New Zealand Wars
|New Zealand Wars|
Memorial in the Auckland War Memorial Museum for those who died, both European and Māori, in the New Zealand Wars. "Kia mate toa" can be translated as "fight unto death" or "be strong in death", and is the motto of the Otago and Southland Regiment of the New Zealand Army. The flags are that of Gate Pā and the Union Flag.
| British Empire
|18,000 (peak deployment)||5,000 (peak deployment)|
|Casualties and losses|
The New Zealand Wars, sometimes called the Land Wars and also once called the Māori Wars, were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand between 1845 and 1872. The wars were aimed at dislodging the Māori King Movement, which refused to accept colonial authority, and acquiring farming and residential land for English settlers. It involved 18,000 English troops and about 4000 Māori warriors and over the course of the Taranaki and Waikato campaigns took the lives of a total of 800 Europeans and 1800 Māori.
The Treaty of Waitangi, signed in 1840, guaranteed that individual Māori iwi (tribes) should have undisturbed possession of their lands, forests, fisheries and other taonga (treasures) in return for becoming British subjects, selling land to the government only and surrendering sovereignty to the British Government. Historians have debated whether this last point was fully understood by chiefs due to the possible mistranslation of the word "sovereignty" in the treaty copies. The majority of Māori were keen to sign to consolidate peace and end the long inter-tribal Musket Wars 1807–1842. They were also very keen to acquire the technological culture of the British.
All pre-treaty colonial land-sale deals had been completed directly between the two parties. In the early period of contact, the Māori generally sought trade with Europeans. Mission stations were established, and missionaries received land for houses, schools, churches and farms.
Some traders acquired large tracts of land prior to 1840 and the British government was concerned to protect the Māori from exploitation. Following the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi, the newly constituted British colonial authorities decreed that Māori could sell land only to the Crown (the Right of Preemption). Often, new settlers did not appreciate that Māori owned their land communally under the mana of a chief and that permission to settle on land did not always imply sale of that land. Settlers had little understanding of the widespread redistribution of land during the bitter Musket Wars. This meant that conquering chiefs were keen to profit from these newly acquired assets by selling them to settlers while the original, defeated owners, were bitterly against this. Sometimes the reverse happened, as in the Hutt Valley, where the conquered Rangitane sold their land to the New Zealand Company, much to the anger of the great conqueror Te Rauparaha. Under pressure from settlers, the colonial government tried to speed up land sales and permitted settlers to settle in areas where ownership was still disputed between Māori hapū. This included huge areas of the North Island that had been depopulated, and, in many cases, repopulated with new hapū and iwi, following the Musket Wars of 1805 – 1842.
The Māori King Movement (also known as the Kingitanga Movement) began resisting the purchase of their land by British settlers, in some cases resulting in violence. These disputes sowed the seeds of eventual war between Kingitanga Māori, with their supporters, and the British and New Zealand governments, with the support of allied Māori.
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The various conflicts of the New Zealand wars span a considerable period, and the causes and outcomes differ widely. The earliest conflicts in the 1840s happened at a time when Māori were still the predominant power, but by the 1860s settler numbers and resources were much greater.
The Wairau Affray 
The first armed conflict was the 1843 Wairau Affray at the north end of the South Island. The cause was the determination of Nelson settlers to survey disputed lands, with a contributing factor being the recent acquittal of one of whaler John Guard's men for the murder of a Maori woman. Rash action by settlers lead to a confrontation on the land and 22 settlers being killed, most of them after the battle, in an act of utu or reciprocation for the shooting of Te Rongo, who was Te Rauparaha's daughter. In early 1844, the new Governor, Robert Fitzroy investigated and at a meeting with Te Rauparaha, Te Rangihaeata and other Māori said: "In the first place, the white men were in the wrong. They had no right to survey the land ... they had no right to build the houses on the land. As they were, then, first in the wrong, I will not avenge their deaths."
The Northern War 
The Flagstaff War took place in the far north of New Zealand, around the Bay of Islands, in March 1845 and January 1846. This was about economic changes caused by the movement of the capital of New Zealand from Russell (Okiato) in the Bay of Islands to Auckland by Governor Hobson. Hone Heke and his ally sought to get the attention of the government. The lack of funding and the desire to move the capital to Auckland meant the government was unwilling to alter its decision. Due to the government's inaction some local Māori rebelled against the Crown's authority. Hone Heke and other rebel Māori did this by attacking the flag pole at Kororareka, encouraged by American whalers. He felled the Union flag, yet left the town itself unharmed initially. After the fourth attack on the pole, however, Governor Grey banded together every fighting soldier he could muster from sailors to militia and put a cordon about the town. Heke and Kawiti found themselves outnumbered. They split their forces with Kawiti, leading a diversionary raid while Heke lead an assault on the flagstaff itself, overpowering the platoon garrisoning the nearby church and felling the flagpole a fourth time. Chaos and mass looting of the township followed as the town burnt down, with citizens and rebel Māori alike taking goods. This was the start of the Northern War. Rebel leaders Heke and Kawit were branded fugitives and were chased onto their lands. The two chiefs used extensive military earthworks, which differed from the traditional pā. Comparisons have been made between these earthworks and those of French military engineers in Europe about 100 years previously.
Since the development of the modern gunfighter pā (Māori fortress), British forces found it difficult to capture the occupants or cause a decisive defeat, as Māori would abandon the pā at the point of defeat. They fought a short series of campaigns until Kūpapa Māori (Māori who supported the government) weakened Heke and he was forced to abandon Kawiti to British forces. With less than 100 men, Kawiti constructed a pā called Ruapekapeka (the bats' nest). This pā was bombarded for two weeks, using heavy 32-pounder (about 4 inch) cannon. More than 150 British soldiers marched to take the pā. The trenches dug into the walls of the pā had kept casualties low, and as the British advanced the 80 defending Māori opened fire at point-blank range from gun slits at the base of the pā's wall, felling a third of the force. Kawiti then abandoned the pā, knowing that he could easily build another in less than two days. After this battle Heke and Kawiti, in a seriously weakened state, and hounded by the combined forces of the British and loyalist Maoris, brokered a peace deal on the understanding that the rebels would retain their land and not be punished further.
Hutt Valley Campaign 
The Hutt Valley Campaign of 1846 could almost be seen as a sequel to the Wairau Affray. The causes were similar and the protagonists almost the same, namely, the purchase of dubious titles to land by the New Zealand Company, and the desire of the settlers to move on to land before disputes over said titles were resolved. British soldiers did not realise that the elderly Te Rauparaha, who had befriended the settlers and the government, was at the same time orchestrating the Hutt attacks. When the military intercepted secret letters sent by Te Rauparaha he was captured in a surprise attack and taken prisoner of war. This ended the Hutt war but lead to the Wanganui Campaign, April to July 1847, in the southwest of the North Island. The Wanganui conflict was caused by the Māori demand for utu (a Māori concept involving payback or revenge) when one of the ringleaders of the Hutt valley campaign was hanged. The take (just cause) for a new war was the accidental injury of a Māori by a British soldier. Māori felt confident in taking on the settlers since they vastly outnumbered them.
There followed a period of intermittent threats and haphazard economic cooperation from 1848 to 1860 although even during this time there were occasional serious threats to Pakeha, such as the arrival of 250 – 300 armed Ngati Paoa at Mechanics Bay in 1851 demanding redress for a perceived insult to their chief. During this time, European settlement accelerated, and in 1859 the number of Pākehā came to equal the number of Māori, at around 60,000 each. Settlers were keen to obtain land and some Māori were willing to sell, but there were also strong pressures to retain land - in particular from the Māori King Movement. Settlers and the government tried to avoid involvement in these largely inter Māori squabbles until settlers were harmed.
The First Taranaki War 
The catalyst for the First Taranaki War was the disputed sale of a block of land to the British, despite a veto by the paramount chief of the tribe, Wiremu Kingi and a "solemn contract" by local Māori not to sell. Governor Browne accepted the purchase with full knowledge of the circumstances and tried to occupy the land, anticipating it would lead to armed conflict, and a demonstration of the substantive sovereignty the British believed they had gained in the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. The war was fought by more than 3,500 imperial troops brought in from Australia, as well as volunteer soldiers and militia, against Māori forces that fluctuated between a few hundred and about 1,500. After a series of battles and actions the war ended in a ceasefire, with neither side explicitly accepting the peace terms of the other. Total losses among the imperial, volunteer and militia troops are estimated to have been 238, while Māori casualties totalled about 200. Though there were claims by the British that they had won the war, there were widely held views at the time they had suffered an unfavourable and humiliating result. Historians have also been divided on the result. Historian James Belich has claimed that Māori succeeded in thwarting the British bid to impose sovereignty over them, and had therefore been victorious. But he said the Māori victory was a hollow one, leading to the invasion of the Waikato.
Invasion of the Waikato 
Governor Thomas Gore-Browne began making arrangements for a Waikato campaign to destroy the Kingitanga stronghold as soon as the First Taranaki War ended. Preparations were suspended for a while when he was replaced by Sir George Grey, returning for a second term as governor, but were resumed a few months later. It was estimated that to be successful at least ten thousand troops were needed. Governor Grey persuaded the Colonial Office in London to send this number of Imperial troops to New Zealand and General Sir Duncan Cameron was appointed to lead the campaign. After receiving a series of 18 threatening letters from Wiremu Tamihana, the Waikato leader who until then was considered one of the more peaceful rangatira and who had negotiated the truce at the end of the First Taranaki War, on 9 July 1863 Governor Grey pressured Māori living in the territory controlled by the British south of Auckland to leave, after Kingitanga Maori refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the Queen and hand in their weapons. Three days later the vanguard of the army crossed the frontier into Kingite territory and established a forward camp.
After a series of battles it ended with the retreat of the Kingitanga Māori into the rugged interior of the North Island and the confiscation of about 12,000 km² of Māori land (4% of New Zealand's land area), which quickly provoked the Second Taranaki War. For the tribes the defeat left a legacy of sadness and bitterness at the loss of their mana, which was partly assuaged 132 years later when in 1995 the Waikato Tainui people received compensation amounting to $171 million from the New Zealand government, the return of some further valuable land, and a formal apology from HM Queen Elizabeth II.
The Second Taranaki War 
Between 1863 and 1866 there was a period of hostilities between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand sometimes referred to as The Second Taranaki War. The conflict, which overlapped the wars in Waikato and Tauranga, was fuelled by a combination of factors: lingering Māori resentment over the sale of land at Waitara in 1860 and government delays in resolving the issue; a large-scale land confiscation policy launched by the government in late 1863; and the rise of the Hauhau movement, an extremist part of the Pai Marire syncretic religion, which was strongly opposed to the alienation of Māori land and eager to strengthen Māori identity. The Hauhau movement became a unifying factor for Taranaki Māori in the absence of individual Māori commanders.
The style of warfare after 1863 differed markedly from that of the 1860-61 conflict, in which Māori had taken set positions and challenged the army to an open contest. From 1863 the army, working with greater numbers of troops and heavy artillery, systematically took possession of Māori land by driving off the inhabitants, adopting a "scorched earth" strategy of laying waste to Māori villages and cultivations, with attacks on villages, whether warlike or otherwise. As the troops advanced, the Government built an expanding line of redoubts, behind which settlers built homes and developed farms. The effect was a creeping confiscation of almost a million acres (4,000 km²) of land, with little distinction between the land of loyal or rebel Māori owners. The outcome of the armed conflict in Taranaki between 1860 and 1869 was a series of enforced confiscations of Taranaki tribal land from Māori blanketed as being in rebellion against the Government. Since 2001, the New Zealand Government has negotiated settlements with four of the eight Taranaki tribes, paying more than $101 million in compensation for the lands, and apologising for the actions of the government of that day.
The period from the second half of 1864 until early 1868 was relatively quiet. Possibly the most notorious incident during this time was the killing and eating of the missionary Carl Volkner. There were also two serious intra-tribal conflicts between adherents and non-adherents of the Pai Marire or Hau Hau cult— a vehemently anti-Pākehā religious group intent on destabilising the developing cooperation between the Māori and Pākehā. These are sometimes known as the East Cape War, but that label oversimplifies a complicated series of conflicts.
Te Kooti 
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, a trader who had fought on the government side at earlier actions, was accused of supplying gunpowder to Hau Hau, then arrested in March 1866 and charged with spying and sent to the Chatham Islands along with Hau Hau prisoners of war where he experienced various spiritual revelations which formed the basis of his new faith, the Ringa Tu and began holding religious services for his fellow prisoners. After 2 years the government released some senior chiefs and return them home. Te Kooti became the main leader, and on 4 July 1868, led a revolt that took over the entire prison complex and the supply ship Rifleman, which next day sailed for the mainland carrying virtually all the prisoners: 163 men, 64 women and 71 children. This particular conflict covered most of the East Cape region and the centre of the North Island of New Zealand from July 1868 until mid-1872. It was the longest and in some ways the ugliest and most savage of all the New Zealand Wars with at least 28 conflicts ranging from minor skirmishes to substantial battles. In May 1872 Te Kooti was granted asylum by the Māori King, Tawhiao. Later in old age he again attempted an uprising and was imprisoned briefly but soon released. He died shortly afterwards in a cart accident.
Titokowaru's War 
This was a revival of hostilities of the Second Taranaki War as Riwha Titokowaru, chief of the Ngāti Ruanui's Ngaruahine hapu (sub-tribe), responded to the continued surveying and settlement of confiscated land with well-planned and effective attacks on settlers and government troops in an effort to block the occupation of Māori land. Coinciding with a violent raid on a European settlement on the East Coast by Te Kooti, shattered what European colonists regarded as a new era of peace and prosperity, creating fears of a "general uprising of hostile Māoris", but once Titokowaru was defeated and the East Coast threat minimised, the alienation of Māori land, as well as the political subjugation of Māori, continued at an even more rapid pace.
Titokowaru, who had fought in the Second Taranaki War, was the most skilful West Coast Māori warrior. He also assumed the roles of a priest and prophet of the extremist Hauhau movement of the Pai Mārire religion, reviving ancient rites of cannibalism and propitiation of Māori gods with the human heart torn from the first slain in a battle. Although Titokowaru's forces were numerically small and initially outnumbered in battle 12 to one by government troops, the ferocity of their attacks provoked fear among settlers and prompted the resignation and desertion of many militia volunteers, ultimately leading to the withdrawal of most government military forces from South Taranaki and giving Titokowaru control of almost all territory between New Plymouth and Wanganui. Although Titokowaru provided the strategy and leadership that had been missing among tribes that had fought in the Second Taranaki War and his forces never lost a battle during their intensive campaign, they mysteriously abandoned a strong position at Tauranga-ika Pā and Titokowaru's army immediately began to disperse. Kimble Bent, who lived as a slave with Titokowaru's hapu after deserting from the 57th Regiment, told Cowan 50 years later the chief had lost his mana tapu, or sacred power, after committing adultery with the wife of another chief.
This ended the major violent conflicts.
Several later incidents are not usually seen as part of the New Zealand Wars:
- The police raid on Parihaka in 1881 to arrest the prophets Te Whiti and Tohu, leaders of a campaign of passive resistance to land confiscation.
- An incident in the 1890s that became known as the Dog Tax War.
- The arrest of Rua Kenana in 1916.
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In 1859, the European population of New Zealand was about 10,000 less than the Māori population. However, neither population was stable. At the time it was believed the Māori population had declined so fast during the Musket Wars that some people saw their extinction as a distinct possibility. However it is now known that Maori census figures were extremely inaccurate. It is estimated that at least 20,000 Māori were killed, but more importantly many iwi were driven from their traditional lands, and Crosby states that eight complete iwi were wiped out by their fellow Māori. Meanwhile, immigrant ships were arriving from Britain almost every week. Surprised by the hundreds of settlers arriving at Wellington, Māori chiefs asked if the whole English tribe was moving to New Zealand.
The imperial troops were supplied and paid for by Britain and not by the fledgling colony. Māori were fighting against the economic base of industrial Britain as well as Australia. Additionally, the Māori had an agrarian economy — their warriors were also their farmers and food gatherers. As such, they were limited to periods of only two or three months of campaigning each year before they had to return to their homes, although during the Musket Wars they had managed to leave their tūrangawaewae (home territory) for a year at a time. They developed a system of rotating shifts for the longer conflicts, but were never able to deploy their entire force.
The Invasion of the Waikato was the largest conflict. The colonial side mustered some 18,000 men, with a peak deployment of possibly 14,000. Opposing them were 4,000 to 5,000 Māori, of whom only about half were actively involved at any one time.
None of the wars were simple two-sided conflicts. To some degree there were four sides to each war. There were always Māori on both sides of the conflict — fighting for and against the British. In the Flagstaff War, Māori allies were wholly independent of British command; Tāmati Wāka Nene was at war with Hone Heke. Indeed, the Battle of Te Ahuahu, where the two forces met and fought with determination, did not involve the British at all.
By the 1870s, in Te Kooti's War, there were Māori fighting as part of the colonial forces. Ngāti Porou formed their own regiment. In the later stages (the hunt for Te Kooti through Te Urewera) the colonial forces were mainly Māori troops. These Māori troops formed the basis of an ongoing positive relationship with the New Zealand armed forces that continues to this day.
The Pākehā can also be divided into two groups. One was the British imperial forces (the combined forces of the British Empire, including Australians going overseas to war for the first time). The other consisted of the various militias formed from the settlers, answerable to the New Zealand government, not to London (these units eventually evolved into the New Zealand Army). The first war was fought by imperial forces, assisted by a few settlers and loyal kūpapa Māori. The Taranaki War involved organised units of settler militias. The British government increasingly became reluctant to be involved in the Zealand Wars. To get its support for the suppression of the Kingitanga rebels, Governor George Grey had to present a picture of the seriousness of the situation to the Colonial Office in London. What became known as the Second Taranaki War was the reaction of the Māori to the confiscation of their land by the colonial government, which originally used imperial troops for this. The commander, General Duncan Cameron, worn out and tired of arguments with the colonial government, retired to England.
There was one British ex-soldier who fought for the Māori, known as Kimball Bent, who was actually an American by birth. He had been convicted of theft and desertion. Bent acted as Titokowaru's armourer and later became a noted tohunga (priest). However the majority of Māori either supported the government or fought alongside the government. In 1864 the total rebelling Kingitanga population who went into hiding, was estimated at 15,000, or about 25% of the Māori population, although this number is uncertain as the rebels killed Pākehā, who [had?] went into the King Country and [had?] refused to complete the census. At that time half-caste Māori – many of whom lived in Pākehā settlements – were included in European population statistics in the census, which distorts population figures. Demographer Professor Ian Poole estimates that this boosted the nominal European population by as much as 5,000 to 10,000.
There was also a significant anti-war movement among British settlers. Led by the Anglican Church Missionary Society and a number of prominent humanitarians, this group opposed government aggression and the confiscation of land. Members included Bishop George Augustus Selwyn, Archdeacon Octavius Hadfield, Sir William Martin, South Island politicians like James Fitzgerald and other public figures. Most active during the First Taranaki War, the group divided over the government's invasion of the Waikato and response to the Kingitangas. Eventually, some chose to support the government, a decision they immediately regretted because the Māori backlash placed missionary lives in danger. Selwyn, in particular, suffered from his association with the invasion and had to leave the country in disgrace. Some missionaries later tried to prevent wholesale confiscation of Māori land, but were ignored by the government.
Strategy and tactics 
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The British Army were professional soldiers who had experience fighting in various parts of the Empire, many from India and Afghanistan, although front-line units were never sent (in contrast to, say, South Africa or other parts of the Empire). They were led by officers who were themselves trained by men who fought at Waterloo. The Māori fighters were warriors from many generations of warrior—survivors of the Musket Wars, 32 years of bitter inter-tribal fighting. One of the reasons for the First New Zealand War was curiosity by Māori warriors to see what kind of fighters these Pākehā soldiers were.
Both sides had developed distinctive war strategies and tactics. The British set out to fight a European-style war, based on defending or attacking an enemy strong point or town. Either there is a battle, or you besiege and then capture the strong point. Conversely, Māori fought for mana and economic advantage, to obtain slaves, goods or control of lands, and for the challenge of a good battle. New Zealand units which gradually took over much of the fighting in the later parts of the conflict, introduced a range of new units, tactics and weapons to match the demands of the campaigns from 1863.
The first British action of the Flagstaff War was the capture and destruction of Pomare's pā near Kororareka. This was a substantial Māori settlement, so to the British it was a victory, but the Māori warriors escaped with their arms, so the Māori did not see it as defeat.
The British then set out to do the same to Kawiti's pā at Puketapu. But this was a purpose-built strong point, with only one objective: to invite attack by the British. It was several kilometres inland, across very difficult country—steep gullies, dense, bush-clad hills and thick, sticky mud. The British troops were already exhausted when they arrived in front of the pā. The next day, the British made a frontal attack only to discover that the bush and gullies they were advancing through were bristling with warriors. Some British troops reached the palisade and discovered that attacking thick wooden walls with muskets was inneffective. After several hours of costly but indecisive skirmishing, the British withdrew. Their Māori Kupapa allies were able to feed them, and they were not attacked by their Māori enemies on the retreat back to the coast.
The attack on Puketapu Pā was typical of Māori-British warfare. The Māori would build a fortified pā, sometimes provocatively close to a British fort or redoubt, and the British would attack it. Their aim was always to bring Māori to battle and to inflict a decisive defeat. In European warfare, besieging an enemy fortress usually provoked a battle. However, the Māori also knew that they would probably lose heavily in open conflict; this had been the result on the few times that it happened. Generally, they were successful in avoiding it.
A Māori pā was not the same as a European fortress, but it took the British years to appreciate the difference. The word pā meant a fortified strong point near a Māori village or community. They were always built with a view to defence, but primarily they were built to safely store food. Puketapu Pā and then Ohaeawai Pā were the first of the so-called “gunfighter pās”, built to engage enemies armed with muskets and cannons. A strong, wooden palisade was fronted with woven flax leaves (Phormium tenax) whose tough, stringy foliage absorbed a lot of penetration. The palisade was lifted a few centimetres from the ground so muskets could be fired from underneath rather than over the top. Sometimes there were gaps in the palisade, which led to killing traps. There were trenches and rifle pits to protect the occupants and, later, very effective artillery shelters. They were usually built so that they were almost impossible to surround completely, but usually presented at least one exposed face to invite attack from that direction. They were cheap and easily built—the L-Pa at Waitara was constructed by eighty men overnight—and they were completely expendable. Time and again, the British would mount an elaborate, often lengthy, expedition to besiege a pā, which would absorb their bombardment and possibly one or two attacks and then be abandoned by the Māori. Shortly afterwards, a new pā would appear in another inaccessible site. Pā like these were built in the dozens, particularly during the First Taranaki War, where they eventually formed a cordon surrounding New Plymouth, and in the Waikato campaign.
For a long time, the modern pā effectively neutralised the overwhelming disparity in numbers and armaments. At Ohaeawai Pa in 1845, at Rangiriri in 1863 and again at Gate Pa in 1864, British and colonial forces discovered that frontal attacks on a defended pā were extremely costly. At Gate Pā, during the 1864 Tauranga Campaign, Māori withstood a day-long bombardment in their bomb shelters. Belich estimated that Gate Pā absorbed in one day a greater weight of explosives per square metre than did the German trenches in the week-long bombardment leading up to the Battle of the Somme, but this has been challenged by military historians. The palisade destroyed, the British troops rushed the pā whereupon Māori fired on them from hidden trenches, killing 38 and injuring many more in the most costly battle for the Pākehā of the New Zealand Wars. The troops retired and Māori abandoned the pā.
British troops soon realised an easy way to neutralise a pā. Although cheap and easy to build, a gunfighter pā required a significant input of labour and resources. The destruction of the Māori economic base in the area around the pā made it difficult for the hapus to support the fighting men. This was the reasoning behind the bush-scouring expeditions of Chute and McDonnell in the Second Taranaki War.
The biggest problem for the Māori was that their society was ill-adapted to support a sustained campaign. Again, while the Māori warrior was a civilian part-time fighter who could not afford to be away from home for too long, the British force consisted of professional soldiers supported by an economic system capable of sustaining them in the field almost indefinitely. While the British could defeat Māori in battle, the defeats were often not decisive, but they were able to outlast them in war.
The two final New Zealand Wars, those of Te Kooti and Titokowaru, present an interesting contrast. Titokowaru used the pā system to such devastating effect that at one stage the New Zealand government thought they had lost the war (see Titokowaru's War). Te Kooti, on the other hand, was an effective guerrilla leader, but showed little or no skill in fighting from a fixed position. He had ill-built pā that were inadequately supplied, and he held on to them for too long. Te Kooti's War ended due to his defeat at Nga Tapa and Te Porere.
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The main weapon used by the British forces in the 1860s was the 1853 Pattern Enfield. Properly described as a rifled musket, it was loaded down the barrel like a conventional musket but the barrel was rifled. The ammunition used was more sophisticated than the round musket ball. The Minie bullet was a soft lead, hollow base, parallel-sided bullet. It travelled at about 300 metres per second. Whereas muskets were accurate to about 60-80m, an 1853 Enfield was accurate to about 300m to 400m in the hands of an experienced soldier. At 100m an experienced soldier could hit a man sized target without fail. The rifle was 1.44m long and weighed 4 kg. It had a 53 cm socket bayonet. This rifle was also commonly used in the American Civil War by both sides.
The Calisher and Terry carbine was ordered by the New Zealand Government from Calisher and Terry, Birmingham gunsmiths in 1861, following the realisation in 1860 that New Zealand forces and militia did not have enough weapons to defend the country should the British regiments fail to arrive. Earlier fighting against Maori showed the need for a carbine (short rifle) suited to fighting in heavy bush. This carbine had been intended for British cavalry units and the initial version was issued in 1857. It is believed that about 4000 carbines were imported into New Zealand between 1863 and 1866. In August 1869 the government had 1736 on issue or in store. The New Zealand version was 95 cm long, weighed 2.8 kg, had a 53 cm barrel, fired a .54 calibre soft lead bullet identical to the Minie bullet fired in the Enfield 1853 pattern. The barrel had five-groove rifling and was breech loading. Because the government's policy was to encourage settlers and loyal Maori to buy their own weapons, it is believed that in addition many of these carbines were in civilian hands. This was the favoured weapon of the New Zealand Forest rangers, an early special forces unit of light infantry, specialised in independent bush reconnaissance. The carbine had several advantages over the Enfield: its short length made it more handy in the bush, it was very light and could be loaded while the marksman lay down—unlike the Enfield, which required the soldier to stand to load the powder and could be loaded on the run. This feature lead to a decisive victory for the New Zealand forces over the rebel Maori at the Battle of Orakau,the last battle of the Waikato campaign. Several groups of soldiers harried the fleeing rebels but only the Forest Rangers, equipped with carbines were able to follow them 10 km to the Puniu River shooting as the went. The bullet was in a single unit comprising a wad base, coated in tallow,a nitrated paper tube (paper .07mm thick) containing the powder and a standard grooved minie bullet. This meant loading and firing was far quicker than the Enfield. The nitrated paper kept the powder dry, a big issue in the wet New Zealand bush. The carbine had a ladder rear sight calibrated to 500m, although in service the range was usually far closer. The Calisher and Terry Carbine used by the Forest rangers had no bayonet so Von Tempsky had 30 or more copies made by a cutler in Auckland in 1863.
Revolvers were mainly but not exclusively used by officers. The Forest Rangers used revolvers along with the Bowie knife which was only issued to the 2nd Forest Ranger Company commanded by von Tempsky. Von Tempsky had considerable experience using fighting knives in South America and had 30 made in Auckland by a blacksmith. Later other models were produced of varying designs with many having whalebone grips and blades between 10 and 12 inches long.The knives were used in fighting as the carbines did not have bayonets. They were also used for bush clearing, track making and as an entrenching tool. The most common revolver appears to be the 5 shot Beaumont Adams .44 percussion revolver made by the London Arms company. One Adams.44 was presented to Hemi te Waka for his services as a scout for the British army in Taranaki. Te Waka initially fought for the rebels but changed sides. He was later killed in the hunt for the escaped convict Te Kooti. Other revolvers in use were the Colt Navy.36 1851 model with open top frame. In 1865 15 Navy Colts were given as prizes to soldiers in Taranaki. The Colt was favoured by the Forest rangers because it was light and accurate being a single action revolver. Von Tempsky owned 2 that he had bought in America. The cost of the revolvers and equipment was 90 Pounds 6 shillings. Other revolvers used were the Tranter .45 percussion revolver, which was used by the New Zealand Armed Constabulary. A .44 calibre Lang revolver was owned by Lt Thomas Tragent who was killed by Maori in an ambush near Wairua stream, Oakura 8 km South of New Plymouth on 4 May 1863.Lt Tranter was an officer in the 57th Regiment stationed in Taranaki. These revolvers are preserved in New Zealand museums.
Large areas of land were confiscated from the Māori by the government under the New Zealand Settlements Act in 1863, purportedly as punishment for rebellion. In reality, land was confiscated from both "loyal" and "rebel" tribes alike. More than four million acres (16,000 km²) of land was confiscated. Although about half of this was subsequently paid for or returned to Māori control, it was often not returned to its original owners. The confiscations had a lasting impact on the social and economic development of the affected tribes. However the amount of confiscated land is tiny compared to the amount of land sold to the government or leased after 1870. Amongst the biggest land sellers were the Waikato tribes in the early 1900s when 185,000 acres of farmland was sold each year . The land titles were only held only by chiefs who alienated the land from their people. Income from land sales was often very poorly invested and lost such as the 50,000 pounds compensation paid to the Kingite royal family who lost the lot in a land speculation company in 1910. In 1865 a new government set up a compensation court in Auckland to hear claims from citizens effected by the war. Both Maori and settlers could claim. The court found that both soldiers and Maori rebels had caused damage to property during the course of the war. Maori were paid nearly 2000 pounds in compensation about 1/3 of what they had claimed. The legacy of the New Zealand Wars continues, but these days the battles are mostly fought in courtrooms and around the negotiation table. Numerous reports by the Waitangi Tribunal have criticised Crown actions during the wars, and also found that the Māori, too, had breached the treaty.
See also 
- History of New Zealand
- Māori culture
- Military history of New Zealand
- New Zealand land confiscations
- Early naval vessels of New Zealand
- Siege warfare
- Trench warfare
- Indian Wars
- "End of the New Zealand Wars". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- King, Michaerl (1977). Te Puea: A Biography. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 26. ISBN 0-340-22482-7.
- Dalton, B.J. (1967). War and Politics in New Zealand 1855-1870. Sydney: Sydney University Press. p. 179.
- Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars. Auckland: Penguin. pp. 126–133. ISBN 0-14-027504-5.
- King, Michaerl (1977). Te Puea: A Biography. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 26. ISBN 0-340-22482-7.
- Broad, Lowther. "Chapter V. The Jubilee History of Nelson: From 1842 to 1892.". New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. Retrieved 21 December 2011. (p. 48)
- "...when Samuel Ironside asked Rangihaeata to explain his actions after the battle one of the reasons he gave was that the Pakehas “did not punish the murder of Kuika”"
- Broad, Lowther. "Chapter V. The Jubilee History of Nelson: From 1842 to 1892.". New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. Retrieved 21 December 2011. (p. 45)
- "The Ngati-Paoa Invasion of Auckland", The New Zealand Wars, James Cowan, 1955
- Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
- Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (1st ed.). Auckland: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-011162-X.[page needed]
- The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi by the Waitangi Tribunal, 1996
- "...the greater part of northern Taranaki was invaded, occupied, and finally confiscated without any act of rebellion having taken place...", waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz
- New Zealand Ministry of Justice fact sheet, 2007
- David Morris, Speaker of the House of Representatives, March 1869, as cited by Belich.
- Ranginui Walker, Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou -- Struggle Without End, chapter 8. Penguin Books, 1990.
- James Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Vol II, Chapter 20, 1922 at New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
- James Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Vol II, Chapter 29, 1922
- Forest Rangers.R Stowers.Hamilton 1863.p106
- Von Tempsky, Artist and Adventurer. King M and Rose G.1981.
- Dictionary of NZ Biography. Tempsky, Gustavaus Ferdinand von. N. McMillan
- A History of the Forest Rangers. R Stowers.1996.Hamilton.
- forest rangers.R Stowers. Hamilton 1996 P 282-283.
- Puke Ariki.vernon.npdc.govt.nz
- "Maori land loss, 1860–2000". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Treaty of Waitangi". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- Te Puea. M King.Reed .2003.
- Forest Rangers. R. Stowers. Hamilton 1996.
- "Turanga Tangata Turanga Whenua: The Report on the Turanganui a Kiwa Claims". Waitangi Tribunal. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Ngāti Pāhauwera Treaty Claims Settlement Bill 273-2 (2011), Government Bill – New Zealand Legislation". legislation.govt.nz. 2011 [last update]. Retrieved 13 September 2011. "The Crown unreservedly apologises for not having honoured its obligations to Ngāti Pāhauwera under the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) and through this settlement the Crown seeks to atone for its wrongs and to begin the process of healing. The Crown looks forward to building a relationship with Ngāti Pāhauwera, based on mutual trust and co-operation, founded on the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) and its principles."
Further reading 
- Barthorp, Michael (1979). To Face the Daring Māori. Hodder and Stoughton.
- Belich, James (1988). The New Zealand Wars. Penguin.
- Belich, James (1996) Making Peoples. Penguin.
- Binney, Judith (1995). Redemption Songs: A Life of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
- Buick, T. Lindsay (1976). Old Marlborough. Christchurch: Capper Press. (Originally published in 1900)
- Cowan, J., & Hasselberg, P. D. (1983) The New Zealand Wars. New Zealand Government Printer. (Originally published 1922) Online: Volume 1 1845–64, Volume 2 1864–72
- Fletcher, Henry James, Rev., Turnbull, Alexander (ed.), National Library of New Zealand, Index of Māori Names, The New Zealand Collection of the University of Waikato Library, unpublished manuscript compiled about 1925 
- Hobbins, Peter (2004). Maori and Pakeha: British Colonial wars in New Zealand (Part 1). Paper on the Victorian Military Society website. (Part 2 not yet published)
- King, Michael (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin.
- Lee, Jack (1983). I have named it the Bay of Islands. Hodder and Stoughton.
- Lee, Jack (1987). Hokianga. Hodder and Stoughton.
- Maning, F.E. (1862). A History of the War in the North of New Zealand against the Chief Heke. (A near-contemporaneous account, although written primarily with an aim to entertain rather than with an eye to historical accuracy)
- Maxwell, Peter (2000). Frontier, the Battle for the North Island of New Zealand. Celebrity Books.
- Pugsley, Chris (1998). Manufacturing a War: Grey, Cameron and the Waikato Campaign of 1863–4. Paper by noted NZ military historian on the New Zealand Society of Genealogists website
- Ryan, Tim & Parham, Bill. The Colonial New Zealand Wars (1986, Wellington, Grantham House) ISBN 1-86934-006-X
- Simpson, Tony (1979). Te Riri Pākehā. Hodder and Stoughton.
- Sinclair, Keith (ed.) (1996). The Oxford Illustrated History of New Zealand (2nd ed.) Wellington: Oxford University Press.
- Smith, S. Percy, Maori Wars of the Nineteenth Century, Whitcombe and Tombs Limited, Christchurch, 1910 , New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
- Stowers, Richard (1996). Forest Rangers. Richard Stowers.
- Stringfellow, Olga (1960). Mary Bravender. Fictional treatment of the New Zealand Wars as seen through the eyes of a young Englishwoman.
- Vaggioli, Dom Felici (2000). History of New Zealand and its inhabitants, Translated by J. Crockett. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. (Original Italian publication, 1896).
- Walker, Ranginui (2004) Ka whawhai tonu matou: Struggle without end Penguin.
- Wright, Matthew (2006) Two Peoples, One Land: The New Zealand Wars Penguin ISBN 9780790010649
- "The people of Many Peaks: The Māori Biographies". (1990). From The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Vol. 1, 1769–1869. Bridget Williams Books and Department of Internal Affairs.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: New Zealand land wars|
- The New Zealand Wars / Nga Pakanga Whenua O Mua. Scholarly and comprehensive website run by Professor Danny Keenan of Victoria University of Wellington, NZ
- New Zealand's 19th Century Wars on NZHistory.net.nz
- Historical Chronology on New Zealand Army website
- New Zealand Wars (1845–1872) collection at the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
- The Maori Wars in 1966 An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
- Myths of Origins of the Maori Wars in 1966 An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
- Documenting research of New Zealand War Medal recipients