New York City Schools Chancellor
The New York City Schools Chancellor is the leader of the New York City Department of Education, the agency that handles New York City's public schools. The current Chancellor is Dennis M. Walcott, who began his tenure on April 18, 2011 after the resignation of Cathie Black on April 7, 2011. Like Joel Klein and Cathie Black, Walcott needed a waiver by the state education commissioner before assuming the position.
History of position under city Board of Education 
While searching for a permanent Superintendent of Schools in 1970 for Nathan Brown, the Board of Education named Irving Anker to serve as Acting Superintendent until the position was filled. The Board had approached, and been turned down by, such notables as Ralph Bunche, Ramsey Clark, Arthur J. Goldberg and Sargent Shriver, before choosing Harvey B. Scribner, who had been Commissioner of the Vermont Department of Education and superintendent of the Teaneck Public Schools, where he oversaw the implementation of a voluntary school integration program.
Citing what he called a "confidence gap" with the Board of Education, Scribner announced in December 1972 that he would leave his post as Chancellor when his three-year contract ended on June 30, 1973. Before going on a terminal vacation starting on April 1, 1973, Chancellor Scribner named Anker, then Deputy Chancellor, to serve as Acting Chancellor. Anker was then named permanent Chancellor in June 1973.
After taking office in January 1978 as Mayor of New York, Ed Koch forced out Anker as Chancellor in favor of Frank Macchiarola, a key Koch advisor who had been a vice president of the CUNY Graduate Center and deputy director of the New York State Emergency Financial Control Board for New York City; Anker would serve until his contract ended on June 30, 1978.
Alvarado was named as Chancellor in April 1983, the city's first Hispanic Chancellor. Alvarado resigned as School Chancellor in May 1984 in the wake of professional misconduct charges, including allegations that he had borrowed $80,000 from employees in coercive fashion. Nathan Quinones was selected as Chancellor, having served in the position on an interim basis after Alvarado placed himself on leave two months earlier.
Quinones was pressured to resign in 1987, in the face of criticism for his management of the district and its finances, with mayoral candidate Carol Bellamy saying that he "consistently failed to provide the leadership or sound management we need".
History of position under Mayoral control 
Joel Klein was named as Chancellor in July 2002 by Mayor Michael Bloomberg, the first to be named in the reorganized system in which the Mayor of New York was given direct control of the Board of Education.
In November 2010, Cathie Black was named as the first female Chancellor by Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Because of her lack of educational experience and administrative licensing, Black required a waiver from the Commissioner of Education of the State of New York, currently David M. Steiner, in order to take office. The waiver was issued, and Black took office on January 3, 2011.
List of New York City Schools Chancellors 
Individuals who have led the New York City school system include:
- Dennis M. Walcott 2011–present
- Shael Polakow-Suransky (Interim) April 7–17, 2011
- Cathie Black 2011
- Joel Klein 2002-2010
- Harold O. Levy 2000-2002
- Dr. Rudy Crew 1995-1999
- Ramon C. Cortines 1993-1995
- Dr. Harvey Garner (Interim) July - August 1993
- Dr. Joseph A. Fernandez 1990-1993
- Bernard Mecklowitz 1989
- Dr. Richard Green 1988-1989
- Dr. Charles I. Schonhaut 1988
- Nathan Quinones 1984-1987
- Anthony J. Alvarado 1983-1984
- Richard F. Halverson 1983
- Frank Macchiarola 1978-1983
- Harvey B. Scribner 1970-1973
- Irving Anker 1970, 1973–1978
- Nathan Brown 1969-1970
- Calvin E. Gross 1963-1965
- Bernard E. Donovon 1962-1963, 1965–1969
- John J. Theobald 1958-1962
- William Jansen 1947-1958
- John E. Wade 1942-1947
- Harold G. Campbell 1934-1942
- William J. O’Shea 1924-1934
- William L. Ettinger 1918-1924
- William H. Maxwell 1898-1918
- Buder, Leonard. "School Board Weighs 6 for Chancellor", The New York Times, June 19, 1970. Accessed July 28, 2010.
- Buder, Leonard. "SCRIBNER TO QUIT; SAYS THAT BOARD DOESN'T WANT HIM; He Sees a 'Confidence Gap' in Failure to Renew His School Contract Fast DECISION IS A SURPRISE Monserrat Says Education Panel Planned to Act Next Month on Chancellor Scribner Resigns, Blaming City Board", The New York Times, December 22, 1972. Accessed July 28, 2010.
- Buder, Leonard. "Scribner Names Aide As Interim Chancellor; 1969 Law Cited Board Gets Memorandum", The New York Times, March 16, 1973. Accessed July 28, 2010.
- Buder, Leonard. "Anker, as Expected, Is Named City School Chancellor", The New York Times, June 15, 1973. Accessed July 28, 2010.
- Chambers, Marcia. "Macchiarola, Koch Choice, Named Chancellor by Board of Education; City U. Official Elected After Heated Voting On Five Finalists Experience in Education Mayor Praises Selection Macchiarola, Koch's Choice, Is Named Chancellor by Board of Education Macchiarola Conciliatory Board Undecided at Outset", The New York Times, April 18, 1978. Accessed July 28, 2010.
- Chambers, Marcia. "MAN IN THE NEWS; AN INNOVATIVE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR: ANTHONY JOHN ALVARADO", The New York Times, April 29, 1983. Accessed July 27, 2010.
- via Associated Press. "Alvarado resigns N.Y. school post", The Day (New London), May 12, 1984. Accessed July 27, 2010.
- Martin, Douglas. "Nathan Quinones Dies at 79; Led New York City Schools", The New York Times, July 27, 2010. Accessed July 27, 2010.
- Staff. Chancellor Joel I. Klein, New York City Department of Education, January 6, 2009. Accessed July 28, 2010.
- "Hearst Official to Replace Klein at Helm of N.Y. Schools", The New York Times, November 9, 2010. Accessed November 9, 2010.
- "Black’s future is in these hands", "Times Union", November 19, 2010. Accessed November 19, 2010.
- Staff. The Board of Education to the Department of Education Tour: A Self-Paced Module, p. 104. Targeted Business Solutions. Accessed January 1, 2011.
Further reading 
- The Encyclopedia of New York City. New York: Yale University Press, 1995.