Ladder 13 - 2006 American LaFrance Eagle/LTI 110' Rear-Mount Aerial Ladder Truck

Command Units[edit]

  • Car 210(Special Operations Chief) - 2003 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 215(Special Operations) - 2013 Chevrolet Suburban SUV
  • Car 455(Special Operations) - 2012 Ford F-350 Pickup Truck
  • Car 500(Deputy Chief of Suppression) - 2010 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 502(2nd District Chief) - 2010 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 503(3rd District Chief) - 2010 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 504(4th District Chief) - 2010 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 505(5th District Chief) - 2010 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 506(6th District Chief) - 2010 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 508(8th District Chief) - 2010 Ford Expedition SUV
  • Car 602(Special Operations) - 2006 Chevrolet 3500 Pickup Truck

Special Units[edit]

  • Rescue 2 - 2004 Pierce Lance Heavy-Duty Walk-Around Rescue Squad Truck
  • Rescue 7 - 2001 Pierce Lance Heavy-Duty Walk-Around Rescue Squad Truck
  • Squad 2 - 1995 Pierce Lance Heavy-Duty Walk-Around Rescue Squad Truck
  • Squad 7 - 2004 Pierce Lance Heavy-Duty Walk-Around Rescue Squad Truck
  • Haz-Mat. 1 - 2004 American LaFrance Eagle Heavy-Duty Walk-Around Haz-Mat. Truck
  • Haz-Mat. 2 - 1980 Chevrolet Step Van
  • Decon. Trailer 1 - 2004 Wells Cargo Trailer
  • Water Tender 2 - 2001 Freightliner 80/American LaFrance 1500gpm./3000gal. Tanker Truck
  • Water Tender 3 - 2005 Freightliner M2/American LaFrance 500gpm./2000gal. Tanker Truck

Budget cuts[edit]

In June 2013, the NOFD announced the possible closures of 2 Ladder Companies, Ladder 3 and Ladder 5 due to budget cuts and reorganization within the department, thus allowing several Engine Companies that are staffed with a driver, an officer, and one firefighter to be fully staffed by a crew of four by adding another firefighter per shift.[15][16]

Car assignments[edit]

Car Number Car Assignment
Car 100 Superintendent
Car 110 Chief of Public Affairs
Car 112 Public Affairs
Car 120 Public Affairs
Car 130 Public Affairs
Car 140 Public Affairs
Car 150 Public Affairs
Car 160 Public Affairs
Car 200 Assistant Superintendent
Car 201 Multi-Use Unit
Car 210 Special Operations Chief
Car 215 Special Operations Commander
Car 300 Deputy Chief of Administration
Car 311 Multi-Use Unit
Car 400 Deputy Chief of Special Operations
Car 421 EMS Support Unit
Car 451 USAR Task Force 1
Car 452 USAR Task Force 1
Car 453 USAR Task Force 1
Car 454 USAR Task Force 1
Car 455 Special Operations Unit
Car 456 Arson K9 Unit
Car 500 Deputy Chief of Suppression
Car 502 2nd District Chief
Car 503 3rd District Chief
Car 504 4th District Chief
Car 505 5th District Chief
Car 506 6th District Chief
Car 508 8th District Chief
Car 510 Spare District Chief Unit
Car 600 Senior Deputy Chief
Car 602 Special Operations Unit
Car 603 Logistics Unit
Car 604 Logistics Unit
Car 607 Logistics Unit
Car 608 Logistics Unit
Car 620 Fleet Management Unit
Car 670 Public Information Officer
Car 755 Fire Prevention Unit
Car 757 Fire Prevention Unit
Car 758 Fire Prevention Unit
Car 759 Fire Prevention Unit
Car 900 Training Chief

Past superintendents[edit]

Superintendent Years served
Charles Parent 2002–Present
Warren E. McDaniels 1993–2002
William J. McCrossen 1973–1993
Louis J. SanSalvador 1970–1973
Arthur J. Heyd 1963–1970
Howard L. Dey 1946–1962
Frank P. Rivard 1945–1946
John M. Evans 1920–1945
Louis Pujol 1911–1919
Thomas O'Connor 1891–1911

Notable incidents[edit]

Great New Orleans Fire of 1788[edit]

The first Great New Orleans Fire occurred on March 21, 1788 at approximately 1 pm. About 4/5 of the city was destroyed.[17]

Great New Orleans Fire of 1794[edit]

The second Great New Orleans Fire happened on December 8, 1794, and destroyed 212 buildings.

Hurricane Katrina[edit]

Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Louisiana on August 29, 2005. The effects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans included 1,464 deaths, 80% flooding of the city, and many burned buildings.[18]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Superintendent of the NOFD". NOFD. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  2. ^ http://www.nola.gov/GOVERNMENT/NOFD/
  3. ^ http://www.nola.gov/GOVERNMENT/NOFD/NOFD-Home/History/
  4. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/office-of-the-superintendent/public-affairs/
  5. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/deputy-superintendent-of-planning/communications/
  6. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/deputy-superintendent-of-planning/training-division/
  7. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/deputy-superintendent-of-planning/technology-division/
  8. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/dupty-of-superintendent-of-operations/fire-suppression/
  9. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/dupty-of-superintendent-of-operations/special-operations/
  10. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/dupty-of-superintendent-of-operations/medical-division/
  11. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/dupty-of-superintendent-of-administration/administrative/
  12. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/about-us/divisions/dupty-of-superintendent-of-administration/fire-prevention/
  13. ^ http://www.nola.gov/nofd/fire-stations/
  14. ^ http://www.gnofirephotos.com/OrleansParish.html
  15. ^ http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2013/07/as_nofd_reinvents_itself_two_l.html
  16. ^ http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2013/01/new_orleans_fire_department_un.html
  17. ^ "NOFD History". NOFD. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  18. ^ Parry, Ryan (September 3, 2005), "MISSISSIPPI BURNING: Pollution hell as fires, explosions and oil spills follow the hurricane", The Daily Mirror, retrieved September 20, 2006