New Queer Cinema
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2009)|
New Queer Cinema is a term first coined by the academic B. Ruby Rich in Sight & Sound magazine in 1992 to define and describe a movement in queer-themed independent filmmaking in the early 1990s. The term developed from use of the word queer in academic writing in the 1980s and 1990s as an inclusive way of describing gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender identity and experience, and also defining a form of sexuality that was fluid and subversive of traditional understandings of sexuality. Since 1992, the phenomenon has also been described by various other academics and has been used to describe several other films released since the 1990s. Films of the New Queer Cinema movement typically share certain themes, such as the rejection of heteronormativity and the lives of LGBT protagonists living on the fringe of society.
In her 1992 article, Rich commented on the strong gay and lesbian presence on the previous year's film festival circuit, and coined the phrase "New Queer Cinema" to describe a growing movement of similarly themed films being made by gay and lesbian independent filmmakers, chiefly in North America and England. Rich developed her theory in the Village Voice newspaper, describing films that were radical in form, and aggressive in their presentation of sexual identities which challenged both the status quo of heterosexual definition, and resisted promoting "positive" images of lesbians and gay men that had been advocated by the gay liberation movement of the 1970s and 1980s. In the films of New Queer Cinema, the protagonists and narratives were predominantly LGBT, but were presented invariably as outsiders and renegades from the rules of conventional society, and embraced radical and unconventional gender roles and ways of life, frequently casting themselves as outlaws or fugitives.
Drawing on postmodernist and poststructuralist academic theories of the 1980s, the New Queer Cinema presented human identity and sexuality as socially constructed, and therefore fluid and changeable, rather than fixed. In the world of New Queer Cinema, sexuality is often a chaotic and subversive force, which is alienating to and often brutally repressed by dominant heterosexual power structures. Films in the New Queer Cinema movement frequently featured explicit and unapologetic depictions of same-sex sexual activity, and presented same-sex relationships that reconfigured traditional heterosexual notions of family and marriage. While not all identifying with a specific political movement, New Queer Cinema films were invariably radical, as they sought to challenge and subvert assumptions about identity, gender, class, family and society. The 1991 documentary Paris is Burning introduced audiences to yet another subcultural realm. Director Jennie Livingston captured the realities of New York's drag balls and houses, and of the non-white people who occupied these spaces. This was an arguably underground world with which many Americans were unfamiliar. Aesthetic excellence and flamboyance were crucial in drag performances and competitions. Stylized vogue dancing was also exhibited as central to the drag experience, notably influencing the artistry of pop icon Madonna. New Queer Cinema figures like Livingston encouraged viewers to suspend their ignorance, and enjoy the diversity of humanity.
The films also frequently referenced the AIDS crisis of the 1980s, often commenting on the failure of the Ronald Reagan administration to respond to the AIDS epidemic and the social stigma experienced by the gay community. Given the relative invisibility of references to AIDS in mainstream Hollywood filmmaking, the work of New Queer Cinema was hailed by the gay community as a welcome correction to a history of under-representation and stereotyping of gay and lesbian people.
Among the films cited by Rich were Todd Haynes's Poison (1991), Isaac Julien's Young Soul Rebels (1991), Derek Jarman's Edward II (1991), Tom Kalin's Swoon (1992), and Gregg Araki's The Living End (1992). All the films feature explicitly gay and lesbian protagonists and subjects; explicit and unapologetic depictions of or references to gay sex; and a confrontational and often antagonistic approach towards heterosexual culture.
These directors were making their films at a time when the gay community was facing new challenges from the AIDS crisis in the 1980s and the conservative political wave brought on by the presidency of Ronald Reagan in the United States and the government of Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom. Jarman himself was diagnosed with AIDS in 1986, and died in 1994 at the age of 52. Jarman's public promoting of gay rights and equality have established him as an influential activist within the LGBT community.
Queer theory and politics were emerging topics in academic circles, with proponents arguing that gender and sexual categories such as homosexual and heterosexual were historical social constructs, subject to change with cultural attitudes. Rich noted that many films were beginning to represent sexualities which were unashamedly neither fixed nor conventional, and coined the phrase "New Queer Cinema".
Beginning in the 2010s, a number of LGBT filmmakers, including Rose Troche and Travis Mathews, have identified a newer trend in LGBT filmmaking, in which the influence of New Queer Cinema is evolving toward more universal audience appeal.
Rich, the originator of the phrase New Queer Cinema, has identified the emergence of LGBT-themed films such as Brokeback Mountain, Milk and The Kids Are All Right as mainstream hits in the late 2000s as a key moment in the evolution of the genre, while both Troche and Mathews singled out Stacie Passon's 2013 film Concussion — a film about marital infidelity in which the central characters' lesbianism is a relatively minor aspect of a story whose primary theme involves depicting the ways in which any long-term relationship risks becoming troubled and unfulfilling, regardless of its gender configuration — as a prominent example of the trend. The French film Blue Is the Warmest Colour, which won the Palme d'Or at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival, has also been singled out as a notable example.
New Queer Cinema figures
- Alex Sichel: All Over Me (1997)
- Alexis Dos Santos: Glue (2006)
- Ang Lee: The Wedding Banquet (1993), Brokeback Mountain (2005)
- Apichatpong Weerasethakul: The Adventure of Iron Pussy (2003), Tropical Malady (2004)
- Arthur Bressan: Buddies (1985)
- Bill Sherwood: Parting Glances (1986)
- Bruce LaBruce: No Skin Off My Ass (1991), Hustler White (1996) (although this might properly be classified as Queercore), Otto; or, Up With Dead People (2008)
- Casper Andreas: Slutty Summer (2004), A Four Letter Word (2007), Between Love and Goodbye (2008), The Big Gay Musical (2009), Violet Tendencies (2010), Going Down in LA-LA Land (2011)
- Cheryl Dunye: The Watermelon Woman (1996), Stranger Inside (2001)
- Christopher Münch: The Hours and Times (1991)
- Donna Deitch: Desert Hearts (1985)
- Derek Jarman: Sebastiane (1976), Caravaggio (1986), The Garden (1990), Edward II (1991), Blue (1993)
- Everett Lewis: Skin & Bone (1994), Luster (2000), FAQs (2005), Lucky Bastard (2008), The Pretty Boys (2010), Somefarwhere (2011)
- Françoise Doherty: Les Lapines (The Girl Bunnies) (2008), The Girl Bunnies. Hockey. (2009), The Girl Bunnies. Big Tree. (2011)
- Gregg Araki: The Living End (1992), Totally Fucked Up (1993), The Doom Generation (1995), Nowhere (1997), Mysterious Skin (2004), Kaboom (2010)
- Gus Van Sant: Mala Noche (1985), My Own Private Idaho (1991), Even Cowgirls Get the Blues (1993), Elephant (2003), Milk (2008)
- Isaac Julien: Looking for Langston (1989), Young Soul Rebels (1991)
- Jamie Babbit: But I'm a Cheerleader (1999), The Quiet (2005), Itty Bitty Titty Committee (2007)
- Jennie Livingston: Paris is Burning (1990)
- John Cameron Mitchell: Hedwig and the Angry Inch (2001), Shortbus (2006)
- John Greyson: Pissoir (1988), Zero Patience (1993), Lilies (1996), Proteus (2003), Fig Trees (2009)
- Julián Hernández: A Thousand Clouds of Peace (2003), Broken Sky (2006), Raging Sun, Raging Sky (2009)
- Kimberly Peirce: Boys Don't Cry (1999)
- Kit Hung: Soundless Wind Chime (2009)
- Maria Maggenti: The Incredibly True Adventure of Two Girls in Love (1995)
- Mark Christopher: The Dead Boys Club (1992), Alkali, Iowa (1995)
- Norman René: Longtime Companion (1989)
- Rose Troche: Go Fish (1994), Bedrooms and Hallways (1998)
- Sébastien Lifshitz: Presque rien (2000), Wild Side (2004)
- Todd Haynes: Poison (1991), Dottie Gets Spanked (1993), Safe (1995) Velvet Goldmine (1998), Far from Heaven (2002), I'm Not There (2007)
- Todd Verow: Frisk (1995), Anonymous (2004), Vacationland (2006), Between Something & Nothing (2008)
- Tom Kalin: Swoon (1992)
- Christine Vachon: Poison, Swoon, Safe, Go Fish, Velvet Goldmine, Boys Don't Cry, Far from Heaven.
- Andrea Sperling: The Hours and Times, Totally Fucked Up, The Doom Generation, But I'm a Cheerleader, Itty Bitty Titty Committee
- Alexis Arquette: Last Exit to Brooklyn (1989) - Grief (1993) - Threesome (1994) - Frisk (1995) - I Think I Do (1997)
- Craig Chester: Swoon (1992) - Frisk (1995) - Kiss Me, Guido (1997) - Adam & Steve (2005)
- Craig Gilmore: The Living End (1992) - Totally Fucked Up (1993)
- Guinevere Turner: Go Fish (1994) - The Watermelon Woman (1996) - Kiss Me, Guido (1997) - The Fluffer (2001) - Itty Bitty Titty Committee (2007)
- James Duval: Totally Fucked Up (1993) - The Doom Generation (1995) - A River Made to Drown In (1997) - Nowhere (1997) - Kaboom (2010)
- Ian McKellen: Gods and Monsters (1998) - Apt Pupil (1998)
- "New Queer Cinema". Mubi.com.
- "GLBTQ New Queer Cinema". Glbtq.com.
- Aaron, Michelle (2004). New Queer Cinema: A Critical Reader. Rutgers University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8135-3486-2.
- "Sundance Interview: Concussion". Women and Hollywood, February 1, 2013.
- "Cruising With Travis Mathews: The Nightcharm Interview". Nightcharm, March 9, 2013.
- Q, May 31, 2013.
- "B Ruby Rich on this year's queer film festival circuit". Xtra!, May 31, 2013.
- B. Ruby Rich “New Queer Cinema”: Sight & Sound, Volume 2, Issue 5 (September 1992)
- B. Ruby Rich “Queer and present danger”: Sight & Sound, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2000): http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/feature/80/
- Pier Maria Bocchi, Mondo Queer. Cinema e militanza gay, Lindau, Torino, 2005, ISBN 88-71-80-548-8.
- Joseph Bristow: Sexuality (1997) ISBN 0-415-08494-6
- Cante, Richard C. (March 2009). Gay Men and the Forms of Contemporary US Culture. London: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-7230-1.
- Derek Jarman: Queer Edward II (1991) ISBN 0-85170-316-X
- Martin Frey. Derek Jarman - Bewegte Bilder eines Malers. BoD 2008, ISBN 978-3-8370-1217-0
- Nick Rees-Roberts: French Queer Cinema (2008)
- Mark Simpson (journalist) (ed.): Anti-Gay (1996) ISBN 0-304-33144-9
- Tamsin Spargo: Foucault and Queer theory (1999) ISBN 1-84046-092-X
- Colin Spencer: Homosexuality: A History (1995) ISBN 1-85702-447-8
- Richard Dyer: The Culture of Queers (2002). ISBN 0-415-22376-8
- Axel Schock / Manuela Kay: Out im Kino. Das lesbisch-schwule Filmlexikon (2004). ISBN 978-3-89656-090-2
- Doan, Laura L. The Lesbian Postmodern. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
- Aaron, Michele. New Queer Cinema: A Critical Reader. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2004.
- List of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films
- History of homosexuality in American film
- New York Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender Film Festival
- Queer theory
- Reelout Queer Film + Video Festival