New Testament places associated with Jesus

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Part of the early Byzantine Madaba Map showing Bethabara (Βέθαβαρά) on the Jordan River

The New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus refers to a number of locations in the Holy Land and a Flight into Egypt. In these accounts the principal locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities also taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria.[1]

Other places of interest to scholars include locations such as Caesarea Maritima where in 1961 the Pilate Stone was discovered as the only archaeological item that mentions the Roman prefect Pontius Pilate, by whose order Jesus was crucified.[2][3]

The narrative of the ministry of Jesus in the gospels is usually separated into sections that have a geographical nature: his Galilean ministry follows his baptism, and continues in Galilee and surrounding areas until the death of John the Baptist.[1][4] This phase of activities in the Galilee area draws to an end approximately in Matthew 17 and Mark 9.

After the death of the Baptist, and Jesus' proclamation as Christ by Peter his ministry continues along his final journey towards Jerusalem through Perea and Judea.[5][6] The journey ends with his triumphal entry into Jerusalem in Matthew 21 and Mark 11. The final part of Jesus' ministry then takes place during the his last week in Jerusalem which ends in his crucifixion.[7]

Geography and ministry[edit]

Galilee, Perea and Judea at the time of Jesus

In the New Testament accounts, the principle locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities also taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria.[1][4]

The gospel narrative of the ministry of Jesus is traditionally separated into sections that have a geographical nature.

  • Journey to Jerusalem: After the death of the Baptist, about half way through the gospels (approximately Matthew 17 and Mark 9) two key events take place that change the nature of the narrative by beginning the gradual revelation of his identity to his disciples: his proclamation as Christ by Peter and his transfiguration.[5][6] After these events, a good portion of the gospel narratives deal with Jesus' final journey to Jerusalem through Perea and Judea.[5][6][14][15] As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem through Perea he returns to the area where he was baptized.[16][17][18]

The New Testament accounts of the resurrection appearances of Jesus and his ascension are also in the Judea area.

Locations[edit]

Galilee[edit]

Decapolis and Perea[edit]

Samaria[edit]

Judea[edit]

Other areas[edit]

Archaeology[edit]

An Augustus denarius, stating CAESAR AVGVSTVS; and on the reverse: DIVVSIVLIV(S), which the population at large took to mean Son of God[63][64]

No documents written by Jesus exist,[65] and no specific archaeological remnants are directly attributed to him. The 21st century has witnessed an increase in scholarly interest in the integrated use of archaeology as an additional research component in arriving at a better understanding of the historical Jesus by illuminating the socio-economic and political background of his age.[66][67][68][69][70][71]

James Charlesworth states that few modern scholars now want to overlook the archaeological discoveries that clarify the nature of life in Galilee and Judea during the time of Jesus.[69] Jonathan Reed states that chief contribution of archaeology to the study of the historical Jesus is the reconstruction of his social world.[72] An example archaeological item that Reed mentions is the 1961 discovery of the Pilate Stone, which mentions the Roman prefect Pontius Pilate, by whose order Jesus was crucified.[72][73][74]

Reed also states that archaeological finding related to coinage can shed light on historical critical analysis. As an example, he refers to coins with the ""Divi filius" inscription.[66] Although Roman Emperor Augustus called himself "Divi filius", and not "Dei filius" (Son of God), the line between being god and god-like was at times less than clear to the population at large, and the Roman court seems to have been aware of the necessity of keeping the ambiguity.[63][64] Later, Tiberius who was emperor at the time of Jesus came to be accepted as the son of divus Augustus.[63] Reed discusses this coinage in the context of Mark 12:13-17 (known as Render unto Caesar...) in which Jesus asks his disciples to look at a coin: "Whose portrait is this? And whose inscription?" and then advises them to "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's." Reed states that "the answer becomes much more subversive when one knows that Roman coinage proclaimed Caesar to be God".[66]

David Gowler states that an interdisciplinary scholarly study of archeology, textual analysis and historical context can shed light on Jesus and his teachings.[70] An example is the archeological studies at Capernaum. Despite the frequent references to Capernaum in the New Testament, little is said about it there.[75] However, recent archeological evidence show that unlike earlier assumptions, Capernaum was poor and small, without even a forum or agora.[70][76] This archaeological discovery thus resonates well with the scholarly view that Jesus advocated reciprocal sharing among the destitute in that area of Galilee.[70] Other archeological findings support the wealth of the ruling priests in Judea at the beginning of the first century.[68][77]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 978-1-4051-0901-7 pages 16-22
  2. ^ a b Historical Dictionary of Jesus by Daniel J. Harrington 2010 ISBN 0810876671 page 32
  3. ^ a b Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: a re-examination of the evidence by Jonathan L. Reed 2002 ISBN 1563383942 page 18
  4. ^ a b The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 117-130
  5. ^ a b c The Christology of Mark's Gospel by Jack Dean Kingsbury 1983 ISBN 0-8006-2337-1 pages 91-95
  6. ^ a b c The Cambridge companion to the Gospels by Stephen C. Barton ISBN 0-521-00261-3 pages 132-133
  7. ^ a b Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0-8010-2684-9 page 613
  8. ^ a b Jesus in the Synagogue of Capernaum: The Pericope and its Programmatic Character for the Gospel of Mark by John Chijioke Iwe 1991 ISBN 9788876528460 page 7
  9. ^ The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris ISBN 0-85111-338-9 page 71
  10. ^ The Sermon on the mount: a theological investigation by Carl G. Vaught 2001 ISBN 978-0-918954-76-3 pages xi-xiv
  11. ^ The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Ján Majerník, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt, 2005, ISBN 1-931018-31-6, pages 63–68
  12. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 97-110
  13. ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 165-180
  14. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 121-135
  15. ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 189-207
  16. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 137
  17. ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 211-229
  18. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 929
  19. ^ a b Big Picture of the Bible - New Testament by Lorna Daniels Nichols 2009 ISBN 1-57921-928-4 page 12
  20. ^ a b c John by Gerard Stephen Sloyan 1987 ISBN 0-8042-3125-7 page 11
  21. ^ The Miracles of Jesus by Craig Blomberg, David Wenham 2003 ISBN 1592442854 page 419
  22. ^ H. Van der Loos, 1965 The Miracles of Jesus, E.J. Brill Press, Netherlands page 599
  23. ^ Dmitri Royster 1999 The miracles of Christ ISBN 0881411930 page 71
  24. ^ The Miracles of Jesus by Craig Blomberg, David Wenham 2003 ISBN 1592442854 page 440
  25. ^ The Physical Geography, Geology, and Meteorology of the Holyand by Henry Baker Tristram 2007 ISBN 1593334826 page 11
  26. ^ Lamar Williamson 1983 Mark ISBN 0804231214 pages 129-130
  27. ^ B. Meistermann, "Transfiguration", The Catholic Encyclopedia, XV, New York: Robert Appleton Company
  28. ^ Luke by Fred Craddock 2009 ISBN 0664234356 page 98
  29. ^ The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament edition by John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN 0882078127 page 210
  30. ^ The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris 1992 ISBN 0851113389 pages 83
  31. ^ Luke by Fred B. Craddock 1991 ISBN 0804231230 page 69
  32. ^ J.W. Wenham, The Elements of New Testament Greek, Cambridge University Press, 1965, p. 75.
  33. ^ Boyce W. Blackwelder, Light from the Greek New Testament, Baker Book House, 1976, p. 120, ISBN 0801006627
  34. ^ Lamar Williamson 1983 Mark ISBN 0804231214 pages 138-140
  35. ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 page 168
  36. ^ Studying the historical Jesus: evaluations of the state of current research by Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans 1998 ISBN 9004111425 page 465
  37. ^ The Gospel of John by Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005 ISBN 1931018251 page 39
  38. ^ The Gospel According to St. John: An Introduction With Commentary and Notes by C. K. Barrett 1955 ISBN 0664221807 page 12
  39. ^ Francis J. Moloney, Daniel J. Harrington, 1998 The Gospel of John Liturgical Press ISBN 0814658067 page 325
  40. ^ The Miracles of Jesus by Craig Blomberg, David Wenham 2003 ISBN 1592442854 page 462
  41. ^ Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey (1998). Mercer dictionary of the Bible. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. p. 556. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7
  42. ^ Marsh, Clive; Moyise, Steve (2006). Jesus and the Gospels. New York: Clark International. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-567-04073-2.
  43. ^ The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from Earliest Times to 1700 by Jerome Murphy-O'Connor 2008 ISBN 0199236666 page 150
  44. ^ a b Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land by Avraham Negev 2005 ISBN 0826485715 page 80
  45. ^ Encountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective by Andreas J. Köstenberger 2002 ISBN 0801026032 page 181
  46. ^ Luke by Fred Craddock 1991 ISBN 0-8042-3123-0 page 284
  47. ^ Exploring the Gospel of Luke: an expository commentary by John Phillips 2005 ISBN 0-8254-3377-0 pages 297-230
  48. ^ a b Historical Dictionary of Jesus by Daniel J. Harrington 2010 ISBN 0810876671 page 62
  49. ^ Jesus and archaeology edited by James H. Charlesworth 2006 ISBN 080284880X pages 34 and 573
  50. ^ Jesus and archaeology edited by James H. Charlesworth 2006 ISBN 080284880X pages 34
  51. ^ Bible Exposition Commentary, Vol. 1: New Testament by Warren W. Wiersbe 1992 ISBN 1564760308 pages 268-269
  52. ^ Mary Ann Tolbert, Sowing the Gospel: Mark's World in Literary-Historical Perspective 1996, Fortress Press. p189
  53. ^ The people's New Testament commentary by M. Eugene Boring, Fred B. Craddock 2004 ISBN 0-664-22754-6 pages 256-258
  54. ^ The Bible knowledge background commentary by Craig A. Evans 2005 ISBN 0-7814-4228-1 page 49
  55. ^ The Gospel according to Mark: meaning and message by George Martin 2005 ISBN 0829419705 pages 200-202
  56. ^ The Gospel of Mark, Volume 2 by John R. Donahue, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN 0-8146-5965-9 page 336
  57. ^ The Collegeville Bible Commentary: New Testament by Robert J. Karris 1992 ISBN 0-8146-2211-9 pages 885-886
  58. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 30-37
  59. ^ Who's Who in the New Testament by Ronald Brownrigg, Canon Brownrigg 2001 ISBN 0-415-26036-1 pages 96-100
  60. ^ The Birth of Jesus According to the Gospels by Joseph F. Kelly 2008 ISBN pages 41-49
  61. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey William (1979). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D ISBN 0-8028-3781-6 page 689
  62. ^ Barnett, Paul (2002) Jesus, the Rise of Early Christianity InterVarsity Press ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 page 21
  63. ^ a b c Early Christian literature by Helen Rhee 2005 ISBN 0-415-35488-9 pages 159-161
  64. ^ a b Experiencing Rome: culture, identity and power in the Roman Empire by Janet Huskinson 1999 ISBN 978-0-415-21284-7 page 81
  65. ^ Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus by Gerald O'Collins 2009 ISBN 0-19-955787-X pages 1-3 "As regards the 'things which Jesus did', let me note that he left no letters or other personal documents."—page 2
  66. ^ a b c Jonathan L. Reed, "Archaeological contributions to the study of Jesus and the Gospels" in The Historical Jesus in Context edited by Amy-Jill Levine et al. Princeton Univ Press 2006 ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6 pages 40-47
  67. ^ Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: a re-examination of the evidence by Jonathan L. Reed 2002 ISBN 1-56338-394-2 pages xi-xii
  68. ^ a b Craig A. Evans (Mar 26, 2012). The Archaeological Evidence For Jesus. The Huffington Post. 
  69. ^ a b "Jesus Research and Archaeology: A New Perspective" by James H. Charlesworth in Jesus and archaeology edited by James H. Charlesworth 2006 ISBN 0-8028-4880-X pages 11-15
  70. ^ a b c d What are they saying about the historical Jesus? by David B. Gowler 2007 ISBN 0-8091-4445-X page 102
  71. ^ Craig A. Evans (Mar 16, 2012). Jesus and His World: The Archaeological Evidence. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-23413-5. 
  72. ^ a b Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: a re-examination of the evidence by Jonathan L. Reed 2002 ISBN 1-56338-394-2 page 18
  73. ^ Historical Dictionary of Jesus by Daniel J. Harrington 2010 ISBN 0-8108-7667-1 page 32
  74. ^ Studying the historical Jesus: evaluations of the state of current research by Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans 1998 ISBN 90-04-11142-5 page 465
  75. ^ "Jesus and Capernaum: Archeological and Gospel Stratigraohy" in Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: a re-examination of the evidence' by Jonathan L. Reed 2002 ISBN 1-56338-394-2 page 139-156
  76. ^ Jesus and archaeology edited by James H. Charlesworth 2006 ISBN 0-8028-4880-X page 127
  77. ^ Who Was Jesus? by Paul Copan and Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 0-664-22462-8 page 187