New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police
|New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police|
|Common name||NYPD Auxiliary|
|Patch of the New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police.|
|Flag of New York City|
|Shield of the New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police|
|Flag of the New York City Police Department|
|Motto||Fidelis ad Mortem|
|Faithful till Death|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Operations jurisdiction*||City of New York in the state of New York, U.S.|
|Map of New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police's jurisdiction.|
|Legal jurisdiction||New York City|
|Headquarters||Auxiliary Police Section
120-55 Queens Boulevard
Kew Gardens, NY 11424
|Auxiliary Police Officers||4,500+|
|Police Commissioner responsible||William J. Bratton|
|Agency executive||Deputy Inspector Phylis Bryne, Commanding Officer|
|Parent agency||New York City Police Department|
12 Transit Districts
9 Housing Police Service Areas
|* Divisional agency: Division of the country, over which the agency has usual operational jurisdiction.|
The New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police is a volunteer reserve police force which is a subdivision of the Patrol Services Bureau of the New York City Police Department. Auxiliary Police Officers assist the NYPD with uniformed patrols, provide traffic control, crowd control, and other major events.
Over 4,500 Auxiliary Police officers contribute over one million hours of service each year. The NYPD Auxiliary Police program is the largest Auxiliary Police program in the United States.
- 1 Ranks
- 2 History
- 3 Training and Authority
- 4 Laws
- 5 Duties
- 6 Role of the Auxiliary Police Officer
- 7 Standard Auxiliary Police Units
- 8 Specialized Auxiliary Police units
- 9 Auxiliary Patrol and Police Vehicles
- 10 Auxiliary Police Officer Safety
- 11 Representation
- 12 Line-of-duty deaths
- 13 Controversy
- 14 Awards and decorations
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
There are seven titles (referred to as ranks) in the New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police:
|Title||Insignia||Uniform Shirt Color|
|Auxiliary Deputy Chief||
|Auxiliary Deputy Inspector||
|Auxiliary Police Officer||
The precursors to the Auxiliary Police were organized primarily during times of war, when police officers were drafted into service, leaving the city with a diminished police force.
The Home Defense League was established in New York City in 1916 under Police Commissioner Arthur Woods to supplement the police force. Many police officers had joined the armed forces as the war in Europe progressed. Citizens volunteered to enroll in the Home Defense League to aid police in patrolling duties and be on hand in case of emergencies. In a matter of months, 22,000 people had volunteered for the Home Defense League. They were required to attend trainings on handling prisoners, protecting themselves, and using weapons. They received no pay. If the need arose (as it did in 1917 when armed forces were mobilized), they could be called into service to guard armories, subway stations, and other areas of the city.
In 1918, the Home Defense League changed its name to the New York Reserve Police Force, as proposed by Commissioner Richard Enright, in addition to undergoing higher-caliber training under Special Deputy Police Commissioner Lewis Rodman Wanamaker. Over 3,000 women joined the Police Reserve, serving under Captain Mary Noonan, primarily to provide eyes and ears for the police, look out for children's safety, and give first aid if necessary. Governor Alfred E. Smith signed a new state law in 1920 that established the permanency of a reserve force as an adjunct of the police department. By the mid-1920s, however, the Police Reserve had gradually stopped functioning as an active part of the Police Department, due to political disputes in a high-crime period. The Reserve was formally disbanded in 1934.
During World War II, the need for a reserve force briefly returned. The City Patrol Corps was organized in 1942 to assist police in patrol work; over 4,500 men and women volunteered. By war's end in 1945, the corps was disbanded, but the city continued to maintain a volunteer police unit.
In 1950, the 81st Congress of the United States of America passed the Public Law #920, entitled "The Civil Defense Act of 1950," authorizing a Federal Civil Defense Program. In 1951, the New York State Legislature enacted the "Defense Emergency Act" requiring New York City to recruit, train, and equip volunteer Civil Defense wardens, who would provide traffic and crowd control and other assistance to police officers in the event of an emergency or natural disaster.
The New York Penal Law provided peace officer status for the Civil Defense wardens during the event of an actual natural or man-made disaster or attack or during training drills. In 1967, a Mayoral Executive Order closed the Civil Defense Headquarters and placed full responsibility of the Civil Defense wardens with the NYPD. The NYPD retitled the division Auxiliary Police, changed the uniform to reflect police officer uniforms, and revised the duties of Auxiliary Police. During the 1960s when crime was on the rise, uniformed Auxiliary Police patrols were one means to deter crime.
Training and Authority
Auxiliary Police recruits must pass an 18-week, 54 hour "Auxiliary Police Basic Training Course" which is classified as "Peace Officer Training".
Auxiliary recruits are required by the New York State Municipal Police Training Council to undergo and pass this training course before they become Auxiliary Police officers. The training given in this course includes training in penal law, police science, powers of a peace officer, radio use, unarmed self-defense, self-defense with a straight wood baton, first aid, handcuffing techniques, and arrest procedures.
In 2008, the NYPD revised the training course to include training in location and use of pressure points, dealing with domestic violence situations, firearm safety, and terrorism awareness. A written and physical exam is given at the end of training.
Upon the completion of the Basic Training Course, the physical exam, and the written exam, probationary Auxiliary Police officers are issued their shield and police identification card along with their baton and initial uniform allowance voucher.
All Auxiliary Police officers are required by New York State to pass an annual refresher course in the use of force with the straight baton, arrest procedures, and in order to maintain their Auxiliary Officer status.
Auxiliary Police officers are certified as "Part-Time Peace Officers without Firearms Training" by the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services-Municipal Police Training Council and are registered as peace officers in the NYS DCJS registry of peace officers. Although trained as such, Auxiliary Police Officers do not have on-duty or off-duty Peace officer status unless given permission by the Police Commissioner or Chief of Patrol during a time of emergency or natural disaster. Because of this, Auxiliary Police Officers are civilian at all times, on-duty and off-duty.
Although volunteers, Auxiliary Police officers are city employees while on duty and may be eligible for Workers' Compensation in the event of injury while on duty.
Auxiliary Police officers who work the minimum required hours per fiscal year receive an annual uniform allowance check to help pay for new and replacement equipment and uniforms.
- Auxiliary Police officers may carry and use straight wood batons under the authority of NYS Penal Law 265.20 b.
- Auxiliary Police officers may carry and use handcuff restraints both on and off duty in accordance with NYC Administrative Code 10-147
- Auxiliary Police officers may physically detain violators of Misdemeanors and Felonies under the State of New York Civil Defense Act Article # 8 Section # 105
- Auxiliary Police officers injured while on duty are provided Workers Compensation under NYC Administrative Code Section 14-147 of chapter 1 of title 14
- Auxiliary Police officers receive an annual uniform allowance in accordance with the NYC Administrative Code Section 14-148
- Auxiliary Police officers can use physical and deadly force to make an arrest, or when a person uses physical or deadly force against an officer or a third person in accordance with the NYPD Auxiliary training manual.
Auxiliary Police officers duties fall into four broad categories:
- Daily patrol of assigned sectors within their respective precinct, transit district, housing area or specialized unit coverage area.
- Provide additional uniform police presence at parks, playgrounds, pools, street fairs, flea markets, block parties, shopping areas, subway entrances and exits, and school/church crossings.
- Assist with vehicular and pedestrian traffic at parades, marathons, concerts, intersections with broken traffic lights, accident scenes, and fire scenes.
- Assist in Precinct Identification Programs, Combat Auto Theft Program, Bicycle ID Program, Operation ID Program, Kid Care Program, and VIN Etching Program.
Auxiliary Police officers increase the public's perception of police "omnipresence" by patrolling in police cars, on foot and on bicycle. The police cars, known as RMPs or Radio Motor Patrols, are dark blue or black with white decals or white with light blue decals. Auxiliary Police officers wear virtually the same uniform as regular officers, and are equipped with straight wood batons, bullet resistant vests, police radios directly linked to the Central Dispatcher, other Auxiliary officers, and regular officers, flashlights, whistles, handcuffs, memo books, and reflective traffic vests. Their badge is a seven point star, in contrast to the shield worn by regular officers.
Auxiliary Police officers in New York City are not permitted to carry a side arm at any time on duty, even if independently licensed to carry a firearm. In other jurisdictions within New York State, some police departments do allow their Auxiliary Police officers to carry a firearm.
Auxiliary Police officers patrol presence, observations and reporting of incidents requiring regular police response, as well as interacting with the public, are meant to aid in crime reduction and enhance relations between the community and the police.
Role of the Auxiliary Police Officer
Auxiliary Police officers can:
- Perform crowd control
- Perform traffic control and effect street closures at parades, accidents, fires, etc.
- Perform traffic control at broken traffic lights, accidents, etc.
- Make arrests when a crime (Misdemeanors,Felony) is committed in their presence or when directed by a Police Officer
- Give medical aid to anyone as long as they are trained to do so
- Carry and use a police baton in the performance of their duties (NYS Penal Law 265.20 b.)
- Carry and use handcuff restraints in the performance of their duties (NYC Administrative Code 10-147)
Auxiliary Police officers cannot:
- Make arrests for crimes not committed in their presence unless ordered to do so by a regular police officer or a police dispatcher. In 1991, the New York State Court of Appeals determined that Auxiliary Police officers are covered under the "fellow officer rule", and therefore may detain a person based on information from a dispatcher or police officer heard over a police radio or from a police officer in person, and therefore are considered as a law enforcement officer with reliable information when making a report themselves to other law officers.
- Respond to any 911 calls involving any type of weapons or other life endangering conditions.
- Carry a firearm
- Issue summonses
Standard Auxiliary Police Units
Precinct Patrol: Officers patrol their respective precinct. When performing foot patrol, the area of the precinct that the officer patrols is called a Patrol Area, which are divided into "Foot Posts". RMP and Bike Patrol are also performed.
Housing Bureau: Officers patrol their respective Housing (Police Service Area) precinct, mainly being a uniformed presence within the NYC housing projects. When performing foot patrol, the area of the precinct that the officer patrols is called Patrol Areas, which are divided into "Foot Posts". RMP and Bike Patrol are also performed.
Transit Bureau: Officers patrol their respective Transit District precinct. When performing foot patrol, the area of the precinct that the officer patrols is called a Patrol Area, which are divided into "Foot Posts". RMP Patrol is also performed.
Transit Auxiliary Police Officers
Two weeks after the 2005 London bombings, a new directive stated that New York City would institute a citywide transit Auxiliary program with the intent of reducing crime and fighting terrorism in the city's transit system. Transit Auxiliary officers work out of Transit Bureau precincts known as Districts and carry Transit portable radios. Unlike a precinct, the transit districts cover miles of underground subway. Transit Auxiliary Police officers go through additional training by the Transit Bureau Vandals Squad as well as the Counter-Terrorism Division to build vandalism and terrorism awareness within the Transit System. Transit Auxiliary officers are paired with either a regular police officer or Auxiliary police officer. Transit Auxiliary Police periodically perform inspections of the subway station(s) and platforms which they are assigned to, taking note of any suspicious occurrences, and set up a fixed post at the subway turnstiles, token booths, mezzanines, or platforms. Transit Auxiliary officers also conduct subway train inspections as well as train runs to/from stations that which assignment is given. Due to the common medical emergency calls in Transit, if medically qualified, Transit Auxiliary Police officers can respond to medical emergencies if they are near to the transit location. The main function of the NYPD Transit Auxiliary Police, like the NYPD Transit Police, is to primarily remain within the subway system. 
Specialized Auxiliary Police units
Highway Patrol: Officers patrol highways, parkways, and main thoroughfares throughout the City of New York. Auxiliary Highway Patrol officers wear the same uniform as regular Highway Patrol officers and patrol in regular officers RMPs in Auxiliary Police Highway Patrol RMPs with AUXILIARY decals on each side. All applicants to this unit are required to have a minimum of five years experience as a patrol officer with the NYPD Auxiliary Police before they will be considered for the job. In addition they must be qualified to operate Highway Patrol vehicles and motorcycles. See article: New York City Police Department Highway Patrol
Citywide Traffic Task Force (CTTF): Officers patrol in areas all over the city that need special attention and extra patrol. However, more typical of this unit is performing duty during special events such as concerts, marathons, parades, etc. to increase the police presence. They are involved in both vehicular and pedestrian traffic control. They do not confine themselves to one location or precinct.
Undercover Vice Ops: Officers that have not reached the age of 20 years and 6 months old can be utilized to assist the NYPD Vice Unit Narcotics Division for "Quality of Life enforcement" stings which address illegal alcohol, knife, and spray paint sales. Other than this exception, NYPD Auxiliary Police officers are never undercover (*unless authorized by the Police Commissioner or Commanding Officer of the Auxiliary Police) and always patrol in uniform. Officers who have received the necessary "Vice Training" may be used by their Command in non-hazardous surveillance with the supervision of regular police officers.
The Auxiliary Police also has a Ceremonial Unit made up of a small group of Auxiliary officers.
Auxiliary Patrol and Police Vehicles
Patrol is one of the most important duties Auxiliary officers can perform. Various types of patrols are possible within different precincts. Almost all precincts perform foot patrol. Other types of patrol include:
- RMP (Auxiliary Police Car) - cars are painted white with light blue decals.
- Van (15 passenger; Used for routine patrol and officer transport) - vans are painted white with light blue decals.
- Police Golf Cart (Only used in Manhattan's Central Park Precinct)
In most cases, Auxiliary Police vehicles are retired vehicles that were once used by regular officers. Once the vehicle attains a certain amount of mileage, it is taken out of service and is either redecaled and given to a command for the Auxiliary Police, or is sold. Auxiliary Highway Patrol RMPs are retired RMPs previously used by regular Highway Patrol officers. Most commands only have 1 Auxiliary vehicle, but some have 2 or more. The amount of Auxiliary vehicles per command is based on how many Auxiliary officers are working there and how many extra vehicles the NYPD has available. It should also be noted that older Auxiliary vehicles are painted either dark blue or black with white decals in contrast to the vehicles used by regular officers, which are white with light blue decals. In 2008, the NYPD changed the paint and decal color of Auxiliary vehicles to white with light blue decals in order to look like vehicles used by regular officers and as an economy measure to save money by not having to repaint the vehicles.
Officers wishing to operate a bicycle, RMP, or van need special training before they are allowed to operate them. Training is done by the Police Academy Driver Training Unit (PADT) which is located at Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn. The golf cart, which is special to the Central Park Precinct, also requires special training to operate.
Auxiliary Police Officer Safety
The NYPD promotes the safety of its Auxiliary Police officers by requiring that they not pursue dangerous situations, but rather to remove themselves from such danger immediately. During training, recruits are repeatedly told that their purpose is to be the "eyes and ears" of the Police Department, and they are not required to enforce the law. Although they are equipped with wood batons and (optional) handcuffs, they are told that their most powerful weapon is the police radio, for back-up. Auxiliary Police officers are not issued, and are not permitted to carry firearms while on duty, even if otherwise authorized/licensed to carry when off-duty.
Risk are involved in the duty of an Auxiliary Officer. On March 14, 2007, two Auxiliary Police officers—Eugene Marshalik and Nicholas Pekearo—were killed in a shootout in Greenwich Village. This was the first time NYPD Auxiliary Police Officers were killed in the line of duty since 1993.
Up until March 26, 2007, the NYPD did not issue or subsidize ballistic vests to Auxiliary officers. But after the shootings of Pekearo and Marshalik, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly asked the New York City Council to earmark more than 3.3 million dollars to provide all Auxiliary Police officers with Level IIIA Vests, the same used by full-time officers. On March 27, 2007, the City Council approved this bill, which had all Auxiliary officers equipped with vests. Since then, in 2010, funding for vest for Auxiliary Police Officers has ran out of the NYPD City Budget. Every Police Precinct, Housing Police Service Area and Transit District has a pool of "loaner" vest for new Auxiliary Police Officers to use while on patrol, afterwards, they are returned and secured by the Auxiliary Coordinator.
New York City Auxiliary Police Officers of all ranks have been represented since 1965 by the Auxiliary Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York (APBA). While Auxiliary Police Officers are not full-time employees of the NYPD, they face many of the issues regular Police Officers face regarding working conditions, including safety, disciplinary actions, and uniform allowance reimbursement. Membership is voluntary.
Since the establishment of the New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police, 7 officers have died in the line of duty.
|Officer's name||End of watch||Cause of death|
|Auxiliary Sergeant David Freed ||
|Auxiliary Sergeant Noel R. T. Faide ||
|Auxiliary Sergeant Larry L. Cohen ||
|Auxiliary Police Officer Armando Rosario ||
|Auxiliary Police Officer Milton S. Clarke ||
|Auxiliary Police Officer Nicholas T. Pekearo ||
|Auxiliary Police Officer Yevgeniy (Eugene) Marshalik ||
Currently, there is controversy over benefits afforded to Auxiliary Police. Under New York law stated above, Auxiliary Police are "peace officer" trained but do not have on-duty or off-duty status. In 2008, the federal government denied death benefits for the families of Auxiliary Police Officer's Eugene Marshalik and Nicholas Pekearo, who were killed in the line of duty, due to their lack of peace officer status when they were killed. In an appeal, the federal government reversed their decision and approved their death benefits.
Awards and decorations
Medal of Honor
(Solid green bar speckled tiny gold stars) is awarded for:
- Individual acts of extraordinary bravery intelligently performed in the line of duty at imminent and personal danger to life. Specifically, the Department Medal of Honor is awarded for acts of gallantry and valor performed with knowledge of the risk involved, above and beyond the call of duty. The Medal of Honor is intended only for regular Police Officers. It was awarded posthumously to Marshalik and Peakaro due to the extraordinary circumstances of their line of duty deaths. The Award of Valor is normally the highest decoration for bravery given to Auxiliary Police Officers.
American Flag Breast Bar
- May be worn by all Auxiliary Police Officers in the Auxiliary Unit
World Trade Center Breast Bar
- May be worn by all members who were in the Auxiliary Police on 9/11/2001.
Award of Valor
- May be worn by all members who have received the Award of Valor.
Award of Commendation
- May be worn by all members who have received the Award of Commendation.
Award of Merit
- May be worn by all members who have received the Award of Merit.
- May be worn by all members of the unit in the year citation was earned.
Community Service Award (3000 Hours)
- May be worn by all members who have 3000 hours of service in the Auxiliary Police.
500 Hours Award
- May be worn by all members who have 500 hours of service in the Auxiliary Police.
Auxiliary Police 50th Anniversary
- May be worn by all members who were in the Auxiliary Police in 2000.
- The department also awards a Purple Shield to those injured or killed in the line of duty.
- New York City Police Department
- New York City Police Department Highway Patrol
- List of law enforcement agencies in New York
- Law enforcement in New York City
- New York City Police Department Cadet Corps
- Color of the day (police)
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 1
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 3
- "8,000 Join Emergency Police: Commissioner Hopes to Have 25,000 Men Ready Soon for Any Extraordinary Call". New York Times. 27 April 1916. p. 8. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "Limit Home Guard to 22,000 Members: Enlistment in Defense League Makes Rapid Progress and Quota Is Nearly Full". New York Times. 6 July 1916. p. 9. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "State Forces Ready Today: Mobilization of Land and Naval Units Starts at Once. GUARDS DOUBLED AT FORTS Police Posted on Bridges and Home Defense League Ordered to Prepare for Duty". New York Times. 4 Feb 1917. p. 1.
- "League Gives Way to Police Reserve: Home Defense Officers Agree to Plan Proposed by Commissioner Enright". New York Times. 20 February 1918. p. 7. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "Women's Auxiliary For Police Reserve: City's Moral Tone to be Lifted by Having Members on Duty in Every Block.". New York Times. 10 May 1918. p. 11. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "First Police Unit Formed By Women". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 29 May 1918. p. 18. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Greenberg, Martin Alan (2001). The Evolution of Volunteer Police in America (Doctoral Dissertation). City University of New York.
- "Police Reserve to Be Disbanded April 9; Served During War as Home Defense League". New York Times. 31 March 1934. p. 13.
- APS Operation Order 01s12
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 8
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 4 and 6
- Auxiliary Police Badge
- Authorized by case law: "THE PEOPLE &C., RESPONDENT, v. WILFREDO ROSARIO, APPELLANT"
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 2
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 4 and 9
- http://www.nycapba.org/(Auxiliary Police Benevolent Association)
- Volunteer Rail Patrols(New York Post Archives)[dead link]
- New York City Auxiliary Police PBA, A.P.S. DIRECTIVE # 7; 2005. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 9
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 4
- cttfauxiliary.com. cttfauxiliary.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 17
- Auxiliary Police Overview Page 13
- APS Operations Order #13
- Another reason for the new white auxiliary cars is to promote a police presence. The same action is being done with traffic and school safety.Auxiliary Police Overview Page 10
- Two auxiliary officers killed in Village shootout (ABC 7)
- Vests on way for auxiliaries (Daily News)
- "Auxiliary Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Officer Down Memorial Page - New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section
- Auxiliary Sergeant David Freed, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
- Auxiliary Sergeant Noel R. T. Faide, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
- Auxiliary Sergeant Larry L. Cohen, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
- Auxiliary Police Officer Armando Rosario, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
- Auxiliary Police Officer Milton S. Clarke, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
- Auxiliary Police Officer Nicholas T. Pekearo, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
- Auxiliary Police Officer Yevgeniy (Eugene) Borisovitch Marshalik, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
- Feds admit mistake, change course on death benefits for auxiliary cop heroes
- Official website of the NYPD Auxiliary Police
- Official website of the NYPD
- Auxiliary Police Supervisors Benevolent Association
- Auxiliary Police Benevolent Association
- New York State Association of Auxiliary Police
- Drilling the Women Police Reserve for an Emergency, photo in the 1918 New York City Police Department Annual Report, held at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Lloyd Sealy Library Special Collections
- A company of the Home Defense League drilling on roof of a down-town sky-scraper, photo in the 1916 New York City Police Department Annual Report, held at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Lloyd Sealy Library Special Collections