New Philology

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New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view. The name New Philology was coined by James Lockhart to describe work that he and his doctoral students and scholarly collaborators in history, anthropology, and linguistics had pursued since the mid-1970s.[1] Lockhart published a great many essays elaborating on the concept and content of the New Philology and Matthew Restall published a description of it in the Latin American Research Review.[2] The techniques of the New Philology has also been applied in other disciplines such as European medieval studies.[3]

Historians publishing in the New Philology tradition are James Lockhart, S.L. (Sarah) Cline, Susan Schroeder, Rebecca Horn, Stephanie Wood, Robert Haskett, Lisa Sousa, Matthew Restall, and Kevin Terraciano. Many of these scholars of the first generation of the field were hired by research universities and have trained their own students in the field's methods and techniques. Kevin Terraciano succeeded Lockhart in the History Department at UCLA, following Lockhart's 1994 retirement. Sarah Cline taught at Harvard before moving to University of California Santa Barbara; Susan Schroeder held the France V. Scholes Chair at Tulane University; Rebecca Horn teaches at University of Utah; Stephanie Wood and Robert Haskett teach at University of Oregon; Lisa Sousa teaches at Occidental College, and Matthew Restall holds an endowed chair at Penn State University.

Development[edit]

Lockhart's discusses philology and in particular the new philology in an essay for a collection of essays hosted digitally at University of Oregon.[4] For him, the new philology was built upon the foundation of the old, which focuses on close reading of texts and resulted in collections of printed documentation. An important nineteenth-century Mexican philologist was Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta. In Mexico and Latin America, nineteenth-century scholars mined the Spanish archives for colonial documentation for their national histories. A feature of the New Philology is that the publication of indigenous texts in the original language with translations with introductions was standard. The translated texts often appeared first, followed by a separate scholarly monograph analyzing the texts. The two should be considered two parts of the same scholarly publication. Many of the scholars working in the New Philology did so before it gained that designation. A particularly valuable online publication are essays where individual scholars discuss the process and product of translating and publishing particular native language documentation.[5]

The New Philology was developed from the 1970s and onwards, building on the work of a previous generation of scholars, most especially historian Charles Gibson, whose Aztecs under Spanish Rule (1964)[6] and his earlier Tlaxcala in the Sixteenth Century(1952)[7] were major scholarly achievements, placing colonial-era Aztecs (now more commonly called Nahuas at the center of historical analysis. The leading figure in the establishment of the New Philological historiographical approach was James Lockhart who, in the early 1970s, began learning Nahuatl and studying local level indigenous sources in the Nahuatl language. His magnum opus was published in 1992, The Nahuas After the Conquest.,[8] which incorporated and extended his own work and that of others.

An early and important text in this vein was Nahuatl in the Middle Years(1976), published by Lockhart and University of Texas linguist Frances Karttunen.[9] Also important for the early history of the New Philology was the publication of Beyond the Codices(1976), alluding to the existence of native language texts other than the formal ones termed codices.[10] Arthur J.O. Anderson, a leading figure in Mesoamerican ethnohistory for his collaboration with Charles Dibble in publishing an English translation of the Florentine Codex by Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagun, participated in this early project of publishing local-level colonial documents.

In the mid-1970s Lockhart began mentoring history doctoral students at UCLA, who learned Nahuatl and began research on particular region documentation in Nahuatl. S.L. (Sarah) Cline was the first to complete a dissertation in 1981, based on these types of local-level sources, a set of 60 testaments from the central Mexican Indian polity or altepetl of Culhuacán.[11][12][13][14] In 1993 Cline also published a set of early local-level Nahuatl censuses from the Cuernavaca, as The Book of Tributes, as well as an analysis of all three volumes, adding to the existing published corpus.[15][16][17] In this first generation Robert Haskett, who examined Nahuatl texts on colonial Cuernavaca, later also publishing on primordial titles.[18][19] Susan Schroeder delved into the rich texts produced by seventeenth-century Nahua historian, Chimalpahin, resulting in several publications [20][21][22][23] The largest number of local-level indigenous documents, such as testaments and bills of sale, are in Nahuatl, resulting in Nahuatl having the largest set of published sets of documents and monographic scholarly analyses. Rebecca Horn's dissertation on Coyoacan and later Stanford University Press monograph showed the multiple connections between Nahuas and Spaniards.[24][25] Horn also served as Associate Editor of the UCLA Latin American Center's Nahuatl Studies Series.

Some UCLA later doctoral students of Lockhart, particularly Matthew Restall and Kevin Terraciano, first learned Nahuatl and then other Mesoamerican indigenous languages (Mixtec and Yucatec Maya) that had a significant corpus of documents in the language. Restall's UCLA 1995 dissertation "The World of the Cah: postconquest Yucatec Maya Society" was followed by his 1995 publication of a collection of eighteenth-century wills.[26] and culminating in his Stanford University Press monograph The Maya World: Yucatec culture and society, 1550-1850.[27][28] Terraciano's 1994 dissertation on the Mixtecs of Oaxaca was entitled Nudzahui history: Mixtec writing and culture in colonial Oaxaca followed by his 2001 monograph ''The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Nudzahui History.[29] Both Terraciano and Restall revised the titles of their dissertations in the published monographs to allow readers' better recognition of the subject of the publication; Cline used "Aztec" in the title of her monograph on Culhuacan, rather than "Nahua," which in the 1980s had little recognition value even amongst Latin Americanists.

Rather than trying to reach knowledge about events in the colonial or pre-colonial period from studying the sources, as was the usual approach, he attempted to achieve understanding about the indigenous societies that produced the sources. This approach made possible the use of sources that had earlier been deemed to be too difficult to understand or too problematic to interpret, e.g. the documents known as Primordial titles, colonial legal documents in the Nahuatl language, testaments and acts of the colonial administration.

Lauren Lambert Jennings explicitly applied techniques from New Philology to the study of European Song texts quoting their "central premise [as] the idea that codex is not merely a neutral container for its texts." She continues by saying that the New Philologists and scholars of "textual cultures" "posit that a work's meaning (literary and cultural) is determined by the entire manuscript matrix — its physical form, contents, scribe(s), readers, and history."[30]

Important works in written in the New Philology tradition, in chronological order of publication[edit]

  • Nahuatl in the Middle Years: Language contact Phenomena in Texts of the Colonial Period, Frances Karttunen & James Lockhart, 1976, University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
  • Beyond the Codices Arthur J.O. Anderson, Frances Berdan, and James Lockhart, 1976. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Azteckischer Zensus, Zur indianischen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im Marquesado um 1540: Aus dem "Libro de Tributos" (Col. Ant. Ms. 551) im Archivo Historico, Mexico. 2 vols. Eike Hinz, Claudine Hartau, and Marie Luise Heimann-Koenen, eds. 1983. Hanover.
  • The Testaments of Culhuacan. S.L. Cline and Miguel Leon-Portilla (Eds.) 1984. UCLA Latin American Center Nahuatl Studies Series, vol. 1.
  • Colonial Culhuacan, 1580-1600: A Social History of an Aztec Town, S.L. Cline, 1986. New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Nahuas and Spaniards: Postconquest Central Mexican History and Philology, James Lockhart, 1991, Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Center Publications
  • Chimalpahin and the Kingdoms of Chalco, 1991, Susan Schroeder, Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • The Tlaxcalan Actas: A Compendium of the Records of the Cabildo of Tlaxcala (1545-1627) James Lockhart, Frances Berdan, and Arthur J.O. Anderson. 1986. University of Utah Press.
  • Indigenous Rulers: An Ethnohistory of Indian Town Government in Colonial Cuernavaca, Robert Haskett, 1991, University of New Mexico Press.
  • Nahuas After the Conquest: Social and Cultural History of the Indians of Central Mexico, sixteenth through eighteenth centuries, James Lockhart, 1992. Stanford University Press.
  • We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico, James Lockhart. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • The Book of Tributes: Early Sixteenth-Century Nahuatl Censuses from Morelos. S. L. Cline, 1993, Museo de Antropología e Historia, Archivo Histórico Collección Antigua, vol. 549. UCLA Latin American Center Publications
  • Life and Death in a Maya Community: The Ixil Testaments of the 1760s. Matthew Restall, 1995. Lancaster CA: Labyrinthos
  • Indian Women of Early Mexico Susan Schroeder, Stephanie Wood, and Robert Haskett (Eds.) 1997, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • The Maya World: Yucatec culture and society, 1550-1850. Matthew Restall. 1997, Stanford University Press.
  • Codex Chimalpahin: Society and Politics in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tlatelolco, Texcoco, Culhuacan, and other Nahua Altetpetl in Central Mexico. Domingo de San Anton Munon Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuantzin, Arthur J.O. Anderson, Susan Schroeder, Wayne Ruwet. 1997. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Postconquest Coyoacan: Nahua-Spanish Relations in the Valley of Mexico. Rebecca Horn, 1997. Stanford University Press.
  • Saltillo, 1700-1810: Town and Region in the Mexican North. Leslie Offutt, 2001. University of Arizona Press.
  • Annals of His Time: Don Domingo de San Anton Munon Chimalpahin QuahtlehuantzinJames Lockhart, Susan Schroeder, and Doris Namala.
  • Visions of Paradise: Primordial Titles and Mesoamerican History in Cuernavaca, Robert Haskett, 2005, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui History, sixteen through eighteenth centuries. Kevin Terraciano. 2001, Stanford University Press.
  • Transcending conquest: Nahua Views of Spanish Colonial Mexico, Stephanie Wood. 2003, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest, Matthew Restall, 2003 Oxford University Press (2003) ISBN 0-19-516077-0
  • Mesoamerican Voices: Native Language Writings from Colonial Mexico, Oaxaca, Yucatan, and Guatemala, Matthew Restall, Lisa Sousa, and Kevin Terraciano. 2005. Cambridge University Press.
  • Testaments of Toluca, Caterina Pizzigoni. 2007. Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Center Publications.
  • The Life Within: Local Indigenous Society in Mexico's Toluca Valley, 1650-1800 Caterina Pizzigoni. 2012, Stanford University Press.
  • Chimalpahin's Conquest: A Nahua Historian's Rewriting of Francisco Lopez de Gomara's La Conquista de Mexico. Domingo de san Anton Munon Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuantzin, Susan Schroeder, David Tavaez, Christian Roa de la Carrera. 2010. Stanford University Press.
  • Restall, Matthew, "A History of the New Philology and the New Philology in History", Latin American Research Review - Volume 38, Number 1, 2003, pp. 113–134
  • James Lockhart, Lisa Sousa, and Stephanie Wood (eds.), Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory, Provisional Version hosted by the Wired Humanities Project at the University of Oregon (2007). [10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ James Lockhart, "Charles Gibson and the Ethnohistory of Postconquesst Central Mexico" in Nahuas and Spaniards: Postconquest Central Mexican History and Philology. Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Studies, vol. 76. 1991, p. 178
  2. ^ Restall, Matthew, "A History of the New Philology and the New Philology in History", Latin American Research Review - Volume 38, Number 1, 2003, pp.113–134
  3. ^ M. J. Driscoll, "The words on the page: Thoughts on philology, old and new", in: Creating the medieval saga: Versions, variability, and editorial interpretations of Old Norse saga literature, edited by Judy Quinn & Emily Lethbridge. Syddansk Universitetsforlag, Odense 2010, pp. 85–102.
  4. ^ "Introduction: Background and Course of the New Philology" Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory, Provisional Version hosted by the Wired Humanities Project at the University of Oregon (2007). [1]
  5. ^ Provisional Version hosted by the Wired Humanities Project at the University of Oregon (2007). [2]
  6. ^ The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule> Charles Gibson, 1964 Stanford University Press
  7. ^ Tlaxcala in the Sixteenth Century Charles Gibson, 1952. Yale University Press
  8. ^ Nahuas After the Conquest: Social and Cultural History of the Indians of Central Mexico, sixteenth through eighteenth centuries, James Lockhart, 1992. Stanford University Press.
  9. ^ Nahuatl in the Middle Years: Language contact Phenomena in Texts of the Colonial Period, Frances Karttunen & James Lockhart, 1976, University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
  10. ^ *Beyond the Codices Arthur J.O. Anderson, Frances Berdan, and James Lockhart, 1976. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  11. ^ The Testaments of Culhuacan. S.L. Cline and Miguel Leon-Portilla (Eds.) 1984. UCLA Latin American Center Nahuatl Studies Series, vol. 1.
  12. ^ Colonial Culhuacan, 1580-1600: A Social History of an Aztec Town, S.L. Cline, 1986. New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.
  13. ^ "The Testaments of Culhuacan, Sarah Cline. Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory[3]
  14. ^ Cline and Leon-Portilla,The Testaments of Culhuacan http://www.history.ucsb.edu/cline/testaments_of_culhuacan.pdf
  15. ^ The Book of Tributes: Early Sixteenth-Century Nahuatl Censuses from Morelos. S. L. Cline, 1993, Museo de Antropología e Historia, Archivo Histórico Collección Antigua, vol. 549. UCLA Latin American Center Publications.
  16. ^ "The Book of Tributes", Sarah Cline, Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory [4]
  17. ^ Azteckischer Zensus, Zur indianischen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im Marquesado um 1540: Aus dem "Libro de Tributos" (Col. Ant. Ms. 551) im Archivo Historico, Mexico. 2 vols. Eike Hinz, Claudine Hartau, and Marie Luise Heimann-Koenen, eds. 1983. Hanover.
  18. ^ Indigenous Rulers: An Ethnohistory of Indian Town Government in Colonial Cuernavaca, Robert Haskett, 1991, University of New Mexico Press.
  19. ^ "Primordial Titles", Robert Haskett. Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory [5]
  20. ^ Chimalpahin and the Kingdoms of Chalco, 1991, Susan Schroeder, Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  21. ^ Codex Chimalpahin: Society and Politics in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tlatelolco, Texcoco, Culhuacan, and other Nahua Altetpetl in Central Mexico. Domingo de San Anton Munon Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuantzin, Arthur J.O. Anderson, Susan Schroeder, Wayne Ruwet. 1997. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press
  22. ^ Annals of His Time: Don Domingo de San Anton Munon Chimalpahin QuahtlehuantzinJames Lockhart, Susan Schroeder, and Doris Namala.
  23. ^ "The Annals of Chimalpahin", Susan Schroeder. Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory[6]
  24. ^ Postconquest Coyoacan: Nahua-Spanish Relations in the Valley of Mexico. Rebecca Horn, 1997. Stanford University Press.
  25. ^ "Nahuatl and Spanish Sources for Coyoacan", Rebecca Horn. Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory [7]
  26. ^ Life and Death in a Maya Community: The Ixil Testaments of the 1760s. Matthew Restall, 1995. Lancaster CA: Labyrinthos
  27. ^ The Maya World: Yucatec culture and society, 1550-1850. Matthew Restall. 1997, Stanford University Press.
  28. ^ "Sources for the Ethnohistory and Afrohistory of Postconquest Yucatan," Matthew Restall.Sources and Methods for the Study of Postconquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory[8]
  29. ^ Kevin Terraciano,The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Nudzahui History, sixteen through eighteenth centuries. 2001, Stanford University Press.
  30. ^ Lauren Lambert Jennings, "Tracing Voices: Song as Literature in Late Medieval Italy" (Ph.D. dissertation: University of Pennsylvania, 2012), p. 42, online at [9]