New York gubernatorial elections

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There have been 90 gubernatorial elections in the state of New York since 1777.

General information[edit]

Originally the term was three years long and began on July 1, the election being held in the last week of April or May 1. In 1817, following the resignation of Daniel D. Tompkins after serving only 8 months of his term, there was a new election, since the 1777 Constitution did not give the Lt. Gov. the right to succeed to the governor's office, and DeWitt Clinton was elected for a whole three-year-term. The New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821 reduced the term to two years - beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31 - and moved the election to the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Due to this measure, DeWitt Clinton's own second term was cut short by half a year. Beginning with the election in 1876, the term was increased to three years again, beginning with the election in 1894 reduced to two years, and since the election in 1938 has its present duration of four years.

Although the candidates for Lieutenant Governor have always run on tickets with the governor's candidates, until the election of 1950 they were elected on separate ballots, so on several occasions (1826, 1846, 1850, 1906, 1924) the governor and his lieutenant were elected of opposing tickets.

In only 15 of the total 89 elections the incumbent ran and was defeated.

The elected candidates are shown in bold face in the tables below.

Recent Elections[edit]

2010[edit]

Election results by county
2010 gubernatorial election, New York[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Andrew Cuomo 2,910,876 62.5%
Republican Carl Paladino 1,547,757 33.2%
Green Howie Hawkins 59,906 1.3%
Libertarian Warren Redlich 48,359 1.0%
RITDH Jimmy McMillan 41,129 0.9%
Freedom Charles Barron 24,571 0.5%
Anti-Prohibition Kristin M. Davis 20,421 0.5%
Scattering 4,836 0.1%
Majority 1,363,019 29.3
Totals 4,616,836 100.0%

2006[edit]

2006 General election results
Governor candidate Running mate Party Popular Vote
Election results by county.
Eliot Spitzer David Paterson Democratic,
Independence,
Working Families
3,086,709 69.6%
John Faso C. Scott Vanderhoef Republican,
Conservative
1,274,335 28.7%
Malachy McCourt Alison Duncan Green 42,166 1.0%
John Clifton Donald Silberger Libertarian 14,736 0.3%
Jimmy McMillan Rent Is Too Damn High 13,355 0.3%
Maura DeLuca Ben O'Shaughnessy Socialist Workers 5,919 0.1%
Phoebe Legere Nancy Beattie Integrity
Jennifer Liese Wendy Holibaugh Right to Life

2002[edit]

2002 General election results
Governor candidate Running mate Party Popular Vote
In red are counties where Pataki won, in blue by McCall and in green by Golisano. The blue patch is NYC except Staten Island
George Pataki Mary Donohue Republican,
Conservative
2,262,255 48.23%
Carl McCall Dennis Mehiel Democratic,
Working Families
1,534,064 32.70%
B. Thomas Golisano Mary Donohue Independence 654,016 13.94%
Gerard J. Cronin Stasia T. Vogel Right to Life 44,195 0.94%
Stanley Aronowitz Jennifer Daniels Green 41,797 0.89%
Thomas K. Leighton Thomas J. Hillgardner Marijuana Reform 21,977 0.47%
Andrew M. Cuomo Charles G. King Liberal 15,761 0.34%
Scott Jeffrey Jay Greco Libertarian 5,013 0.11%

1966-1998[edit]

Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1938. The term is four years.

1998 General election results
Governor candidate Running mate Party Popular Vote
In red are counties carried by Pataki and in blue by Vallone. The blue patch is NYC except Staten Island
George E. Pataki Mary O. Donohue Republican,
Conservative
2,571,991 54.32%
Peter F. Vallone, Sr. Sandra Frankel Democrat,
Working Families
1,570,317 33.16%
B. Thomas Golisano Laureen Oliver Independence 364,056 7.69%
Betsy McCaughey Ross Jonathan C. Reiter Liberal 77,915 1.65%
Michael Reynolds Karen Prior Right to Life 56,683 1.20%
Al Lewis Alice Green Green 52,533 1.11%
Thomas K. Leighton Jeffrey C. Wright Marijuana Reform 24,788 0.52%
Mary Alice France Unity Party 9,692 0.20%
Chris Garvey Don Silberger Libertarian 4,722 0.10%
Al Duncan Ruth Robinett Socialist Workers 2,539 0.05%

Note: 4,985,932 ballots have been cast on that election. Out of them, 250,696 were declared blank, void or missing.

1994 General election results
Governor candidate Running mate Party Popular Vote
George E. Pataki Betsy McCaughey Ross Republican,
Conservative,
Tax Cut Now
2,538,702 (48.8%)
Mario M. Cuomo Stan Lundine Democratic,
Liberal
2,364,904 (45.4%)
B. Thomas Golisano Dominick Fusco Independence Fusion 217,490 (4.1%)
Robert T. Walsh Virginia E. Sutton Right to Life 67,750 (1.3%)
Robert L. Schulz Stan Dworkin Libertarian 9,506 (0.2%)
Lawrence Lane May Nell Bockman Socialist Workers 5,410 (0.1%)
1990 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Mario M. Cuomo Stan Lundine Democratic,
Liberal
2,157,087 (53.17%)
Pierre Rinfret George Yancey, Jr. Republican 865,948 (21.35%)
Herbert London Anthony DiPerna Conservative 827,614 (20.40%)
Louis P. Wein Gertrude G. Manning Right to Life 137,804 (3.40%)
Lenora Fulani Ada I. Vazquez New Alliance 31,089 (0.77%)
W. Gary Johnson Dottie Lou Brokaw Libertarian 24,611 (0.61%)
Craig Gannon Susan Anmuth Socialist Workers 12,743 (0.31%)
1986 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Mario M. Cuomo Stan Lundine Democratic,
Liberal
2,775,045 (64.63%)
Andrew O'Rourke E. Michael Kavanagh Republican,
Conservative
1,363,968 (31.77%)
Denis Dillon Thomas E. Drolesky Right to Life 130,827 (3.05%)
Lenora Fulani Rafael Mendez New Alliance 24,135 (0.56%)
1982 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Mario M. Cuomo Alfred DelBello Democratic,
Liberal
2,675,213 (50.91%)
Lewis Lehrman James L. Emery Republican,
Conservative,
2,494,827 (47.48%)
Robert J. Bohner Paul Callahan Right to Life 52,356 (1.00%)
John H. Northrup David Hoesley Libertarian 16,913 (0.32%)
Jane Benedict Angela M. Gilliam Unity 6,353 (0.12%)
Nancy Ross Lenora Fulani New Alliance 5,277 (0.10%)
Diane Wang Peter A. Thierjung Socialist Workers 3,766 (0.07%)
1978 General General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Hugh Carey Mario M. Cuomo Democratic,
Liberal
2,429,272 (50.95%)
Perry Duryea, Jr. Bruce Caputo Republican,
Conservative
2,156,404 (45.22%)
Mary Jane Tobin Ellen McCormack Right to Life 130,193 (2.73%)
Gary Greenberg James Franz Libertarian 18,990 (0.40%)
Dianne M. Feeley Kevin E. Kellogg Socialist Workers 12,987 (0.27%)
Jarvis Tyner Grace Mora-Newman Communist 11,400 (0.24%)
Paul Gallagher J. Philip Rubinstein Labor 9,073 (0.19%)
1974 General General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Hugh Carey Mary Anne Krupsak Democratic,
Liberal
3,028,503 (57.22%)
Malcolm Wilson Ralph G. Caso Republican
Conservative
2,219,667 (41.94%)
Wayne S. Amato Charles R. Schanger Courage 12,459 (0.24%)
Jerry Tuccille Louis J. Sicilia Free Libertarian 10,503 (0.20%)
Derrick Morrison James Mendietta Socialist Workers 8,857 (0.17%)
Jose A. Ristorucci Carol A. Twigg Communist 5,232 (0.10%)
John Emanuel (none) Socialist Labor 4,574 (0.09%)
Anton Chaitkin Victoria Staton Labor 3,151 (0.06%)
1970 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Nelson A. Rockefeller Malcolm Wilson Republican,
Civil Service Independent
3,151,432 (52.41%)
Arthur Goldberg Basil Paterson Democratic,
Liberal
2,421,426 (40.27%)
Paul L. Adams Edward F. Leonard Conservative 422,514 (7.03%)
Rasheed Storey Grace Mora-Newman Communist 7,760 (0.13%)
Clifton DeBerry Jonathan Rothschild Socialist Workers 5,766 (0.10%)
Stephen Emery Arnold Babel Socialist Labor 3,963 (0.07%)

Note: The highest number of votes ever received by any Governor of NY until today

1966 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Nelson A. Rockefeller Malcolm Wilson Republican 2,690,626 (44.61%)
Frank D. O'Connor Howard J. Samuels Democratic 2,298,363 (38.11%)
Paul L. Adams Kieran O'Doherty Conservative 513,023 (8.46%)
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. Donald S. Harrington Liberal 507,234 (8.41%)
Milton Herder Doris Ballantyne Socialist Labor 12,730 (0.21%)
Judith White Richard Garza Socialist Workers 12,506 (0.21%)

1938-1962[edit]

1962 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Nelson A. Rockefeller Malcolm Wilson Republican 3,081587 (53.08%)
Robert M. Morgenthau John J. Burns Democratic,
Liberal
2,552,418 (43.97%)
David H. Jaquith E. Vernon Carbonara Conservative 141,877 (2.44%)
Richard Garza Sylvia Weinstein Socialist Workers 19,698 (0.34%)
Eric Hass John Emanuel Socialist Labor 9,762 (0.17%)
1958 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Nelson A. Rockefeller Malcolm Wilson Republican 3,126,929
W. Averell Harriman George DeLuca Democratic,
Liberal
2,553,895
John T. McManus Annette T. Rubinstein Independent-Socialist 31,658
Eric Hass John Emanuel Socialist Labor
1954 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
W. Averell Harriman George DeLuca Democratic,
Liberal
2,560,738 (49.61%)
Irving Ives J. Raymond McGovern Republican 2,549,613 (49.40%)
John T. McManus Karen Morley American Labor 46,886 (0.91%)
David L. Weiss Dorothy Haines Socialist Workers 2,617 (0.05%)
Nathan Karp Stephen Emery Industrial Government 1,720 (0.03%)
1950 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Thomas E. Dewey Frank C. Moore Republican 2,819,523 (53.11%)
Walter A. Lynch Richard H. Balch Democratic,
Liberal
2,246,855 (42.32%)
John T. McManus Clementina J. Paolone American Labor 221,966 (4.18%)
Michael Bartell Gladys Barker Socialist Workers 13,274 (0.25%)
Eric Hass Nathan Karp Industrial Government 7,254 (0.14%)
1946 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Thomas E. Dewey Joe R. Hanley Republican 2,825,633 (56.92%)
James M. Mead Erastus Corning 2nd Democratic,
Liberal,
American Labor
2,138,482 (43.08%)
1943 Special election results
Lieutenant Governor candidate Party Popular Vote
Joe R. Hanley Republican 1,846,314 (55.29%)
William N. Haskell Democratic 1,493,082 (44.71%)
1942 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Thomas E. Dewey Thomas W. Wallace Republican 2,148,546 (52.10%)
John J. Bennett, Jr. Charles Poletti Democratic 1,501,039 (36.40%)
Dean Alfange Charles Poletti American Labor 403,626 (9.79%)
Israel Amter (none) Communist 45,220 (1.10%)
Coleman B. Cheney Samuel H. Friedman Socialist 21,911 (0.53%)
Aaron M. Orange Bronko Papadopolos Industrial Government 3,496 (0.08%)
1938 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Herbert H. Lehman Charles Poletti Democratic,
American Labor
2,391,286 (50.38%)
Thomas E. Dewey Frederic Holdrege Bontecou Republican,
Independent Progressive
2,326,682 (49.02%)
Norman Thomas George W. Hartmann Socialist 24,980 (0.53%)
Aaron M. Orange Jacob Berlin Industrial Government 3,516 (0.07%)

1894-1936[edit]

Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1894. The term was two years.

1936 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Herbert H. Lehman M. William Bray Democratic,
American Labor
2,970,575 (53.45%)
William F. Bleakley Ralph K. Robertson Republican 2,450,104 (44.09%)
Harry W. Laidler Herman J. Hahn Socialist 96,233 (1.73%)
Robert Minor Julian S. Sawyer Communist 40,406 (0.73%)
1934 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Herbert H. Lehman M. William Bray Democratic 2,201,729 (58.01%)
Robert Moses Fred James Douglas Republican 1,393,638 (36.72%)
Charles Solomon Herman Kobbe Socialist 126,580 (3.34%)
Israel Amter William J. Burroughs Communist 45,878 (1.21%)
William F. Varney James F. Luckey Law Preservation 20,449 (0.54%)
Aaron M. Orange Emil F. Teichert Socialist Labor 7,225 (0.19%)
1932 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Herbert H. Lehman M. William Bray Democratic 2,659,519 (56.69%)
William J. Donovan F. Trubee Davison Republican 1,812,080 (38.62%)
Louis Waldman Charles W. Noonan Socialist 102,959 (2.19%)
John F. Vichert H. Westlake Coon Law Preservation 83,452 (1.78%)
Israel Amter Henry Shepard Communist 26,407 (0.56%)
Aaron M. Orange Emil F. Teichert Socialist Labor 7,233 (0.15%)
1930 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Herbert H. Lehman Democratic 1,770,342 (56.49%)
Charles H. Tuttle Caleb Howard Baumes Republican 1,045,341 (33.36%)
Robert Paris Carroll (none) Law Preservation 190,666 (6.08%)
Louis Waldman Elizabeth C. Roth Socialist 100,444 (3.21%)
William Z. Foster J. Louis Engdahl Communist 18,034 (0.58%)
Jeremiah D. Crowley Charles M. Carlson Socialist Labor 9,096 (0.29%)
1928 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Herbert H. Lehman Democratic 2,130,193 (48.96%)
Albert Ottinger Charles C. Lockwood Republican 2,104,129 (48.36%)
Louis Waldman Herman J. Hahn Socialist 101,859 (2.34%)
William F. Dunne Franklin P. Brill Workers 10,741 (0.25%)
Charles H. Corregan John E. DeLee Socialist Labor 4,213 (0.10%)
1926 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith Edwin Corning Democratic 1,523,813 (52.13%)
Ogden L. Mills Seymour Lowman Republican 1,276,137 (43.80%)
Jacob Panken August Claessens Socialist 83,481 (2.87%)
Charles E. Manierre Ella L. McCarthy Prohibition 21,285 (0.73%)
Benjamin Gitlow Franklin P. Brill Workers 5,507 (0.19%)
Jeremiah D. Crowley John E. DeLee Socialist Labor 3,553 (0.12%)
1924 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith George R. Lunn Democratic 1,627,111 (49.96%)
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Seymour Lowman Republican 1,518,552 (46.63%)
Norman Mattoon Thomas Charles Solomon Socialist 99,854 (3.07%)
James P. Cannon Franklin P. Brill Workers 6,395 (0.20%)
Frank E. Passanno Milton Weinberger Socialist Labor 4,931 (0.15%)

Note: This was the last time the running mate of the elected governor was defeated, Democrat Smith having Republican Lowman as lieutenant for the duration of this term.

1922 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith George R. Lunn Democratic 1,397,670 (55.22%)
Nathan L. Miller William J. Donovan Republican 1,011,725 (39.98%)
Edward F. Cassidy Theresa B. Wiley Socialist,
Farmer-Labor
108,136 (4.27%)
George K. Hinds William C. Ramsdell Prohibition 9,561 (0.38%)
Jeremiah D. Crowley John E. DeLee Socialist Labor 3,799 (0.15%)
1920 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Nathan L. Miller Jeremiah Wood Republican 1,335,878 (46.58%)
Alfred E. Smith George R. Fitts Democratic 1,261,812 (44.00%)
Joseph D. Cannon Jessie Wallace Hughan Socialist 159,804 (5.57%)
Dudley Field Malone Robert E. Haffey Farmer-Labor 69,908 (2.44%)
George F. Thompson Edward G. Dietrich Prohibition 35,509 (1.24%)
John P. Quinn Jeremiah D. Crowley Social Labor 5,015 (0.17%)

Notes:

  • [5] List of candidates, in NYT on September 13, 1920
  • [6] List of candidates, in NYT on October 27, 1920
1918 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alfred E. Smith Harry C. Walker Democratic 1,009,936 (47.37%)
Charles S. Whitman Edward Schoeneck (Republican),
Mamie W. Colvin (Prohibition)
Republican,
Prohibition
995,094 (46.68%)
Charles Wesley Ervin Ella Reeve Bloor Socialist 121,705 (5.71%)
Olive M. Johnson August Gillhaus Socialist Labor 5,183 (0.24%)

Notes:

  • This was the first time women voted for governor of New York, and Alfred E. Smith was the first governor elected with more than 1 million votes.
  • Election result in NYT on December 31, 1918
1916 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Charles S. Whitman Edward Schoeneck (Republican),
L. Bradley Dorr (Progressive),
Thomas J. Kreuzer (American)
Republican,
Progressive,
American
850,020 (52.63%)
Samuel Seabury Thomas J. Kreuzer Democratic 686.862 (42.53%)
Algernon Lee Stephen J. Mahoney Socialist 52,560 (3.25%)
Charles E. Welch Clarence Z. Spriggs Prohibition 21,773 (1.35%)
Jeremiah D. Crowley Boris Reinstein Socialist Labor 3,847 (0.24%)
1914 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Charles S. Whitman Edward Schoeneck Republican 686,701 (47.69%)
Martin H. Glynn Thomas B. Lockwood Democratic,
Independence League
541,269 (37.59%)
William Sulzer Charles E. Welch American,
Prohibition
126,270 (8.77%)
Frederick Morgan Davenport Chauncey J. Hamlin Progressive 45,586 (3.17%)
Gustave Adolph Strebel Stephen J. Mahoney Socialist 37,793 (2.62%)
James F. Hunter Jeremiah D. Crowley Socialist Labor 2,350 (0.16%)

Note: William Sulzer had been elected governor as a Democrat at the previous election, but was impeached. Martin Glynn had been elected Lt. Gov and succeeded to the governorship upon Sulzer's impeachment

1912 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
William Sulzer Martin H. Glynn Democratic 649,559 (41.46%)
Job E. Hedges James W. Wadsworth, Jr. Republican 444,105 (28.35%)
Oscar Solomon Straus Frederick Morgan Davenport Independence League,
Progressive
393,183 (25.10%)
Charles Edward Russell Gustave A. Strebel Socialist 56,917 (3.63%)
T. Alexander MacNicholl Clark Allis Prohibition 18,990 (1.21%)
John Hall Jeremiah D. Crowley Socialist Labor 3,792 (0.24%)
1910 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Alden Dix Thomas F. Conway Democratic 689,700 (48.00%)
Henry L. Stimson Edward Schoeneck Republican 622,299 (43.31%)
Charles Edward Russell Gustave A. Strebel Socialist 48,529 (3.38%)
John J. Hopper William Randolph Hearst Independence League 48,470 (3.37%)
T. Alexander MacNicholl Calvin McCarthy Prohibition 22,295 (1.55%)
Frank E. Passanno James F. Hunter Socialist Labor 5,717 (0.40%)

Note: Election result, in NYT on December 16, 1910

1908 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Charles Evans Hughes Horace White Republican 804,651 (49.08%)
Lewis S. Chanler John Alden Dix Democratic 735,189 (44.84%)
Clarence J. Shearn Daniel W. Finnimore Independence League 43,212 (2.64%)
Joshua Wanhope Gustave A. Strebel Socialist 33,994 (2.07%)
George E. Stockwell Marshall A. Hudson Prohibition 18,802 (1.15%)
Leander A. Armstrong Frank E. Passanno Socialist Labor 3,655 (0.22%)
1906 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Charles Evans Hughes M. Linn Bruce Republican 749,002 (50.52%)
William Randolph Hearst Lewis S. Chanler Democratic,
Independence League
691,105 (46.62%)
John C. Chase Gustave A. Strebel Socialist 21,751 (1.47%)
Henry M. Randall Freeman H. Bettys Prohibition 15,985 (1.08%)
Thomas H. Jackson Frank E. Passanno Socialist Labor 4,624 (0.31%)
1904 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Frank W. Higgins M. Linn Bruce Republican 813,264 (50.27%)
D. Cady Herrick Francis B. Harrison Democratic 732,704 (45.29%)
Thomas Pendergast Charles R. Bach Social Democratic 36,259 (2.24%)
John McKee Alden W. Young Prohibition 20,568 (1.27%)
Daniel De Leon Boris Reinstein Socialist Labor 8,976 (0.55%)
Alfred J. Boulton Charles Spaulding People's Party 6,015 (0.37%)
1902 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Benjamin B. Odell, Jr. Frank W. Higgins Republican 665,150 (48.09%)
Bird Sim Coler Charles N. Bulger Democratic 656,347 (47.45%)
Benjamin Hanford William Thurston Brown Social Democratic 23,400 (1.69%)
Alfred Lee Manierre John A. Hartman Prohibition 20,490 (1.48%)
Daniel De Leon Socialist Labor 15,886 (1.15%)
Edgar Lee Ryder J. C. Corbin Liberal Democratic 1,894 (0,14%)
1900 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Benjamin B. Odell, Jr. Timothy L. Woodruff Republican 804,859 (51.97%)
John B. Stanchfield William F. Mackey Democratic 693,733 (44.80%)
William T. Wardwell Albert J. Rumsey Prohibition 22,704 (1.47%)
Charles H. Corregan Leander A. Armstrong Socialist Labor 13,762 (0.89%)
Benjamin Hanford William Butscher Social Democratic 13,493 (0.87%)
1898 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Theodore Roosevelt Timothy L. Woodruff Republican 661,707 49.02%
Augustus Van Wyck Elliott Danforth Democratic 643,921 47.70%
Benjamin Hanford Leander A. Armstrong Socialist Labor 23,860 1.77%
John Kline John A. Sayles Prohibition 18,383 1.36%
Theodore Bacon Thomas M. Osborne Citizens Union 2,103 0.16%
1896 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Frank S. Black Timothy L. Woodruff Republican 787,516 (52.63%)
Wilbur F. Porter Frederick C. Schraub Democratic,
People's
574,524 (40.33%)
Daniel G. Griffin Frederick W. Hinrichs National Democratic 26,698 (1.87%)
Howard Balkam Frederick Bennets Socialist Labor 18,362 (1.29%)
William W. Smith Charles E. Latimer Prohibition 17,419 (1.22%)

Note: The majority faction of the Democratic Party were then known as "Silver Democrats", the "National Democrats" were the "Gold Democrats".[2]

1894 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Levi P. Morton Charles T. Saxton Republican 673,818 (47.69%)
David B. Hill Daniel N. Lockwood Democratic 517,710 (40.79%)
Everett P. Wheeler Daniel N. Lockwood Democratic Reform 27,202 (2.14%)
Francis E. Baldwin Justus Miller Prohibition 23,525 (1.85%)
Charles H. Matchett William F. Steer Socialist Labor 15,868 (1.25%)
Charles B. Matthews Robert C. Hewson People's 11,049 (0.87%)

Notes:

1876-1891[edit]

Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1846, amended in 1874. The term was three years.

1891 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Roswell P. Flower William F. Sheehan Democratic 582,893 (50.13%)
Jacob S. Fassett John W. Vrooman Republican 534,956 (46.00%)
Joseph W. Bruce George W. Hallock (d. 1895)[3] Prohibition 30,353 (2.61%)
Daniel DeLeon Frank Gesser Socialist Labor 14,651 (1.26%)
1888 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
David B. Hill Edward F. Jones Democratic 650,464 (49.45%)
Warner Miller Stephen Van Rensselaer Cruger (Republican),
John H. Blakeney (United Labor);[4][5]
Republican,
United Labor Party
631,293 (48.00%)
W. Martin Jones George F. Powell Prohibition 30,215 (2.30%)
J. Edward Hall Christian Pattberg Socialist Labor[6] 3,348 (0.25%)
1885 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
David B. Hill Edward F. Jones Democratic 501,465 (48.93%)
Ira Davenport Joseph Bradford Carr Republican 490,331 (47.85%)
Henry Clay Bascom W. Jennings Demorest Prohibition 30,867 (3.01%)
George O. Jones Lyman W. Gage National Greenback-Labor 2,130 (0.21%)
1882 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Grover Cleveland David B. Hill Democratic 535,318 (58.47%)
Charles J. Folger B. Platt Carpenter Republican 342,464 (37.41%)
Alphonso A. Hopkins William H. Boole Prohibition 25,783 (2.82%)
Epenetus Howe James Allen National Greenback-Labor 11,974 (1.31%)
1879 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Alonzo B. Cornell George Gilbert Hoskins Republican 418,567
Lucius Robinson Clarkson N. Potter Democratic 375,790
John Kelly Clarkson N. Potter (Tammany Hall),
John M. Wieting (Working Men),
Robert W. Hume (Jeffersonian Democratic)
Tammany Hall,
Working Men,
Jeffersonian Democratic
77,566
Harris Lewis John M. Wieting Greenback-Labor 20,286
John W. Mears James H. Bronson Prohibition 4,437
Caleb Pink Osborne Ward Socialist Labor
  • The tickets: [7] in NYT on November 3, 1879
1876 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Lucius Robinson William Dorsheimer Democratic 519,831 (51.97%)
Edwin D. Morgan Sherman S. Rogers Republican 489,371 (48.26%)
William J. Groo Albert F. Brown Prohibition 3,412 (0.34%)
Richard Montgomery Griffin [7] Thomas Armstrong [8] Greenback 1,436 (0.14%)
  • The tickets: [8] in NYT on November 2, 1876
  • The Greenback convention: [9] in NYT on September 27, 1876

1847-1874[edit]

Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1846. The term was two years.

1874 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Samuel Jones Tilden William Dorsheimer Democratic 416,391 (52.43%)
John Adams Dix John Cleveland Robinson Republican 366,074 (46.09%)
Myron Holley Clark James L. Bagg [9] Prohibition 11,768 (1.48%)
1872 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Adams Dix John Cleveland Robinson Republican 445,801 (53.19%)
Francis Kernan Chauncey M. Depew Democratic,
Liberal Republican
392,350 (46.81%)
1870 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Thompson Hoffman Allen C. Beach Democratic 399,490 (52.19%)
Stewart L. Woodford Sigismund Kaufman Republican 366,424 (47.84%)

The Tickets: [10] in NYT on October 30, 1870

1868 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Thompson Hoffman Allen C. Beach Democratic 439,301 (51.64%)
John Augustus Griswold Alonzo B. Cornell Republican (48.36%)
1866 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Reuben E. Fenton Stewart L. Woodford Republican 366,315 (50.96%)
John Thompson Hoffman Robert H. Pruyn Conservative Union 352,526 (49.04%)

Note: John T. Hoffman was a Democrat, Robert H. Pruyn a Republican. The "Conservative Union" ticket was nominated by the Democrats in an attempt to attract Republicans, especially Democrats who had joined the Republican Union and remained Republicans after the Civil War, to return to the Democratic Party.[10]

1864 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Reuben E. Fenton Thomas G. Alvord Republican Union 369,557 (50.57%)
Horatio Seymour David R. Floyd-Jones Democratic 361,264 (49.43%)
1862 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Horatio Seymour David R. Floyd-Jones Democratic 306,649 (50.89%)
James S. Wadsworth Lyman Tremain Republican Union 295,897 (49.11%)

Note:

  • Horatio Seymour was the candidate of the Democratic Party which d to end the war.[11]
  • James Wadsworth was a Republican, Lyman Tremain a pre-war Democrat, nominated by the Republican Union in which the Republican Party was joined by the War Democrats who supported Lincoln and the Union.
  • The total of ballots cast were more than 70,000 less than in the previous election because the soldiers in the field were not allowed to vote.
1860 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Edwin D. Morgan Robert Campbell Republican 358,272 (53.24%)
William Kelly William C. Crain Douglas Democracy 294,812 (43.81%)
James T. Brady Henry K. Viele Breckinridge Democracy 19,841 (2.95%)

Note:

  • William Kelly was the candidate of the majority faction of the Democratic Party which supported Stephen A. Douglas for President.[12]
  • James T. Brady was a member of Tammany Hall, nominated by the minority faction of the Democratic Party which supported John C. Breckinridge for President.[13]
1858 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Edwin D. Morgan Robert Campbell Republican 257,953 (45.49%)
Amasa J. Parker John J. Taylor Democratic 230,513 (42.29%)
Lorenzo Burrows Nathaniel S. Benton American 61,137 (11.22%)
Gerrit Smith Sidney A. Beers Abolitionist[14] 5,470 (1.00%)
1856 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Alsop King Henry R. Selden Republican 264,400 (44.52%)
Amasa J. Parker John Vanderbilt Democratic 198,616 (33.44%)
Erastus Brooks Lyman Odell American 130,870 (22.04%)
1854 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Myron H. Clark Henry J. Raymond (Whig, Anti-Nebraska, Temperance),
Bradford R. Wood (Anti-Rent, Free Democratic)
Whig,
Anti-Nebraska,
Anti-Rent,
Free Democratic,
Temperance
156,804 (33.38%)
Horatio Seymour William H. Ludlow Democratic (Soft) 156,495 (33.32%)
Daniel Ullmann Gustavus Adolphus Scroggs American 122,282 (26.03%)
Greene C. Bronson Elijah Ford Democratic (Hard) 33,850 (7.21%)
William Goodell Austin Ward Liberty 289 (0.06%)

Notes:

  • Result: [11] Official State Canvass in NYT on December 21, 1854 (William Goodell's votes were counted among the "scattering votes").
  • Myron H. Clark won this election with the lowest percentage ever in NY Gov. elections, nominated by the Whigs (of which party he was a member), and endorsed by the Anti-Nebraska Party [15] (which merged in 1855 with the Whigs to form the Republican Party), the Anti-Rent Party,[16] the "Free Democrats" [17] (the remnants of the Free-Soil Party with radical anti-slavery Democrats), and the supporters of Temperance.[18]
  • The "Soft" or "Soft-shell" candidate was the choice of the majority faction of the Democratic Party.
  • The American Party was called "Know Nothing" in contemporaneous newspapers.
  • The "National Democracy" (a faction of the Democratic Party) were called "Hards" or "Hard-shells" by contemporaneous newspapers.
  • Liberty Party convention [12] in NYT on September 29, 1854
1852 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Horatio Seymour Sanford E. Church Democratic 264,121 (50.31%)
Washington Hunt William Kent Whig 241,525 (46.01%)
Minthorne Tompkins Seth Merrill Gates Free Democratic 19,296 (3.68%)
1850 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Washington Hunt George J. Cornell (Whig)
Sanford E. Church (Anti-Rent)
Whig,
Anti-Rent
214,614 (49.64%)
Horatio Seymour Sanford E. Church Democratic 214,352 (49.57%)
William Lawrence Chaplin Joseph Plumb (1791–1870) Liberty 3,416 (0.79%)
1848 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Hamilton Fish George Washington Patterson Whig 218,776 (47.56%)
John Adams Dix Seth Merrill Gates Democratic (Barnburner),
Free Soil
122,811 (26.70%)
Reuben H. Walworth Charles O'Conor Democratic (Hunker) 116,811 (25.39%)
William Goodell Robert Anderson Liberty 1,593 (0.35%)
1847 Special election results
Lieutenant Governor candidate Party Popular Vote
Hamilton Fish Whig 170,072 (52.63%)
Nathan Dayton Democratic 139,623 (43.21%)
Charles O. Shepard Liberty,
Anti-Rent
13,429 (4.16%)

Note:

  • At the first judicial election under the Constitution of 1846, Addison Gardiner was elected in June 1847 to the Court of Appeals, to take office on July 1, 1847. To fill the vacancy, on September 27, a special election was scheduled by the State Legislature to be held at the annual state election.[19]
  • Result Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York (1852)

1822-1846[edit]

Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1821. The term was two years. Until 1840, elections were held during three days beginning on the first Monday in November, and since 1841, until today, all regular elections have been held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The elected candidate takes office on January 1 of the following calendar year.

1846 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Young Hamilton Fish (Whig)
Addison Gardiner (Anti-Rent)
Whig,
Anti-Rent
198,878 (49.07%)
Silas Wright Addison Gardiner Democratic 187,306 (46.21%)
Henry Bradley William Lawrence Chaplin Liberty,
National Reform
12,844 (3.17%)
Ogden Edwards George Folsom Native American 6,305 (1.56%)
1844 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Silas Wright Addison Gardiner Democratic 241,090 (49.48%)
Millard Fillmore Samuel J. Wilkin Whig 231,057 (47.42%)
Alvan Stewart Charles O. Shepard Liberty 15,136 (3.11%)
1842 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
William C. Bouck Daniel S. Dickinson Democratic 208,072 (51.83%)
Luther Bradish Gabriel Furman Whig 186,091 (46.36%)
Alvan Stewart Charles O. Shepard Liberty 7,263 (1.81%)
1840 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
William H. Seward Luther Bradish Whig 222,011 (50.29%)
William C. Bouck Daniel S. Dickinson Democratic 216,808 (49.11%)
Gerrit Smith Charles O. Shepard Liberty 2,662 (0.60%)
1838 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
William H. Seward Luther Bradish Whig 192,882 (51.39%)
William L. Marcy John Tracy Democratic 182,461 (48.61%)
1836 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
William L. Marcy John Tracy Democratic 166,122 (54.24%)
Jesse Buel Gamaliel H. Barstow Whig 136,648 (44.62%)
Isaac S. Smith Moses Jaques Equal Rights 3,496 (1.14%)
1834 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
William L. Marcy John Tracy Democratic 181,905 (51.84%)
William H. Seward Silas M. Stilwell Whig 168,969 (48.16%)
1832 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
William L. Marcy John Tracy Democratic 166,410 (51.51%)
Francis Granger Samuel Stevens Anti-Masonic,
National Republican
156,672 (48.49%)
1830 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Enos T. Throop Edward Philip Livingston Democratic 128,842 (51.22%)
Francis Granger Samuel Stevens Anti-Masonic,
National Republican
120,361 (47.85%)
Ezekiel Williams Isaac S. Smith Workingmen's 2,332 (0.93%)
1828 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Martin Van Buren Enos T. Throop Democratic 136,794 (49.46%)
Smith Thompson Francis Granger National Republican 106,444 (38.49%)
Solomon Southwick John Crary Anti-Masonic 33,345 (12.06%)
1826 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
DeWitt Clinton Henry Huntington Democratic-Republican (Clintonian) 99,785 (50.93%)
William B. Rochester Nathaniel Pitcher Democratic-Republican (Bucktails) 96,135 (49.07%)
1824 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
DeWitt Clinton James Tallmadge, Jr. People's 103,452 (54.29%)
Samuel Young Erastus Root Democratic-Republican 87,093 (45.71%)
1822 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Joseph C. Yates Erastus Root (Bucktails),
Henry Huntingto (Clintonian)[20]
Democratic-Republican 128,293 (97.78%)
Solomon Southwick (none) Independent 2,913 (2.22%)

1777-1820[edit]

Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1777. The term was three years, the election held in the last week of April or on May 1.

1820 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
DeWitt Clinton John Tayler Democratic-Republican (Clintonian) 47,445 (50.78%)
Daniel D. Tompkins Benjamin Mooers Democratic-Republican (Bucktails) 45,990 (49.22%)

Note:

  • Tompkins was the sitting US Vice President.
  • DeWitt Clinton was legislated out of office on December 31, 1822.
1817 Special election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
DeWitt Clinton John Tayler Democratic-Republican 43,310 (96.70%)
Peter Buell Porter (none) Tammany Hall[21] 1,479 (3.30%)

Note: Governor Tompkins was elected US Vice President in November 1816, he resigned in February 1817. Article XVII of the New York State Constitution of 1777 said that "...as often as the seat of government shall become vacant, a wise and descreet freeholder of this State shall be, by ballot, elected governor,...,which elections shall be always held at the times and places of choosing representatives in assembly..." This meant that, whenever a vacancy occurred, the Lt. Gov. did not succeed to the governor's office but administrated the state only until the end of the yearly term of the New York State Assembly on June 30, the successor being elected in April.

1816 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Daniel D. Tompkins John Tayler Democratic-Republican 45,412 (54.02%)
Rufus King George Tibbits Federalist 38,647 (45.98%)
1813 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Daniel D. Tompkins John Tayler Democratic-Republican 43,324 (52.17%)
Stephen Van Rensselaer George Huntington Federalist 39,718 (47.83%)
1811 Special election results
Lieutenant Governor candidate Party Popular Vote
DeWitt Clinton Democratic-Republican 32,747 (50.37%)
Nicholas Fish Federalist 29,046 (44.68%)
Marinus Willett Tammany Hall 3,218 (4.95%)

Note: Lt. Gov. Broome died in August 1810, and the 1777 Constitution provided for new elections if a vacancy occurred either in the Governor's or the Lieutenant Governor's office. See 1817 general election.

1810 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Daniel D. Tompkins John Broome Democratic-Republican 43,094 (54.15%)
Jonas Platt Nicholas Fish Federalist 36,484 (45.85%)
1807 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Daniel D. Tompkins John Broome Democratic-Republican (Clintonian) 35,074 (53.09%)
Morgan Lewis Thomas Storm Democratic-Republican (Lewisites) 30,989 (46.91%)
1804 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
Morgan Lewis John Broome Democratic-Republican (Clintonian) 30,829 (58.20%)
Aaron Burr Oliver Phelps Democratic-Republican (Tammany Hall)
Federalist
22,139 (41.80%)

Note: Aaron Burr was the sitting US Vice President

1801 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
George Clinton Jeremiah Van Rensselaer Democratic-Republican 24,808 (54.34%)
Stephen Van Rensselaer James Watson Federalist 20,843 (45.66%)
1798 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Jay Stephen Van Rensselaer Federalist 16,012 (54.01%)
Robert R. Livingston Stephen Van Rensselaer Democratic-Republican 13,632 (45.99%)
1795 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
John Jay Stephen Van Rensselaer Federalist 13,479 (53.14%)
Robert Yates William Floyd Democratic-Republican 11,884 (46.86%)
1792 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
George Clinton Pierre Van Cortlandt Democratic-Republican 8,440 (50.32%)
John Jay Stephen Van Rensselaer Federalist 8,332 (49.68%)

Note: John Jay received more votes than George Clinton, but on technicalities the votes of Otsego, Tioga and Clinton counties were disqualified and not counted, giving George Clinton a slight majority. Under the Constitution of 1777, the votes were canvassed by a joint committee of the state legislature, six members each from the assembly and the senate. The members were David Gelston, Thomas Tillotson, Melancton Smith, David Graham, Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr., David McCarty, Jonathan N. Havens, Samuel Jones, Isaac Roosevelt, Leonard Gansevoort and Joshua Sands. The state constitution said that the cast votes shall be delivered to the secretary of state "by the sheriff or his deputy". The ballots froms Otsego County were forwarded to the secretary of state by Sheriff Smith who was holding over in office until the appointment of a successor after his term had expired. The ballot box from Clinton County was delivered to the secretary of state's office by a person without deputation who had received the box from the sheriff. The ballot box from Tioga County was delivered to the secretary of state by the clerk of the special deputy appointed by the sheriff. The canvass committee disagreed on whether to allow these ballots to be counted or not. The question was referred to the U.S. Senators from New York, Federalist Rufus King and Dem.-Rep. Aaron Burr, for arbitration. King said all votes ought to be canvassed, Burr said that the ballots from Clinton County ought to be allowed, the ones from Otsego and Tioga Counties should be rejected. Thereupon, a majority of the canvass committee (Gelston, Tillotson, Smith, Graham, Van Cortlandt, McCarty, Havens) rejected the ballots from all three counties and declared George Clinton duly elected governor by a majority of 108 votes. The minority (Jones, Roosevelt, Gansevoort, Sands) protested in writing. In Otsego County, John Jay had a majority of about 400, and discounting the small majorities for Clinton in Tioga and Clinton Counties, would have won the election. Clinton was accused by the Federalists of usurpation and the canvass committee of having made a partisan decision against the wishes of the electorate.[22]

1789 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Party Popular Vote
George Clinton Pierre Van Cortlandt Democratic-Republican 6,391 (51.74%)
Robert Yates Pierre Van Cortlandt Federalist 5,962 (48.26%)
1786 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Popular Vote
George Clinton Pierre Van Cortlandt (100%)

Note:Clinton and Van Cortlandt were re-elected unopposed.

1783 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Popular Vote
George Clinton Pierre Van Cortlandt 3,584 (75.50%)
Philip Schuyler 643 (13.55%)
Ephraim Paine 520 (10.95%)
1780 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate Popular Vote
George Clinton Pierre Van Cortlandt 3,624 (100%)

Note: Clinton and Van Cortlandt were re-elected unopposed.

1778 Special election results
Lieutenant Governor candidate Popular Vote
Pierre Van Cortlandt
1777 General election results
Governor candidate Popular Vote Lieutenant Governor candidate Popular Vote
George Clinton 1,828 (48.44%) George Clinton 1,647 (47.15%)
Philip Schuyler 1,199 (31.77%) Pierre Van Cortlandt 1,098 (31.43%)
John Morin Scott 368 (9.75%) Abraham Ten Broeck 748 (21.41%)
John Jay 367 (9.72%)
Robert R. Livingston 7 (0.19%)
Philip Livingston 5 (0.13%)

S

Notes:

  • The election began on June 1, but due to the Revolutionary War it took some time to collect and count the votes, and the official result was announced on July 9. George Clinton accepted the office of Governor on July 11 and assumed its duties immediately, pending to take the oath as soon as he could safely leave his military command.
  • There were no parties yet, the Democratic-Republican and Federalist Parties appeared only in 1789, until then the candidacies were personal. Besides, the candidates for Governor and Lieutenant Governor were not "running mates", all candidates were voted for independently.
  • The Committee of Safety (the governing body of the State of New York after the Constitutional Convention adjourned) endorsed Philip Schuyler for Governor and George Clinton for Lieutenant Governor, which led to Clinton's receiving votes for both offices and actually winning both. Clinton formally resigned the lieutenant governorship and Pierre Van Cortlandt was elected lieutenant governor in a special election in 1778.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "General Election Results". New York State Board of Elections. December 13, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2010. 
  2. ^ The candidates for state offices, in NYT on November 1, 1896
  3. ^ death notice in NYT on February 11, 1895
  4. ^ United Labor nomination in NYT on September 21, 1888 (name given erroneously as James H. Blakely)
  5. ^ Appleton's Cyclopedia (1889) (giving John H. Blakeney)
  6. ^ Socialist Labor ticket in NYT on October 22, 1888 (giving erroneously "Edward J. Hall")
  7. ^ [1] Death notice in NYT on September 24, 1899
  8. ^ [2] His life and his will, in NYT on December 1, 1899
  9. ^ [3] Obit in NYT on February 13, 1901
  10. ^ The Conservative Union state convention opens in NYT on September 11, 1866
  11. ^ The Democratic state convention in NYT on September 11, 1862
  12. ^ The Democratic candidate accepts in NYT on September 11, 1860
  13. ^ The Breckinridge and Lane Democratic state convention in NYT on August 9, 1860
  14. ^ Smith was nominated by a "State Convention of the Friends of Gerrit Smith" [4] in NYT on August 6, 1858
  15. ^ The Anti-Nebraska state convention in NYT on October 30, 1854
  16. ^ The Anti-Rent state convention in NYT on October 27, 1854
  17. ^ The Free-Soil Democratic state convention opens in NYT on September 26, 1854
  18. ^ The Temperance state convention in NYT on September 28, 1854
  19. ^ Google Book The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough (page 32; Weed, Parsons and Co., 1858)]
  20. ^ De Witt Clinton and the Rise of the People's Men by Craig Hanyan, Mary L. Hanyan (McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 1996, ISBN 0-7735-1434-1 , ISBN 978-0-7735-1434-8 , page 42)
  21. ^ History of Political Parties in the State of New-York by John Stilwell Jenkins (Alden & Markham, Auburn NY, 1846; page 195)
  22. ^ History of Political Parties in the State of New-York by John S. Jenkins (pages 43ff; Alden & Markham, Auburn NY, 1846)
  23. ^ George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic by John P. Kaminski, New York State Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, University of Wisconsin--Madison Center for the Study of the American Constitution (Rowman & Littlefield, 1993, ISBN 0-945612-17-6 , ISBN 978-0-945612-17-9 , page 24)

Sources[edit]