New Patriotic Party
|New Patriotic Party|
|Ahofama Foforo Kuw (Akan)|
|Slogan||"Development in Freedom"|
|Preceded by||United Gold Coast Convention
Popular Front Party
|Headquarters||Kumasi • Accra|
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union|
|Colors||Red, blue and white
|Pan African Parliament|
|Politics of Ghana
The New Patriotic Party (NPP) (Akan: Ahofama Foforo Kuw) is a liberal democratic and liberal conservative party in Ghana and one of the two dominant parties in Ghana politics. The party is center-right, its leading rival being the National Democratic Congress (NDC; formerly the Provisional National Defence Council, PNDC). The New Patriotic Party supplied former president John Agyekum Kufuor. At the elections, held on 7 December 2004, the party won 129 out of 230 seats. The NPP candidate was John Kufuor, who was re-elected president with 52.75% of the vote. The New Patriotic Party symbol is the African elephant and the New Patriotic Party colors are red, white, and blue.
In Ghana general election, 2008, the New Patriotic Party candidate Nana Akuffo-Addo conceded to losing in the closely contested presidential election runoff amidst accusations of vote rigging, with Akuffo-Addo receiving 49.77% of the votes, versus 50.23% for John Atta Mills, the NDC candidate. In the Ghana general election, 2012, the New Patriotic Party faced a similar situation from vote results provided by the Electoral Commission of Ghana (ECG). Nana Akuffo-Addo received 47.74% of the vote, while PNDC/NDC John Mahama received 50.7% amidst accusations of electoral fraud.
The New Patriotic Party has contested in every National general elections in Ghana since the commencement of the fourth republic in 1992 apart from the parliamentary elections in 1992
The New Patriotic party is considered as an offshoot of the United Gold Coast Convention which in effect evolved into the Northern People's Party in the late 1940s, the United Party in the early 1950s, the Progress Party in the late 1960s, the Popular Front Party in the 1970s and the All Popular Front in the early 1980s.
After more than a decade of military rule by Flt Lft Jerry John Rawlings, the government along with some stakeholders drafted a constitution for which a Referendum election was organised. After the people approved the new constitution in an election (held on the 28th of April 1992), the ban on party politics in Ghana was lifted and this allowed other parties including the NPP to be officially launched. The NPP's flagbearer was Prof Adu Boahen, a Scholar and a long time critic of the Rawlings military government. The NPP however lost the 1992 election overwhelmingly to the Progressive alliance of the National Democratic Congress, Eagle Party and the National Convention Party whose Candidate was Jerry John Rawlings. The NPP boycotted the Parliamentary elections and hence won no seats in the new Parliament.
The NPP also lost the 1996 elections again to Jerry John Rawlings' party but this time, their flagbearer was John Agyekum Kufuor. In 2000 and in 2004 elections, John Agyekum Kufuor won both elections ushering in a new government for the first time in the 4th republic of Ghana. In general election, 2008, the New Patriotic Party presidential candidate Nana Akuffo-Addo came second in the general election, 2008 in a closely contested runoff, with Akuffo-Addo receiving 49.77% of the votes, versus 50.23% for John Atta Mills, the National Democratic Congress flag bearer. The party did challenge the integrity of the elections but the Electoral Commission addressed the issue and eventually affirmed Prof John Evans Fiifi Atta-Mills as the president-elect. In 2012, the NPP candidate Nana Addo Dankwa Akuffo Addo lost again to the NDC candidate, John Dramani Mahama and this election was contested. After the Electoral Commission of Ghana dismissed the NPP claims, Akuffo-Addo, Mahamadu Bawumia (Running mate) and Jake Obetsebi Lamptey (Party Chairman) filed a writ at the Supreme Court of Ghana challenging the results. The case was however dismissed in August 2013 after which Akuffo-Addo conceded defeat.
The New Patriotic Party lost the 1992 presidential elections to the National Democratic Congress led by Jerry John Rawlings. Despite the elections being declared as free and fair by International observers, Prof Adu Boahene, the NPP candidate alleged that there was heavy rigging by the Interim National Electoral Commission then headed by Nana Oduro Nimapau and hence the NPP as well as the National Independence Party, People's Heritage Party and the People's National Convention boycotted the Parliamentary elections. The decision to not contest in the parliamentary elections which was held a couple of weeks after the presidential election at the time meant that the National Democratic Congress, National Convention Party and the Eagle Party which was already a coalition won almost all the parliamentary seats available. One seat was actually won by an Independent Candidate called Hawa Yakubu.
This protest however lead to some reforms in the electoral system, notably the use of transparent ballot boxes at polling stations, issuing of voter ID cards and the use indelible ink (which lasted for a month) to mark people who had been registered to avoid double voting.
After the defeat in 1992, the NPP chairman at the time Mr Peter Ala Adjetey stated that the party was resolved to do their homework and wrestle power from the NDC in the 1996 election. They made the decision that regardless of the results, they would contest for parliamentary seats to stop what was seen as an NDC monopoly in Parliament.
Prior to the party convention, it appeared that the overwhelming favourite to become the next presidential candidate was a well renowned economist known as Kwame Pianim. However, some members of the party led by Ms Florence Ekwam challenged Mr Pianim's eligibility due to a prior conviction during the PNDC era. The Supreme Court of Ghana declared Mr Pianim as ineleigible and hence couldn't be considered for nomination. On 20 April 1996, John Agyekum Kufuor was nominated as the NPP presidential candidate with 1034 out of 2000 delegates drawn from all the 200 Constituencies to run for the presidency in the Ghana general election, 1996 on 10 December 1996. This time, both presidential and parliamentary elections were held on the same day unlike the previous election as part of the reforms by the National Electoral Commission headed by Dr Kwadwo Afari-Gyan.
The NPP gained an unlikely alliance from the then Vice President of Ghana Kow Nkensen Arkaah whose party (National Convention Party) had severed their alliance with the National Democratic Congress. The NPP hence formed what was deemed as the "Great Alliance" with the NCP and Vice President Arkaah was nominated to be the running mate of Mr Kuffuor. After campaigning for less than nine months, Kufuor polled 39.62% of the popular votes to Jerry Rawlings' 57% in the 1996 election. Despite the elections being declared as free and fair by international observers, the New Patriotic Party alleged that the election had been rigged by the National Electoral Commission and President Rawlings. The NPP however won a substantial number of seats in the Ghana parliament and effectively ended the NDC monopoly
On 23 October 1998, Kufuor was re-nominated by the New Patriotic Party to run again for presidency. Since there were term limits, the then President of Ghana Jerry Rawlings was due to retire after the 2000 elections. Mr Pianim however resigned from the NPP and Mr Peter Ala Adjetey, the party chairman handed over the chairmanship to Mr Odoi-Sykes. Alhaji Aliu Mahama was the running mate of John Kuffuor The NDC also nominated the vice president Prof John Evans Fiifi Atta Mills to contest for the election on their ticket.
John Kufuor won the first round of the presidential elections held on the 7th of December 2000 with 48.4% of the popular votes. His closest challenger was the then Vice President of Ghana Prof Mills with 44.8% of the votes. The electoral rules in Ghana mandates that the winner of elections must cross the 50% threshold. A run off election was hence organised. All the parties came together to support the NPP including the Convention People's Party, Reform Party and the United Ghana Movement against the NDC.
In the second round, held on 28 December 2000, Kufour was victorious, taking 56.9% of the vote. When Kufuor was sworn in on 7 January 2001, it marked the first time in history that an incumbent government had peacefully surrendered power to the opposition.
The New Patriotic Party's President, John Agyekum Kufuor was once again re-elected in the Ghana general election, 2004, presidential and parliamentary elections held on 7 December 2004, earning 52.45% of the popular vote in the first round and thus avoiding a run-off, while at the same time, the New Patriotic Party, was able to secure more seats in the Parliament.
Several government officials within the Kufuor administration resigned their cabinet positions to contest for the NPP flagbearership in July 2007. This included the likes of Nkrabea Effah Dartey, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo Addo, Alan John Kyerematen and 13 other contenders. Nana Akufo-Addo and Alan John Kyerematen were the two leading candidates according to the pundits. However, Akufo-Addo won 48% of the votes in the first round of the party delegates election and ultimately secured the nomination in the second round, making him the New Patriotic party’s presidential candidate for the 2008 presidential elections.
In the 7 December 2008 presidential elections, Akufo-Addo received more votes than John Atta Mills amassing 4,159,439 votes representing 49.13% of the total votes cast, placing him first, but not enough for the 50% needed for an outright victory. It was the best-ever performance for a first-time presidential candidate since the beginning of Ghana's 4th republic in 1992. In the run-off elections however Mills ultimately received 4,521,032 votes, representing 50.23% thus beating Akufo-Addo.
The run-off elections were marred with controversy and once again, although International observers had expressed satisfaction with the way and manner the elections were conducted, the NPP alleged voter fraud as they did in any previous election that they were declared loosers. According to the NPP leadership, figures in certain constituencies had been massaged and hence the results which were being published by the Electoral Commission and the Ghana press (mostly Peace FM online and Ghanaweb) were not accurate. Also, stalwart NPP activists like Kwabena Agyapong and Elizabeth Ohene complained about intimidation in areas of the Volta Region of Ghana, a Region where NPP has never won any constituency. The complaint led to a delay in the declaration of the results sparking angry NDC demonstrators unto the streets of the capital city Accra. Dr Tony Aidoo, an NDC activist fired up these NDC protesters with very strong words dismissing the NPP claims as "stupid". The then chairman of the electoral commission Dr Kwadwo Afari Djan eventually organised a press conference and claimed that the Tain Constituency had some issues and hence another run-off election had to be organised in that constitiency alone. After revising the figures, he asserted that although John Atta Mills was leading in the popular votes, the number of registered voters in the Tain constituency were enough to swing the election the other way. Therefore, the final results would be declared after the Tain constituency results had been certified and declared. An election was held in that constituency on the 2nd of January 2009 and John Atta Mills won by a very comfortable margin of 90.6% to 4%.
The NPP as had been the case in 1992 and 1996 did not concede to the NDC and still made the allegations of voter fraud despite international observers hailing Ghana as a model for democracy in Ghana. The NPP officially went back into opposition in January 2009 when John Kufuor handed over power to John Atta Mills.
On August 7, 2010, the New Patriotic Party re-elected Akufo-Addo for their presidential candidate for the Ghana presidential election, 2012. Akufo-Addo received the votes of 79% of the delegates. The electoral convention was also the largest any political party had ever convened in any African state. The New Patriotic Party campaigned on an anti-corruption platform, and to provide Free SHS (Secondary High School) education for the population of Ghana.
Following Akufo-Addo's defeat in the Presidential Election, the New Patriotic Party and Akufo-Addo contested the vote results provided by the Electoral Commission of Ghana's chairman Kwadwo Afari-Gyan, alleging that the 2012 Ghana general elections voting were highly rigged. They cited tampered vote counts and vote rigging from polling stations in South Ghana. The New Patriotic Party unsuccessfully asked the Electoral Commission of Ghana and its chairman Kwadwo Afari-Gyan to use the "72 hours withdrawal of election results law" that is written in the "constitution of Ghana" to "investigate" electoral fraud. The party are hence yet to concede defeat until a thorough external investigation into the vote rigging and a vote recount is completed.
The New Patriotic Party filed a writ with the Supreme Court of Ghana requesting that the results declared by the electoral commission be invalidated. Despite claiming publicly that the election was rigged by the ruling NDC government, their writ in court had a softer tone to it. It actually alleged that there were inconsistencies and irregularities at certain polling stations. Therefore, they wanted the results at those stations to be invalidated. These were in effect polling stations that the NDC won comfortably. Therefore, with figures from those stations (over 11000 of them) invalidated, it would mean that NPP would mathematically be the winners. The Supreme Court of Ghana headed by Justice Atuguba gave their final verdict eventually dismissing the case. Nana Addo Dankwa Akuffo Addo conceded defeat after the disappointing verdict (29th August 2013).
|Election||Number of votes for NPP||Share of votes||Seats||Outcome of election|
|Election||Candidate||Number of votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election|
|2008 (2)||Nana Akufo-Addo||4,478,411||49.9%||NPP in opposition|
|2008 (1)||Nana Akufo-Addo||4,159,439||49.1%||2nd round required|
|2004||John Kufuor||4,524,074||52.4%||Kufuor NPP government (2nd term)|
|2000 (2nd)||John Kufuor||3,576,771||56.7%||Kufuor NPP government|
|2000 (1st)||John Kufuor||3,131,739||48.4%||2nd round election|
|1996||John Kufuor||—||39.6%||NPP opposition|
|1992||Albert Adu Boahen||1,213,073||30.4%||NPP opposition|
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National Democratic Congress
|Governments of Ghana
New Patriotic Party
2001 – 2009
National Democratic Congress