New York Herald Tribune

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New York Herald Tribune
New York Herald Tribune masthead -- 1936.jpg
Owner(s) Reid Family (1924 to 1958); John Hay Whitney (1958-1966)
Founder(s) Herald -- James Gordon Bennett, Sr.; Tribune -- Horace Greeley
Publisher

Ogden Mills Reid

(1924 -- 1946)

Whitelaw Reid

(1947 -- 1955)

Ogden Rogers Reid

(1955 -- 1958)

John Hay Whitney

(1958 -- 1966)

Founded 1924 (1924)
Political alignment Rockefeller Republican
Language English
Ceased publication April 24, 1966 (final edition); August 15, 1966 (paper closed after strike)
Headquarters New York City
Circulation 412,000 (1962)[1]
Sister newspapers International Herald Tribune
ISSN 1941-0646
OCLC number 9405828

The New York Herald Tribune was a daily newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. It was viewed for most of its existence as the chief rival of The New York Times,[2] and was widely regarded as a "newspaperman's newspaper," for both the breadth of its coverage and the quality of its writing.[3] The paper won several Pulitzer Prizes during its lifetime.[4]

A "Republican paper, a Protestant paper and a paper more representative of the suburbs than the ethnic mix of the city,"[5] the Herald Tribune, almost always referred to as the Trib,[6] quickly became the major competition for the Times following its birth. The paper generally did not match the comprehensiveness of the Times' coverage, but its national, international and business coverage was generally viewed among the best in the industry[4] while its writing was considered vastly superior to its rival's.[7][8] At one time or another, the paper was home to such writers as Dorothy Thompson, Red Smith, Richard Watts, Jr., Homer Bigart, Walter Kerr, Walter Lippmann, Judith Crist, Tom Wolfe and Jimmy Breslin. Editorially, the newspaper was the voice for eastern Republicans, later referred to as Rockefeller Republicans, and espoused a pro-business, internationalist viewpoint.

The paper, first owned by the Reid family, struggled financially for most of its life and rarely generated enough profit for growth or capital improvements; the Reids subsidized the Herald Tribune through the paper's early years.[9] However, it enjoyed prosperity during World War II and by the end of the conflict had pulled close to the Times in ad revenue.[4] A series of disastrous business decisions in the 1940s and 50s, combined with aggressive competition from the Times and poor leadership from the Reid family, left the Herald Tribune far behind its rival.

In 1958, the Reids sold the Herald Tribune to John Hay Whitney,[10] a multimillionaire Wall Street investor who was serving as ambassador to Great Britain at the time. Under his leadership, the Tribune experimented with new layouts and new approaches to reporting the news, and made important contributions to the body of New Journalism that developed in the 1960s.[11] The paper steadily revived under Whitney, but a 114-day newspaper strike stopped the Herald Tribune's gains and ushered in four years of strife with labor unions, particularly the local chapter of the International Typographical Union.[12] Faced with mounting losses, Whitney attempted to merge the Herald Tribune with the New York World-Telegram and the New York Journal-American in the spring of 1966; the proposed merger led to another lengthy strike, and on August 15, 1966, Whitney announced the closure of the Herald Tribune, having spent $40 million in his attempts to keep it alive.[13]

After the Herald Tribune closed, the Times and the Washington Post, joined by Whitney, entered an agreement to operate the International Herald Tribune, the paper's former Paris publication. The International Herald Tribune was renamed the International New York Times in 2013.[14] New York magazine, created as the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine in 1963,[15] was revived by editor Clay Felker in 1968, and continues to publish today.

Origins: 1835-1924[edit]

New York Herald[edit]

James Gordon Bennett, Sr., founder of the New York Herald.

The New York Herald was founded on May 6, 1835 by James Gordon Bennett, a Scottish immigrant who came to the United States at age 24.[16] Bennett, a firm Democrat, had established a name in the newspaper business in the 1820s with dispatches sent from Washington to the New York Enquirer, most sharply critical of President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of state Henry Clay; one historian called Bennett "the first real Washington reporter."[17] Bennett was also a pioneer in crime reporting; while writing about a murder trial in 1830, the Attorney General of Massachusetts attempted to restrict the coverage of the newspapers: Bennett criticized the move as an "old, worm-eaten, Gothic dogma of the Courts . . . to consider the publicity given to every event by the Press, as destructive to the interests of law and justice."[18] The fight over access eventually overshadowed the trial itself.[19]

Bennett founded the New York Globe in 1832 to promote the re-election of Andrew Jackson to the White House, but the paper quickly folded after the election. After a few years of journalistic piecework, he founded the Herald in 1835 as a penny newspaper, similar in some respects to Benjamin Day's Sun but with a strong emphasis on crime and financial coverage; the Herald "carried the most authentic and thorough list of market prices published anywhere; for these alone it commanded attention in financial circles."[20] Bennett, who wrote much of the newspaper himself, "perfected the fresh, pointed prose practiced in the French press at its best."[20] The publisher's coverage of the 1836 murder of Helen Jewett—which, for the first time in the American press, included excerpts from the murder victim's correspondence—made Bennett "the best known, if most notorious . . . journalist in the country."[21]

Bennett put his profits back into his newspaper, establishing a Washington bureau and recruiting correspondents in Europe to provide the "first systematic foreign coverage" in an American newspaper.[22] By 1839, the Herald's circulation exceeded The London Times and was considered the most comprehensive newspaper in the country.[23] When the Mexican-American War broke out in 1846, the Herald assigned a reporter to the conflict—the only newspaper in New York to do so—and used the telegraph, then a new technology, to not only beat competitors with news but provide Washington policymakers with the first reports from the conflict.[24] During the American Civil War, Bennett kept at least 24 correspondents in the field, opened a Southern desk and had reporters comb the hospitals to develop lists of casualties and deliver messages from the wounded to their families.[25]

New York Tribune[edit]

Horace Greeley, editor and publisher of the New York Tribune.

The New York Tribune was founded by Horace Greeley in 1841. Greeley, a native of New Hampshire, had begun publishing a weekly paper called The New-Yorker (unrelated to today's magazine of the same name) in 1834, which won attention for its political reporting and editorials.[26] Joining the Whig Party, Greeley published The Jeffersonian, which helped elect William H. Seward Governor of New York State in 1838, and then the Log Cabin, which advocated for the election of William Henry Harrison in the 1840 preidential election, attained a circulation of 80,000 and—unlike The New-Yorker or The Jeffersonian—turned a small profit.[27]

With Whigs in power, Greeley saw the opportunity to launch a daily penny newspaper for their constituency. The New York Tribune launched on April 10, 1841. Unlike the Herald or the Sun, it generally shied about from graphic crime coverage;[28] Greeley saw his newspaper as having a moral mission to uplift society, and frequently focused his energies on the newspaper's editorials -- "weapons . . . in a ceaseless war to improve society"[29]—and political coverage. While a lifelong opponent of slavery and, for time, the leading American exponent of socialism,[30] Greeley's attitudes were never exactly fixed: "The result was a potpourri of philosophical inconsistencies and contradictions that undermined Greeley's effectiveness as both logician and polemicist."[31] However, his moralism appealed to rural America; with six months of beginning the Tribune, Greeley combined The New-Yorker and The Log Cabin into a new publication, the Weekly Tribune. The weekly version circulated nationwide, serving as a digest of news melded with agriculture tips. Offering prizes like strawberry plants and gold pens to salesmen, the Weekly Tribune reached a circulation of 50,000 within 10 years, outpacing the Herald's weekly edition.[32]

The Tribune lacked the Herald's resources when it came to covering the Civil War, but the paper's correspondents "were far less concerned with scoring beats than getting it right,"[33] and provided arguably the best breaking news coverage of the Battle of Antietam in 1862.[34] The Tribune's ranks included Henry Raymond, who later founded The New York Times, and Charles Dana, who would later edit and partly own The Sun for nearly three decades. Dana served as second-in-command to Greeley, but Greeley abruptly fired him in 1862, after years of personality conflicts between the two men.[35] Raymond, who felt he was "overused and underpaid" as a reporter on the Tribune staff, later served in the New York State Assembly and, with the backing of bankers in Albany, founded the Times in 1851, which quickly became a rival for the Whig readership that Greeley cultivated.[36]

After the Civil War, Bennett turned over daily operations of the Herald to his son James Gordon Bennett, Jr., and lived in seclusion until 1872.[37] That year, Greeley, who had been an early supporter of the Republican Party, had called for reconciliation of North and South following the war and criticized Radical Reconstruction. Gradually becoming disenchanted with Ulysses S. Grant, Greeley became the surprise nominee of the Liberal Republican faction of the party (and the Democrats) in the 1872 presidential election. The editor had left daily operations of the Tribune to his protege, Whitelaw Reid; he attempted to resume his job after the election, but was badly hurt by a piece (intended humorously) that said Greeley's defeat would chase political office seekers from the Tribune and allow the staff to "manage our own newspaper without being called aside every hour to help lazy people whom we don't know and . . . benefit people who don't deserve assistance."[38] The piece was widely (and incorrectly) attributed to Greeley as a sign of bitterness at the outcome; Reid refused to print Greeley's furious disclaimer of the piece, and by the end of the month, Greeley had died.[39]

Decline under second generation[edit]

James Gordon Bennett, Jr., publisher of the New York Herald from 1866 to 1918.
Whitelaw Reid, owner of The New York Tribune from 1873 to 1912.

Both newspapers went into gradual decline under their new proprietors. James Gordon Bennett, Jr. -- "a swaggering, precociously dissolute lout who rarely stifled an impulse"[40]—had a mercurial reign. He launched the New York Telegram, an evening paper, in the late 1860s[37] and kept the Herald the most comprehensive source of news among the city's newspapers. Bennett also bankrolled Henry Morton Stanley's trek through Africa to find David Livingstone,[41] and scooped the competition on the Battle of Little Big Horn.[41] However, Bennett ruled his paper with a heavy hand, telling his executives at one point that he was the "only reader of this paper:" "I am the only one to be pleased. If I want it turned upside down, it must be turned upside down. I want one feature article a day. If I say the feature is black beetles, black beetles it's going to be."[42] In 1874, the Herald ran the infamous New York Zoo hoax, where the front page of the newspaper was devoted entirely to fabricated story of animals getting loose at the Central Park Zoo.[43]

Whitelaw Reid, who won control of the Tribune in part due to the likely assistance of financier Jay Gould,[44] turned the newspaper into an orthodox Republican organ, wearing "its stubborn editorial and typographical conservatism . . . as a badge of honor."[45] Reid's hostility to labor led him to bankroll Ottmar Mergenthaler's development of the linotype machine in 1886, which quickly spread throughout the industry.[46] However, his day-to-day involvement in the operations of the Tribune declined after 1888, when he was appointed Minister to France and largely focused on his political career; Reid even missed a large-scale 50th anniversary party for the Tribune in 1891.[47] Despite this, the paper remained profitable due to an educated and wealthy readership that attracted advertisers.[48]

The Herald was the largest circulation newspaper in New York City until 1884. Joseph Pulitzer, who came from St. Louis and purchased the World in 1882, aggressively marketed a mix of crime stories and social reform editorials to a predominantly immigrant audience, and saw his circulation quickly surpass those of more established publishers.[49] Bennett, who had moved permanently to Paris in 1877 after publicly urinating in the fireplace or piano of his fiancee's parents (the exact location differed in witnesses' memories)[43] spent the Herald's still sizeable profits on his own lifestyle, and the Herald's circulation stagnated.[50] Bennett respected Pulitzer, and even ran an editorial praising the publisher of The World after health problems forced him to relinquish the editorship of the paper in 1890.[51] However, he despised William Randolph Hearst, who purchased the New York Journal in 1895 and attempted to ape Pulitzer's methods in a more sensationalistic manner. The challenge of The World and the Journal spurred Bennett to revitalize the paper; the Herald competed keenly with both papers during coverage of the Spanish-American War, providing "the soundest, fairest coverage . . . (of) any American newspaper", sending circulation over 500,000.[52]

The Tribune largely relied on wire copy for its coverage of the conflict.[52] Reid, who helped negotiate the treaty that ended the war[53] had by 1901 become completely disengaged from the Tribune's daily operations. The paper was no longer profitable, and the Reids largely viewed the paper as a "private charity case."[54] By 1908, the Tribune was losing almost $3,000 a week. In an article about New York City's daily newspapers that year, The Atlantic Monthly found the newspaper's "financial pages . . . execrable, its news columns readable but utterly commonplace, and its rubber-stamping of Republican policies (making) it the last sheet in town operated as a servant of party machinery."[55]

The Herald also saw its reputation for comprehensiveness challenged by the Times, purchased by Chattanooga Times publisher Adolph Ochs in 1896, a few weeks before the paper would have likely closed its doors.[56] Ochs, turning the once-Republican Times into an independent Democratic newspaper,[57] refocused the newspaper's coverage on commerce, quickly developing a reputation as the "businessman's bible."[58] When the Times began turning a profit in 1899, Ochs began reinvesting the profits make into the newspaper toward news coverage, quickly giving the Times the reputation as the most complete newspaper in the city.[59] Bennett, who viewed the Herald as a means of supporting his lifestyle, did not make serious moves to expand the newspaper's newsgathering operations, and allowed the paper's circulation to fall well below 100,000 circulation by 1912.[60]

Revival of the Tribune, fall of the Herald[edit]

Helen Rogers Reid and Ogden Mills Reid, ca. 1920

The Herald suffered a fatal blow in 1907. Bennett, his hatred for the Journal owner unabated, attacked Hearst's campaigns for Congress in 1902, and his run for Governor of New York in 1906. The Herald's coverage of Hearst's gubernatorial campaign was particularly vicious, as Bennett ordered his reporters to publish every negative item about Hearst's past that they could.[61] Hearst, seeking revenge, sent a reporter to investigate the Herald's personal columns, which ran in the front of the paper and, in veiled language, advertised the service of prostitutes.[62][63] The resulting investigation, published in the Journal, led to Bennett's conviction on charges of sending obscene matter through the mails. The publisher was ordered to pay a $25,000 fine, and the Herald "suffered a blow in prestige and circulation from which it never really recovered."[64]

Whitelaw Reid died in 1912 and was succeeded as publisher by his son, Ogden Mills Reid. The younger Reid, an "affable but lackluster" person who had barely graduated from college,[65] began working at the Tribune in 1908 as a reporter and won the loyalty of the staff with his good nature and eagerness to learn.[66] Quickly moved through the ranks—he became managing editor in 1912—Reid oversaw the Tribune's thorough coverage of the sinking of the Titanic,[67] ushering a revival of the newspaper's fortunes. Reid's role in this is unclear: While personally popular with the staff and willing to fight for his reporters in court,[68] he was at best an adequate manager. The paper continued to lose money, and was saved from bankruptcy only by the generosity of Elisabeth Mills Reid, Ogden's mother.[69] However, he encouraged light touches at the previously somber Tribune, creating an environment where "the windows were opened and the suffocating solemnity of the place was aired out."[69] Inheriting a newspaper whose circulation may have fallen to 25,000 daily—no higher than the circulation in 1872[69]—the Tribune's readership had jumped to 130,000 by 1924.[70]

Reid's wife, Helen Rogers Reid, had a far more decisive impact on the newspaper. Taking charge of the newspaper's advertising in 1919, Helen Reid, "who believed in the newspaper the way a religious person believes in God,"[71] reorganized the faltering department, aggressively pursuing advertisers and selling them on the "wealth, position and power" of the Tribune's readership.[72] In her first two years on the job, the Tribune's annual advertising revenues jumped from $1.7 million to $4.3 million, "with circulation responsible for no more than 10 percent of the increase."[73] Reid's efforts helped cut the newspaper's dependence on subsidies from the family fortune and pushed it toward a paying track. Reid also encouraged the development of women's features at the newspaper, the hiring of female writers,[74] and helped established a "home institute" that tested recipes and household products.[75]

The Herald's decline continued in the new decade. With the outbreak of World War I, Bennett devoted most of his attention to the Paris Herald, doing his first newspaper reporting at the age of 73 and keeping the publication alive despite wartime censorship.[76] The New York paper, however, was in freefall, and posted a loss in 1917. The next year, Bennett died, having taken some $30 million out of the lifetime profits of the Herald.[76] Two years later, the Herald newspapers were sold to Frank Munsey for $4 million.

Munsey had won the enmity of many journalists with his buying, selling and consolidation of newspapers, and the Herald became part of Munsey's moves. The publisher merged the morning Sun (which he had purchased in 1916) into the Herald and attempted to revive the newspaper through his financial resources, hoping to establish the Herald as the pre-eminent Republican newspaper within the city.[70] To achieve that end, he approached Elisabeth Mills Reid in early 1924 with a proposal to purchase the Tribune—the only other Republican newspaper in New York—and merge it with the Herald.[77] The elder Reid, however, refused to sell, saying only that she would buy the Herald. The two sides negotiated through the winter and spring. Munsey approached Ogden Reid with a proposal to swap the profitable evening Sun with the Tribune, which Reid refused.[78] The Reids countered with an offer of $5 million for the Herald and the Paris Herald, which Munsey agreed to on March 17, 1924.[79]

The move surprised the journalism community, which had expected Munsey to purchase the Tribune. The Herald management informed its staff of the sale in a brief note posted on a bulletin board; reading it, one reporter remarked "Jonah just swallowed the whale."[79]

The merged paper, which published its first edition on March 19, was named the New York Herald New York Tribune until May 31, 1926, when the more familiar New York Herald Tribune was substituted.[80] Apart from the Herald's radio magazine, weather listings and other features, "the merged paper was, with very few changes, the Tribune intact."[81] Only 25 Herald reporters were hired at the new paper; 600 people lost their jobs as a result of the merger.[79] Within a year, the merged paper's circulation reached 275,000.[81]

New York Herald Tribune: 1924-1946[edit]

1924-1940: Social journalism and mainstream Republicanism[edit]

Stanley Walker, city editor of the New York Herald Tribune, 1928 to 1935.

The newly merged paper was not immediately profitable, but Helen Reid's reorganization of the business side of the paper, combined with an increasing reputation as a "newspaperman's newspaper," led the Herald Tribune to post a profit of nearly $1.5 million in 1929, as circulation climbed over the 300,000 mark.[82] The onset of the Great Depression, however, wiped out the profits. In 1931, the Herald Tribune lost $650,000 (equivalent to approximately $11,235,488 in 2014 dollars[83]), and the Reid family was once again forced to subsidize the newspaper. By 1933, the Herald Tribune turned a profit of $300,000, and would stay in the black for the next 20 years, without ever making enough money for significant growth or reinvestment.[84]

Through the late 1920s and 1930s, Ogden Reid struggled with alcoholism, often staying late at Bleeck's, a popular hangout for Herald Tribune reporters.[85] The staff by this point considered the Herald Tribune's owner "kindly and likeable, if deficient in intelligence and enterprise."[86] Helen Reid increasingly took on the major leadership responsibilities at the newspaper—a fact Time noted in a 1934 cover story. Reid, angered, called her husband "the most independent-minded man I have ever met," to which Time replied that "it is Mrs. Reid who often helps that independent mind make itself up."[87]

Editorially, the newspaper thrived, winning its first Pulitzer Prize for reporting in 1930 for Leland Stowe's coverage of the Second Reparations Conference on German reparations for World War I, where the Young Plan was developed.[88] Stanley Walker, who became the newspaper's city editor in 1928, pushed his staff (which briefly included Joseph Mitchell) to write in a clear, lively style, and pushed the Herald Tribune's local coverage "to a new kind of social journalism that aimed at capturing the temper and feel of the city, its moods and fancies, changes or premonitions of change in its manners, customs, taste, and thought -- daily helpings of what amounted to urban anthropology."[89] The Herald Tribune's editorials remained conservative -- "a spokesman for and guardian of mainstream Republicanism"[90]—but the newspaper also hired columnist Walter Lippmann, seen at the time as a liberal, after The World closed its doors in 1931.[91] Unlike other pro-Republican papers, such as Hearst's New York Journal-American or the Chicago Tribune, which held an isolationist and pro-German stance, the Herald-Tribune was more supportive of the British and the French as the specter of World War II developed.

Financially, the paper continued to stay out of the red, but long-term trouble was on the horizon. After Elisabeth Mills Reid died in 1931—after having given the paper $15 million over her lifetime—it was discovered that the elder Reid had treated the subsidies as loans, not capital investments. The notes on the paper were willed to Ogden Reid and his sister, Lady Jean Templeton Reid Ward. The notes amounted to a mortgage on the Herald Tribune, which prevented the newspaper from acquiring bank loans or securing public financing. Financial advisors at the newspaper advised the Reids to convert the notes into equity, which the family resisted. This decision would play a major role in the Reids' sale of the Herald Tribune in 1958.[92]

Seeking to cut costs during the Recession of 1937, the newspaper's management decided to consolidate its foreign coverage under Laurence Hills, who had been appointed editor of the Paris Herald by Frank Munsey in 1920 and kept the paper profitable.[93] But Hills had fascist sympathies—the Paris Herald was alone among American newspapers in having "ad columns sprout(ing) with swastikas and fasces[94] -- and was more interested in cutting costs than producing journalism. "It is no longer the desire even to attempt to run parallel with The New York Times in special dispatches from Europe," Hills wrote in a memo to the Herald Tribune's foreign bureaus in late 1937. "Crisp cables of human interest or humorous type cables are greatly appreciated. Big beats in Europe these days are not very likely."[95] The policy effectively led the Herald Tribune to surrender the edge in foreign reporting to its rival.[96]

The Herald Tribune strongly supported Wendell Wilkie for the Republican nomination in the 1940 presidential election; Wilkie's managers made sure the newspaper's endorsement was placed in each delegate's seat at the 1940 Republican National Convention.[97] The Herald Tribune continued to provide a strong voice for Wilkie (who was having an affair with literary editor Irita Van Doren)[98] through the election. Dorothy Thompson, then a columnist at the paper, openly supported Franklin Roosevelt's re-election and was eventually forced to resign.[99]

World War II[edit]

The front page of the New York Herald Tribune on June 7, 1944, showing the D-Day landings on June 6.

Historians of the The New York Times—including Gay Talese, Susan Tifft and Alex S. Jones—have argued that the Times, faced with newsprint rationing during World War II, decided to increase its news coverage at the expense of its advertising, while the Herald Tribune chose to run more ads, trading short-term profit for long-term difficulties. In The Kingdom and the Power, Talese's 1969 book about the Times, Talese wrote "the additional space that The Times was able to devote to war coverage instead of advertising was, in the long run, a very profitable decision: The Times lured many readers away from the Tribune, and these readers stayed with The Times after the war into the Nineteen-fifties and Sixties."[100] Although the The New York Times had the most comprehensive coverage of any American newspaper—the newspaper put 55 correspondents in the field, including drama critic Brooks Atkinson[101]—its news budget fell from $3.8 million in 1940 to $3.7 million in 1944; the paper did not significantly expand its number of newsroom employees between 1937 and 1945[102][103] and its ad space, far from declining, actually increased during the conflict and was consistently ahead of the Herald Tribune's. Between 1941 and 1945, advertising space in the Times increased from 42.58 percent of the paper to 49.68 percent, while the Tribune saw its ad space increase from 37.58 percent to 49.32 percent. In 1943 and 1944, more than half the Times' went to advertising, a percentage the Herald Tribune did not meet until after the war.[104] However, because the Tribune was generally a smaller paper than the Times and saw its ad space jump more, "the proportionate increase in the Tribune seemed greater than it was in absolute terms. The evidence that this disproportionate increase in the Tribune's advertising content left its readers feeling deprived of war news coverage and sent them in droves to the Times is, at best, highly ambiguous."[105]

Though it did not match The Times' comprehensiveness, the Herald Tribune always had at least a dozen correspondents in the field,[106] the most famous of whom was Homer Bigart. Allowing wire services to write "big picture" stories, Bigart—who covered the Anzio Campaign, the Battle of Iwo Jima and the Battle of Okinawa—focused instead on writing about tactical operations conducted by small units and individual soldiers, in order to "bring a dimension of reality and understanding to readers back home."[107] Frequently risking his life to get the stories, Bigart was highly valued by his peers and the military, and won the 1945 Pulitzer Prize.[108]

By the end of the conflict, the Herald Tribune had enjoyed some of its best financial years in its history. While the newspaper had just 63 percent of its rival's daily circulation (and 70 percent of the Sunday circulation of The Times), its high-income readership gave the paper nearly 85 percent of The New York Times' overall ad revenue, and had made $2 million a year between 1942 and 1945.[109] In 1946, the Herald Tribune's Sunday circulation hit an all-time peak of 708,754.[105]

Decline: 1947-1958[edit]

Pressure from the Times[edit]

The Herald Tribune began a decline shortly after World War II that had several causes. The Reid family was long accustomed to resolve shortfalls at the newspaper with subsidies from their fortune, rather than improved business practices, seeing the paper "as a hereditary possession to be sustained as a public duty rather than developed as a profit-making opportunity."[110] With its generally marginal profitability, the Herald Tribune had few opportunities to reinvest in its operations as the Times did, and the Reids' mortgage on the newspaper made it difficult to raise outside cash for needed capital improvements. After another profitable year in 1946, Bill Robinson, the Herald Tribune's business manager, decided to reinvest the profits to make needed upgrades to the newspaper's pressroom. The investment squeezed the paper's resources, and Robinson decided to make up the difference at the end of the year by raising the Tribune's price from three cents to a nickel, expecting the Times, which also needed to upgrade its facilities, to do the same.[111] However, the Times, concerned by the Tribune's performance during the war, refused to go along. "We didn't want to give them any quarter," Times circulation manager Nathan Goldstein said. "Our numbers were on the rise, and we didn't want to do anything to jeopardize them. 'No free rides for the competition' was the way we looked at it."[111] The move proved disastrous: In 1947, the Tribune's daily circulation fell nine percent, from 348,626 to 319,867.[105] Its Sunday circulation fell four percent, from 708,754 to 680,691. Although the overall percentage of advertising for the paper was higher than it was in 1947, the Times was still higher: 58 percent of the average space in the New York Times in 1947 was devoted to advertising, versus a little over 50 percent of the Tribune.[105] The Times would not raise its price until 1950.[112]

Ogden Reid died early in 1947, making Helen Reid leader of the Tribune in name as well as in fact.[113] Reid chose her son, Whitelaw Reid, known as "Whitie," to run the editorial side.[114] The younger Reid had written for the newspaper and done creditable work covering the London Blitz,[115] but had not been trained for the duties of his position and was unable to provide forceful leadership for the newspaper.[116] The Tribune also failed to keep pace with the Times in its facilities: While both papers had about the same level of profits between 1947 and 1950, the Times was heavily reinvesting money in its plant and hiring new employees.[117] The Tribune, meanwhile, with Helen Reid's approval, cut $1 million from its budgets and fired 25 employees on the news side, reducing its foreign and crime coverage.[118] Robinson was dismissive of the circulation lead of the Times, saying in a 1948 memo that 75,000 of its rival's readers were "transients" who only read the wanted ads.[118]

The Times also began to push the Tribune hard in suburbs, where the Tribune had previously enjoyed a commanding lead. At the urging of Goldstein, Times editors added featured to appeal to commuters, expanded (and in some cases subsidized) home delivery and paid retail display allowances -- "kickbacks , in common parlance"—to the American News Company, the controller of many commuter newsstands, to achieve prominent display.[119] Tribune executives were not blind to the challenge, but the economy drive at the paper undercut efforts to adequately compete. The newspaper fell into the red in 1951. The Herald Tribune's losses reached $700,000 in 1953, and Robinson resigned late that year.[120]

The paper distinguished itself in the coverage of the Korean War; Bigart and Marguerite Higgins, who engaged in a fierce rivalry, shared a Pulitzer Prize with Tribune correspondent Keyes Beech and three other reporters in 1951.[121] The Tribune's cultural criticism was also prominent: John Crosby's radio and television column was syndicated in 29 newspapers by 1949,[122] and Walter Kerr began a successful three decade career as a Broadway reviewer at the Tribune in 1951.[123] Its Paris edition, still profitable after the war, published the first columns by Art Buchwald.[124] However, the paper's losses were continuing to mount. Whitelaw Reid was gradually replaced by his brother, Ogden R. Reid, nicknamed "Brown," to take charge of the paper. As a reporter on the city desk in the early 50s, Reid had written a series of inflammatory but poorly-sourced stories alleging U.S. military weakness and a vast Communist conspiracy to undermine the United States, fed to him by Federal Bureau of Investigation director J. Edgar Hoover.[125] As president and publisher of the paper, Brown Reid tried to interject an energy his brother lacked and reach out to new audiences. In that spirit, the Tribune ran a promotion called "Tangle Towns," where readers were invited to unscramble the names of jumbled up town and city names in exchange for prizes.[126] Reid also gave more prominent play to crime and entertainment stories. Much of the staff, including Whitelaw Reid, felt there was too much focus on circulation at the expense of the paper's editorial standards, but the promotions initially worked, boosting its weekday circulation to over 400,000.[127][128]

Reid's ideas, however, "were prosaic in the extreme."[129] His promotions included printing the sports section on green newsprint[130] and a pocket-sized magazine for television listings that initially stopped the Sunday paper's circulation skid, but proved an empty product.[131] The Tribune turned a profit in 1956, but the Times was rapidly outpacing it in both news content, circulation and ad revenue.[132] The promotions largely failed to hold on to the Tribune's new audiences; the Sunday edition began to slide again and the paper began to lose money again the following year.[133] The Reids, who had by now turned their mortgage into stock, began seeking buyers to infuse the Tribune with cash, turning to John Hay "Jock" Whitney, whose family had a long association with the Reids.[134] Whitney, recently named ambassador to Great Britain, had chaired Dwight Eisenhower's fundraising campaigns in 1952 and 1956 and was looking for something else to engage him beyond his largely ceremonial role in Great Britain.[135] Whitney, who "did not want the Tribune to die,"[136] gave the newspaper $1.2 million over the objections of his investment advisors, who had doubts about the newspaper's viability.[135] The loan came with the option to take controlling interest of the newspaper if he made a second loan of $1.3 million.[137] Brown Reid expected the $1.2 million to cover a deficit that would last through the end of 1958, but by that year the newspaper's loss was projected at $3 million.[138]

That year, the Reids sold control to Whitney. Under Whitney, the paper regained some of its lustre, deciding that since it could not compete with The New York Times in sheer volume of news, it would be faster, feistier and funnier. In this period, the Herald Tribune was radically re-designed under editor-in-chief John Denson and executive editor Freeman Fulbright, and new writers like Tom Wolfe were encouraged to contribute. But the key to success was still advertising dollars, and on that count The Times was the leader. A series of strikes throughout the 1960s did not help the paper's balance sheet.

In 1966, Whitney attempted to organize what would have been New York's first joint operating agreement (JOA) with the Hearst-owned New York Journal American and the Scripps-owned New York World-Telegram and Sun; under the proposed agreement, the Herald Tribune would have continued publication as the morning partner, and a merged Journal-American and World-Telegram would have been the afternoon paper. The JOA was to take effect on May 1, 1966, but the unions immediately threw up a strike, and as the months dragged on, a compromise three-way merger was arrived at on August 15.[139]

The result was the short-lived afternoon New York World Journal Tribune. The first weeks' editions were dominated by the input of the Hearst and Scripps papers, but after a time, the "Widget" (as the merged publication was nicknamed) took on the appearance and style of the late-era Herald Tribune. However, the paper was not a success and folded for good on May 5, 1967.[140]

Following the collapse of the World Journal Tribune, The New York Times and the Washington Post became joint owners with Whitney of the Herald Tribune's European edition, the International Herald Tribune, which is still published under full ownership by the Times, which bought out the Post holdings in 2003.[141] In 2013, the Times annoounced it would be renaming it to the International New York Times. New York magazine is also a descendant of the Herald Tribune, having originally been the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine, a livelier version of The New York Times Magazine. Following the death of the World Journal Tribune, New York editor Clay Felker organized a group of investors who bought the name and rights, and successfully revived the weekly in 1968.

In Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960), the student and aspiring journalist Patricia (Jean Seberg) sells the New York Herald Tribune along the Champs-Élysées. It is also the major focus of the 1952 thriller Assignment Paris, with Dana Andrews as an aggressive New York reporter sent to the Paris newsroom and then Budapest. In the popular Danny Thomas Show on CBS from 1957 to 1964, the main character, Danny Williams (Thomas), a New York nightclub comedian, can be clearly seen in several episodes reading the New York Herald Tribune.

New York Herald Tribune Syndicate comic strips[edit]

Harry Staton became the editor and manager of the Syndicate in 1920, with Buell Weare stepping in as the Syndicate business manager in 1946.

Awards[edit]

In the 1920s, the New York Herald Tribune established one of the first book review sections that reviewed children's books, and in 1937, the newspaper established the Children's Spring Book Festival Award for the best children's book of the previous year, awarded for three target ages groups: 4–8, 8–12, and 12–16.[142] This was the second nationwide children's book award, after the Newbery Medal, and vied with the Newbery for most prestigious for many years.[142]

The "Dingbat"[edit]

For more than a century, the logo of the New York Herald-Tribune, and its later successor, the International Herald Tribune, featured a hand-drawn "dingbat" between the words Herald and Tribune, which first originated as part of the frontpage logotype of the Tribune on April 10, 1866. The drawing included a clock in the center, set to 6:12 pm, and two figures on either side of it, a toga-clad thinker facing leftward and a young child holding an American flag marching rightward. An eagle spreading its wings was perched atop the clock. The dingbat served as an allegorical device to depict antiquity on the left and the progressive American spirit on the right. The significance of the clock's time remains a mystery.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kluger, Richard. The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune. New York; Alfred A. Knopf, 1986, p. 640.
  2. ^ Kluger, Richard. The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune. New York; Alfred A. Knopf, 1986, pp 8-9.
  3. ^ Kluger, p. 9
  4. ^ a b c Kluger, 9.
  5. ^ a b Roberts, Sam (7 March 2013), "Recalling a ‘Writer’s Paper’ as a Name Fades", New York Times (New York): A21, retrieved 2010-03-10 
  6. ^ Roberts, Ibid.
  7. ^ Kluger,9;
  8. ^ Tifft, Susan E. and Jones, Alex S. The Trust: The Public and Private Family Behind The New York Times. New York; Little, Brown and Company, 1999, pp. 254-55.
  9. ^ Kluger, 262.
  10. ^ Kluger, 556.
  11. ^ Kluger, 704-705.
  12. ^ Kluger, 655.
  13. ^ Kluger, 734-735.
  14. ^ Roberts
  15. ^ Kluger, 679.
  16. ^ Kluger, 30
  17. ^ Kluger, 31.
  18. ^ Kluger, 32.
  19. ^ Ibid.
  20. ^ a b Kluger, 35.
  21. ^ Kluger, 36.
  22. ^ Kluger, 37.
  23. ^ Kluger, 39.
  24. ^ Kluger, 64
  25. ^ Kluger, 99
  26. ^ Kluger, 27
  27. ^ Kluger, 44
  28. ^ Kluger, 46
  29. ^ Kluger, 75
  30. ^ Kluger, 51
  31. ^ Kluger, 59
  32. ^ Kluger, 50
  33. ^ Kluger, 102
  34. ^ Kluger, 103-105
  35. ^ Kluger, 106
  36. ^ Tifft and Jones, 31
  37. ^ a b Kluger, 125
  38. ^ Kluger,126-29
  39. ^ Kluger, 129-130
  40. ^ Kluger, 1141
  41. ^ a b Kluger, 143
  42. ^ Kluger, 142
  43. ^ a b Kluger, 144
  44. ^ Kluger, 135
  45. ^ Kluger, 139
  46. ^ Kluger, 152
  47. ^ Kluger, 162
  48. ^ Kluger, 161
  49. ^ Swanberg, W.A. Pulitzer. New York; Charles Scribner and Sons, 1967, 74.
  50. ^ Kluger, 163
  51. ^ Swanberg, 161
  52. ^ a b Kluger, 166
  53. ^ Kluger, 167
  54. ^ Ibid.
  55. ^ Kluger, 175, 179
  56. ^ Tifft and Jones, 32
  57. ^ Tifft and Jones, 44
  58. ^ Ibid.
  59. ^ Tifft and Jones, 56.
  60. ^ Kluger, 182.
  61. ^ Kluger, 183
  62. ^ Swanberg, 333
  63. ^ Kluger, 183-84
  64. ^ Swanberg, 334
  65. ^ Kluger, 176
  66. ^ Kluger, 178
  67. ^ Kluger, 182
  68. ^ Kluger, 187
  69. ^ a b c Kluger, 186
  70. ^ a b Kluger, 210
  71. ^ quoted in Kluger, 229
  72. ^ Kluger, 203
  73. ^ Kluger, 204.
  74. ^ Kluger, 286
  75. ^ Kluger, 205
  76. ^ a b Kluger, 208
  77. ^ Kluger, 212
  78. ^ Kluger, 213
  79. ^ a b c Kluger, 214
  80. ^ http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/
  81. ^ a b Kluger, 215
  82. ^ Kluger, 232
  83. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  84. ^ Kluger, 262
  85. ^ Kluger, 266
  86. ^ Kluger, 280
  87. ^ Kluger, 285
  88. ^ Kluger, 237
  89. ^ Kluger, 242
  90. ^ Kluger, 269
  91. ^ Kluger, 259-60
  92. ^ Kluger, 263
  93. ^ Kluger, 292
  94. ^ Kluger, 293
  95. ^ Kluger, 296
  96. ^ Kluger, 303
  97. ^ Kluger, 325-27
  98. ^ Kluger, 329
  99. ^ Kluger, 328-29
  100. ^ quoted in Kluger, 357
  101. ^ Tifft and Jones, 208
  102. ^ Kluger, 357
  103. ^ Tifft and Jones, 206, 208
  104. ^ Kluger, 357-58.
  105. ^ a b c d Kluger, 358
  106. ^ Kluger, 361
  107. ^ Kluger, 368
  108. ^ Kluger, 371-74
  109. ^ Kluger, 8-9
  110. ^ Kluger, 140
  111. ^ a b Kluger, 360
  112. ^ Kluger, 433
  113. ^ Kluger, 391
  114. ^ Kluger, 423
  115. ^ Kluger, 335
  116. ^ Kluger, 461
  117. ^ Kluger, 424
  118. ^ a b Kluger, 426
  119. ^ Kluger, 453-55
  120. ^ Kluger, 459
  121. ^ Kluger, 449
  122. ^ Kluger, 417
  123. ^ Kluger, 491
  124. ^ Kluger, 482-84
  125. ^ Kluger, 473
  126. ^ Kluger, 495
  127. ^ "Trials of the Trib". Time. 1955-10-10. Retrieved July 17, 2007. 
  128. ^ "Tangle Towns Tangle". Time. 1955-01-10. Retrieved July 17, 2007. 
  129. ^ Kluger, 504
  130. ^ Kluger, 505
  131. ^ Kluger, 505-07
  132. ^ Kluger, 506
  133. ^ Kluger, 521
  134. ^ Kluger, 527
  135. ^ a b Kluger, 529
  136. ^ Kluger, 528
  137. ^ Kluger, 530
  138. ^ Kluger, 550
  139. ^ Associated Press (19 August 1966). New York Herald Tribune Dies Of Labor Difficulties, The Morning Record
  140. ^ Associated Press (6 May 1967) World Journal Trib Conceived In High Hopes; Lost Anyway, The Daytona Beach News-Journal
  141. ^ http://www.ihtinfo.com/pdfs/IHT_ShortHistoryEnglish.pdf
  142. ^ a b Alm, Richard S. (April 1956). "The Development of Literature for Adolescents". The School Review 64(4): pp. 172–177, p.176.

Further reading[edit]

  • Kahn, Roger. Into My Own: The Remarkable People and Events that Shaped a Life. New York: St. Martin's, 2006. ISBN 0-312-33813-9.
  • Kluger, Richard, with the assistance of Kluger, Phyllis. The Paper: the Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune. New York: Knopf, 1986. ISBN 0-394-50877-7.