List of New Zealand by-elections

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By-elections in New Zealand occur to fill vacant seats in the New Zealand Parliament. The death, resignation, or expulsion of a sitting electorate MP can cause a by-election. (Note that list MPs do not have geographic districts for the purpose of provoking by-elections – if a list MP's seat becomes vacant, the next person on his or her party's list fills the position.) Historically, by-elections were often caused by general elections being declared void.

Contents

Background[edit]

Under the Electoral Act 1993, a by-election need not take place if a general election will occur within six months of an electorate seat becoming vacant, although confirmation by a resolution supported by at least 75% of MPs is required. In 1996 the general election date was brought forward slightly, to 12 October, to avoid a by-election after the resignation of Michael Laws. Twice, in 1943 and 1969, by-elections were avoided after the deaths in election years of Paraire Karaka Paikea and Ralph Hanan by passing special acts, the By-election Postponement Act 1943 and the By-election Postponement Act 1969.

In recent years by-elections have not occurred particularly frequently – only one in the 2002–2005 parliamentary term, and none in the 1999–2002 or 2005–2008 terms. This is because most MPs who retire mid-term (e.g. Labour MPs Jim Sutton and Michael Cullen) were List MPs, so are simply replaced by the next member below them on their party list (unless that person is already an electorate MP, or does not agree). Some MPs have entered Parliament when two or more people above them on the list have declined, sometimes after pressure from their party: in 2008 Dail Jones (New Zealand First) and Russel Norman (Green); and in 2011 Louisa Wall (Labour) after five above her on the list declined.

Historically, however, they have taken place considerably more frequently – the 2nd Parliament of 1856–1860, for example, saw 33 by-elections and four supplementary elections, despite the House of Representatives originally having just 37 seats (increasing to 41 seats during the parliamentary term).

In the past it was not uncommon for an MP who died in office to be replaced with an immediate family member such as a brother, wife (see widow's succession), or son. This resulted in the election of the first woman MP Elizabeth McCombs (who was in turn succeeded by her son Terry McCombs), the first woman National MP Mary Grigg, and the first woman Māori MP Iriaka Ratana; all of whom took over their husband's seat. This practice has however fallen out of favour since the mid-seventies with the election of John Kirk to his late father's seat being the last occasion this happened at a by-election.

Mary Grigg was elected unopposed, and Wood notes[1] that the Mid-Canterbury by-election, 1942 is an extreme case where the election was gazetted without date of election, and four different dates are available from reputable sources: Official Year-book, Parliamentary Record, Journals of the House and J Boston.[2]

Eleven Prime Ministers first came to parliament via by-elections: Julius Vogel, Harry Atkinson, Robert Stout, John Ballance, William Massey, Peter Fraser, Keith Holyoake, Walter Nash, Bill Rowling, David Lange and Geoffrey Palmer. Five Prime Ministers (William Fox, Henry Sewell, Edward Stafford, George Grey and Joseph Ward) have won by-elections later in their parliamentary careers, while Labour leaders Harry Holland and David Shearer were also first elected via a by-election. Some minor party founders have also launched their parties by resigning from a major party and their seat, then contesting it for their new party. Party founders who have done this include Matiu Rata and Tariana Turia. Interestingly, both resigned from Labour to form Māori parties. In 1980 Rata was unsuccessful in retaking his Northern Maori electorate for his newly formed Mana Motuhake party, but in 2004 Turia successfully reclaimed Te Tai Hauauru for the Māori Party. In addition, Winston Peters resigned from National and his parliamentary seat in 1993, retaking the seat as an independent and going on to form the New Zealand First party. In these circumstances, by-elections are seen as a legitimisation of the MP's rejection of his or her old party. In addition, they provide vital publicity and something of a mandate for the new party.

Pre-party era[edit]

By-election and electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

1st Parliament (1853–1855)[edit]

1854 Town of Nelson 19 June William Travers[3] Resignation Samuel Stephens[4]
1854 Waimea 21 June William Cautley[5] Resignation William Travers[3]
1854 City of Auckland 4 August Thomas Bartley[6] Resignation William Brown[7]

2nd Parliament (1855–1860)[edit]

1856 Motueka and Massacre Bay 19 May Charles Parker[8] Resignation Herbert Curtis[9][10]
1856 Christchurch Country[11] 14 October Dingley Brittin[7] Resignation John Ollivier[12]
1856 Grey and Bell 14 October Charles Brown[7] Resignation John Lewthwaite[13]
1856 Town of Christchurch[14] 18 November Henry Sewell[15] Resignation Richard Packer[8]
1856 Hutt 27 November Alfred Ludlam[13] Resignation Samuel Revans[16]
1858 City of Auckland 27 April Logan Campbell[17] Resignation Thomas Forsaith[18]
1858 Pensioner Settlements[19] 29 April Joseph Greenwood[20] Resignation John Symonds[21]
1858 Southern Division 8 May Charles Taylor[22] Resignation Theodore Haultain[23]
1858 Grey and Bell 17 May John Lewthwaite[13] Resignation Charles Brown[7]
1858 Waimea 21 May Charles Elliott[24] Resignation David Monro[25]
1858 Wairau 21 May William Wells[26] Resignation Frederick Weld[26]
1858 Town of Lyttelton 28 May James FitzGerald[27] Resignation Crosbie Ward[28]
1858 Akaroa 31 May John Cuff[9] Resignation William Moorhouse[25]
1858 Dunedin Country 16 June John Cargill[17] Resignation John Taylor[22]
1858[29] Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay 22 July J. Valentine Smith[30] Resignation James Ferguson[31]
1858 City of Wellington 27 July Isaac Featherston
William Fitzherbert[27]
Resignations Isaac Featherston
William Rhodes[32]
1858 Wellington Country 29 July Dudley Ward[28] Resignation Alfred Brandon[7]
1858 Hutt 31 July Dillon Bell[6]
Samuel Revans[16]
Resignations Alfred Renall[13]
William Fitzherbert[27]
1859 Town of Dunedin 14 January James Macandrew Resignation James Macandrew[33]

Supplementary election, 1859[edit]

Cheviot 18 December[34] Edward Jollie
Marsden 29 November[31] James Farmer
Wairarapa 7 November[5] Charles Carter
Wallace 30 November[6] Dillon Bell
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

2nd Parliament (continued)[edit]

1859 Waimea 26 December William Travers Resignation Fedor Kelling
1860 Town of Christchurch[35][36] 18 January Richard Packer Resignation Henry Sewell
1860 (1st) Suburbs of Auckland 25 January Walter Brodie Resignation Theophilus Heale
1860 Dunedin Country 28 March William Cargill[17] Resignation Thomas Gillies[37]
1860 (1st) Christchurch Country 2 April John Ollivier Resignation Isaac Cookson
1860 City of Auckland 5 April Thomas Beckham Resignation Archibald Clark
1860 (2nd) Suburbs of Auckland 5 April Frederick Merriman Resignation Joseph Hargreaves
1860 Omata 16 April Alfred East Resignation James Richmond
1860 (2nd) Christchurch Country 21 April John Hall Resignation Charles Brown
1860 County of Hawke 26 April James Ferguson Resignation Thomas Fitzgerald
1860 Northern Division[38] 23 May Thomas Henderson Resignation Thomas Henderson
1860 Grey and Bell[39] 28 May Charles Brown Resignation Thomas King
1860 (3rd) Suburbs of Auckland 4 August Joseph Hargreaves Resignation Logan Campbell

3rd Parliament (1861–1865)[edit]

1861 Grey and Bell 20 June William King Death Harry Atkinson
1861 Suburbs of Nelson 20 June James Wemyss Resignation William Wells
1861 Napier 1 July Henry Stark Resignation William Colenso
1861 Wanganui 5 July Henry Harrison Resignation Henry Harrison
1862 (1st) City of Dunedin 17 March Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1862 Town of New Plymouth 5 May William Richmond Resignation Isaac Watt
1862 (2nd) City of Dunedin 30 May Edward McGlashan[40][41] Resignation John Richardson
1862 Ellesmere 9 June Thomas Rowley Resignation James FitzGerald
1862 Avon 11 June Alfred Creyke Resignation William Thomson
1862 Heathcote 12 June George Hall Resignation William Moorhouse
1862 City of Auckland West 14 June Josiah Firth Resignation James Williamson
1862 (3rd) City of Dunedin 11 November John Richardson Resignation James Paterson
1862 Hampden 4 December Thomas Fraser Absence John Jones

Supplementary election, 1863[edit]

Dunedin and Suburbs North 28 March 1863[32] John Richardson
Dunedin and Suburbs South 6 April 1863[32] William Reynolds
Gold Fields 14 April 1863[42] William Baldwin
George Brodie
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

3rd Parliament (continued)[edit]

1863[43] Dunedin and Suburbs South 20 June James Paterson Resignation James Paterson
1863 Hampden 2 July John Jones Resignation Frederick Wayne
1863 Kaiapoi 2 September Isaac Cookson Resignation Robert Wilkin
1863 Dunedin and Suburbs North 3 September Thomas Dick Resignation Julius Vogel
1863 Town of New Plymouth 9 October Isaac Watt Resignation Henry Turton
1863 Heathcote 28 October William Moorhouse Resignation Alfred Cox
1863 Akaroa 30 October Augustus White Resignation Lancelot Walker
1864 Franklin 13 October Marmaduke Nixon Death (KIA) Theodore Haultain
1864 Town of New Plymouth 18 November Henry Turton Resignation Charles Brown
1864 Waimea 29 November Alfred Saunders Resignation John Miles
1865 (1st) Bruce 8 April Thomas Gillies Resignation Arthur Burns
1865 Raglan 19 April Charles Taylor Resignation William Buckland
1865 Parnell 20 April Reader Wood Resignation Robert Creighton
1865 Town of New Plymouth 19 May Charles Brown Resignation Henry Sewell
1865 Gold Fields 29 May William Baldwin Resignation Charles Haughton
1865 Rangitiki 10 July William Fox Resignation Robert Pharazyn
1865 Omata 18 July James Richmond Appointed to Legislative Council Francis Gledhill
1865 (2nd) Bruce 26 July Edward Cargill Resignation James Macandrew
1865 Wairarapa 29 July Charles Carter Resignation Henry Bunny

4th Parliament (1866–1870)[edit]

1866 Mount Herbert 27 July William Moorhouse Chose to represent Westland Thomas Potts
1866 Port Chalmers 15 December Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1867 City of Dunedin 19 January William Reynolds Resignation William Reynolds
1867 City of Christchurch 13 February James FitzGerald Resignation William Travers
1867 Avon 11 March Crosbie Ward Resignation William Reeves
1867 Manuherikia 27 April William Baldwin Resignation David Mervyn
1867 Wanganui 27 April John Bryce Resignation Henry Harrison
1867 Town of New Plymouth 29 April John Richardson Resignation Harry Atkinson
1867 City of Auckland West 24 May James Williamson Resignation Patrick Dignan
1867 Raglan 4 June Joseph Newman Resignation James Farmer
1867 Parnell 5 June Frederick Whitaker Resignation Charles Heaphy
1867 Port Chalmers 15 June Thomas Dick Resignation David Main
1867 Waimea 28 June Arthur Oliver Resignation Edward Baigent
1867 Lyttelton 1 July Edward Hargreaves Resignation George Macfarlan
1867 Kaiapoi 5 July Joseph Beswick Resignation John Studholme
1867 Picton 25 July Arthur Beauchamp Resignation William Adams
1867 Pensioner Settlements 5 August Paul de Quincey Resignation John Kerr
1867 Ashley 7 August Lancelot Walker Resignation Henry Tancred
1868 Collingwood 18 March Andrew Richmond Resignation Arthur Collins
1868 Westland Boroughs 3 April William Moorhouse Resignation William Harrison

Supplementary election, 1868[edit]

Westland North 9 April 1868[37] Timothy Gallagher
Westland South 6 April 1868[44] Edmund Barff

First Māori elections[edit]

Eastern Maori 15 April 1868[25] Tareha Te Moananui
Northern Maori 15 April 1868[45] Frederick Russell
Southern Maori 20 June 1868[46] John Patterson
Western Maori 1 May 1868[8] Mete Paetahi
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

4th Parliament (continued)[edit]

1868 Avon 8 June William Reeves Resignation William Rolleston
1868 Picton 11 June William Adams Resignation Courtney Kenny
1868 Rangitiki 22 June William Watt Resignation William Fox
1868 Franklin 2 July Robert Graham Resignation William Swan
1868 Waikouaiti 27 July William Murison Resignation Robert Mitchell
1868 Lyttelton[47] 2 November George Macfarlan Death John Peacock
1868 Timaru 20 November Alfred Cox Resignation Edward Stafford
1868 City of Nelson 24 December Edward Stafford Resignation Nathaniel Edwards
1869 Marsden 25 January[48] Francis Hull Resignation John Munro
1869 Roslyn 12 February George Hepburn Resignation Henry Driver
1869 City of Dunedin 5 March James Paterson Resignation Thomas Birch
1869 Newton 19 March George Graham Resignation Robert Creighton
1869 Waikouaiti 27 April Robert Mitchell Resignation Francis Rich
1869 Town of New Plymouth 28 April Harry Atkinson Resignation Thomas Kelly
1869 (1st) Wallace 30 April Alexander McNeil Resignation Cuthbert Cowan
1869 Oamaru 25 May Robert Campbell Resignation Charles Graham
1869 Taieri 19 June Donald Reid Resignation Henry Howorth
1869 (2nd) Wallace 17 September Cuthbert Cowan Resignation George Webster
1870 Bruce 21 March John Cargill Resignation James Brown
1870 Mongonui 30 March Thomas Ball Resignation Thomas Gillies
1870 Caversham 25 April Arthur John Burns Resignation James McIndoe
1870 Parnell 12 May Charles Heaphy Resignation Reader Wood
1870 Riverton 18 May Donald Hankinson Resignation Lauchlan McGillivray
1870 City of Christchurch 12 August William Travers Resignation William Moorhouse

5th Parliament (1871–1875)[edit]

1871 City of Auckland West 1 September John Williamson Election Invalid[49] John Williamson
1871 Roslyn 12 September Henry Driver Resignation Edward McGlashan
1872 Wairau 19 February William Henry Eyes Resignation Arthur Seymour
1872 Waikato 1 March James McPherson Resignation William Jackson
1872 Wakatipu 13 March Charles Edward Haughton Resignation Bendix Hallenstein
1872 Rodney 16 March Harry Farnall Resignation John Sheehan
1872 City of Nelson 27 May Martin Lightband Resignation David Luckie
1872 Waikouaiti 12 June George McLean Resignation David Monro
1872 Coleridge[50] 23 July John Karslake Resignation William Bluett
1872 Heathcote[51] 30 July John Hall Resignation John Wilson
1872 Caversham 28 August Richard Cantrell Resignation William Tolmie
1872 Egmont 3 October William Gisborne Resignation Harry Atkinson
1873 Suburbs of Nelson 14 May Ralph Richardson Resignation Andrew Richmond
1873 Lyttelton[52] 19 May John Peacock Resignation Henry Webb
1873 Invercargill 22 May William Henderson Calder Resignation John Cuthbertson
1873 Waikouaiti 23 July David Monro Resignation John Lillie Gillies
1873 Mongonui and
Bay of Islands
24 July John McLeod Resignation John Williams
1873 Wakatipu 19 August Bendix Hallenstein Resignation Vincent Pyke
1873 Collingwood 9 December Arthur Collins Resignation William Gibbs
1874 Franklin 9 April Archibald Clark Resignation Joseph May
1874 (1st) Akaroa 20 April Robert Rhodes Resignation William Montgomery[53]
1874 City of Dunedin 23 April John Bathgate Resignation Nathaniel Wales
1874 Waitemata 3 August Thomas Henderson Resignation Gustav von der Heyde
1874 (2nd) Akaroa[54] 10 August William Montgomery Election invalid[55] William Montgomery
1874 Waitemata 16 September Gustav von der Heyde unseated on petition Gustav von der Heyde
1875 Kaiapoi 22 January John Studholme Resignation Charles Bowen
1875 (1st) City of Auckland West[56] 27 March Thomas Gillies Appointed to
Supreme Court
George Grey
1875 (2nd) City of Auckland West 14 April John Williamson Death Patrick Dignan
1875 Rangitikei 24 April William Fox Resignation John Ballance
1875 Waikouaiti 3 May John Lillie Gillies Resignation George McLean
1875 Wairau 21 June Arthur Seymour Resignation Joseph Ward
1875 Wallace 6 August George Webster Death Christopher Basstian
1875 Caversham 20 August William Tolmie Death Robert Stout

6th Parliament (1876–1879)[edit]

1876 City of Auckland West[57] 25 July George Grey Resignation Benjamin Tonks
1876 Wanganui 27 September Julius Vogel Resignation William Fox
1877 Napier 15 February Donald McLean Death Fred Sutton
1877 City of Wellington 27 March Edward Pearce Resignation William Travers
1877 Totara 30 April George Henry Tribe Death William Gisborne
1877 City of Auckland West 2 May Benjamin Tonks Resignation James Wallis
1877 Wairarapa 3 July John Andrew Resignation George Beetham
1878 City of Wellington 18 February William Travers Resignation George Elliott Barton
1878 Parnell 20 February Reader Wood Resignation Frederick Moss
1878 Timaru 8 April Edward Stafford Resignation Richard Turnbull
1878 Port Chalmers 12 April William Hunter Reynolds Resignation James Green
1878 Franklin 20 May Hugh Lusk Resignation Richard Hobbs
1878 Cheviot 21 May Leonard Harper Resignation Alfred Saunders
1878 Grey Valley 22 May Martin Kennedy Resignation Richard Reeves
1878 Hokitika 26 June Charles Button Resignation Seymour Thorne George
1878 City of Dunedin 3 July William Larnach Resignation Richard Oliver
1878 Taieri 11 July Donald Reid Resignation William Cutten
1878 Invercargill 17 July George Lumsden Resignation Henry Feldwick
1878 Waipa 24 July Alfred Cox Resignation Edward Graham McMinn
1878 Roslyn 29 July Arthur John Burns Resignation Henry Driver
1879 Gladstone 3 January Frederick Teschemaker Death John Studholme
1879 Mataura 15 January William Wood Resignation James Shanks
1879 City of Nelson 6 February John Sharp Resignation Acton Adams
1879 City of Auckland West 4 March Patrick Dignan Resignation David Goldie
1879 Coleridge[58] 8 May Cathcart Wason Resignation George Hart
1879 Hutt 2 July William Fitzherbert Resignation Henry Jackson
1879 Eastern Maori 7 July Karaitiana Takamoana Death Henare Tomoana
1879 Southern Maori 7 July Hori Kerei Taiaroa Resignation Ihaia Tainui
1879 City of Dunedin 15 July Robert Stout Resignation William Downie Stewart

7th Parliament (1879–1881)[edit]

1880 Rangitikei 8 May William Jarvis Willis Resignation William Fox
1880 Waitaki 16 June Thomas William Hislop Resignation George Jones
1880 Waikaia 21 September George Ireland Death Horace Bastings
1881 Suburbs of Nelson 11 January Andrew Richmond Death Arthur Collins
1881 Southern Maori 1 March Ihaia Tainui Resignation Hori Kerei Taiaroa
1881 City of Nelson 7 June Acton Adams Resignation Henry Levestam
1881 Grey Valley 16 June Edward Masters Resignation Thomas S. Weston

8th Parliament (1882–1884)[edit]

1882 Franklin North 9 June Benjamin Harris Election declared void Benjamin Harris
1882 Wakanui 16 June Cathcart Wason Election declared void Joseph Ivess
1882 Stanmore[59] 11 July Walter Pilliet Election declared void Walter Pilliet
1883 Peninsula 22 January[60] James Seaton Death William Larnach
1883 Selwyn 6 April John Hall Resignation Edward James Lee
1883 Inangahua 14 May Thomas S. Weston Resignation Edward Shaw
1883 Bruce 29 June James Rutherford Death James McDonald
1884 Selwyn 15 February Edward James Lee Death Edward Wakefield
1884 Thorndon 13 May William Levin Resignation Alfred Newman
1884 Kaiapoi 16 May Isaac Wilson Resignation Edward Richardson
1884 East Coast 16 June Allan MacDonald Resignation Samuel Locke

9th Parliament (1884–1887)[edit]

1885 Oamaru 20 May Samuel Edward Shrimski Resignation Thomas William Hislop
1885 (1st) Tauranga 22 May George Morris Resignation John Sheehan
1885 Waimea 3 June Joseph Shephard Resignation John Kerr
1885 Southern Maori 10 June Hori Kerei Taiaroa Resignation Tame Parata
1885 Wakanui 6 July John Grigg Resignation Joseph Ivess
1885 (2nd) Tauranga 11 July John Sheehan Death Lawrence Grace
1885 Bruce 5 August Robert Gillies Resignation Donald Reid
1886 Sydenham 12 May William White Resignation Richard Taylor
1886 Dunedin Central 19 October James Bradshaw Death Thomas Bracken
1886 Waitemata 11 December William Hurst Death Richard Monk
1886 Western Maori 23 December Te Puke Te Ao Death Hoani Taipua
1887 Heathcote[61] 8 February John Coster Death Frederic Jones
1887 Port Chalmers 6 April James Macandrew Death James Mills
1887 Te Aro 15 April Charles Johnston Resignation Francis Fraser
1887 Northern Maori 9 May Ihaka Hakuene Death Wi Katene
1887 Avon[62] 1 June Leonard Harper Resignation Edwin Blake

10th Parliament (1887–1890)[edit]

1888 Ashley 25 September William Pearson Death John Verrall
1889 Lincoln 16 January Arthur O'Callaghan Resignation Alfred Saunders
1889 City of Nelson 3 April Henry Levestam Death Joseph Harkness
1889 Christchurch North[63] 19 June Julius Vogel Resignation Edward Humphreys
1889 Oamaru 30 September Thomas William Hislop Resignation Thomas William Hislop
1889 Waipa 21 November William Jackson Death John Bryce
1889 East Coast 13 December Andrew Graham Resignation Alexander Creighton Arthur
1890 Timaru 18 August Richard Turnbull Death William Hall-Jones

Liberal Party era[edit]

Key

 Liberal    Independent    New Liberal  

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

11th Parliament (1891–1893)[edit]

Northern Maori 1891 7 February Hirini Taiwhanga Death[64][65] Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa
Egmont 1891 17 February   Harry Atkinson[66] Appointed to Legislative Council Felix McGuire[67]
Newton 1891 31 March David Goldie Resignation George Grey
Te Aroha 1891 9 July William Allen Disallowed on petition William Fraser
Waikato 1891 6 October John Bryce Resignation Edward Lake
City of Christchurch 1891 9 October Westby Perceval Appointed Agent General Ebenezer Sandford
City of Wellington 1892 15 January Kennedy Macdonald Resignation William McLean
Bruce 1892 4 May James Thomson Resignation James Allen
Rangitikei 1892 8 July Douglas Macarthur Death Robert Bruce
Inangahua 1893 8 June Richard Reeves Bankruptcy Robert Stout
Wanganui 1893 9 June John Ballance Death Archibald Willis
Thames 1893 26 July Alfred Cadman Resignation James McGowan
City of Auckland 1893 4 August William Rees Resignation Alfred Cadman

12th Parliament (1894–1896)[edit]

Waitemata 1894 9 April Richard Monk Election declared invalid William Massey
Tuapeka 1894 9 July Vincent Pyke Death William Larnach
City of Auckland 1895 24 July George Grey Resignation Thomas Thompson
City of Christchurch 1896 13 February William Reeves Appointed Agent-General   Charles Lewis

13th Parliament (1897–1899)[edit]

Suburbs of Wellington   1897 23 April Thomas Wilford Election declared void Charles Wilson
Awarua 1897 5 August Joseph Ward Bankruptcy Joseph Ward
City of Dunedin 1897 13 October   Henry Fish Death   Alexander Sligo  
City of Wellington 1898[68] 9 March Robert Stout Resignation John Duthie
Mataura 1898 26 May George Richardson   Bankruptcy Robert McNab
Tuapeka 1898 2 November William Larnach Death Charles Rawlins
City of Wellington 1899 25 July John Hutcheson Resignation John Hutcheson

14th Parliament (1900–1902)[edit]

Otaki 1900 6 January Henry Augustus Field[31] Death William Hughes Field[31]
City of Auckland 1900 27 April William Crowther[9] Death Joseph Witheford[69]
Waihemo 1900 18 July John McKenzie[70] Resignation Thomas Mackenzie[70]
Northern Maori 1901 9 January Hone Heke Ngapua Bankruptcy Hone Heke Ngapua
City of Christchurch 1901 18 July Charles Lewis Resignation George Smith
Patea 1901 (1st) 18 July George Hutchison Resignation Frederick Haselden
Patea 1901 (2nd) 6 November Frederick Haselden Election voided on petition[71] Frederick Haselden
Caversham 1901 19 December Arthur Morrison Death Thomas Sidey

15th Parliament (1903–1905)[edit]

Pahiatua 1904 28 July John O'Meara Death William Hawkins
City of Wellington 1905 6 April George Fisher Death Francis Fisher

16th Parliament (1906–1908)[edit]

Westland 1906 13 July Richard Seddon Death Tom Seddon
Manukau 1906 6 December Matthew Kirkbride[72] Death Frederic Lang[73]
Taranaki 1907 4 May Edward Metcalf Smith[30] Death Henry Okey[12]
Tuapeka 1908 5 June James Bennet Death William Chapple

17th Parliament (1909–1911)[edit]

Thames 1909 4 February James McGowan Appointed to Legislative Council Edmund Taylor
Northern Maori 1909 20 March Hone Heke Ngapua Death Te Rangi Hīroa
Rangitikei 1909 16 September Arthur Remington Death Robert Smith
Auckland East 1910 16 June Frederick Baume Death Arthur Myers
Christchurch North 1911 17 August Tommy Taylor Death Leonard Isitt

Multi-party era[edit]

Key

 Liberal    Reform    Social Democrat    Independent  
 Labour    Country Party    United    Ratana  
Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

18th Parliament (1912–1914)[edit]

Egmont 1912 17 September Thomas Mackenzie Resignation Charles Wilkinson
Grey 1913[74] 17 & 24 July Arthur Guinness Death Paddy Webb
Lyttelton 1913[75] 9 & 16 December George Laurenson Death James McCombs

19th Parliament (1915–1919)[edit]

Dunedin Central 1915 3 February Charles Statham Resignation Charles Statham
Bay of Islands 1915 8 June Vernon Reed Election declared void[76] William Stewart
Taumarunui 1915 15 June William Jennings Election declared void[77] William Jennings
Pahiatua 1916 17 August James Escott Death Harold Smith
Hawke's Bay 1917 8 March Robert McNab Death John Findlay
Bay of Islands 1917 17 March William Stewart Resignation Vernon Reed
Grey 1917 24 November Paddy Webb Resignation Paddy Webb
Wellington North 1918 12 February Alexander Herdman Resignation John Luke
Southern Maori 1918 21 February Taare Parata Death Hopere Uru
Grey 1918 29 May Paddy Webb Imprisonment Harry Holland
Wellington Central 1918 3 October Robert Fletcher Death Peter Fraser
Taranaki 1918 10 October Henry Okey Death Sydney Smith
Palmerston 1918 19 December David Buick Death Jimmy Nash
Wellington South 1918 19 December Alfred Hindmarsh Death Bob Semple

20th Parliament (1920–1922)[edit]

Bruce 1920 14 April James Allen Resignation John Edie
Stratford 1920 6 May Robert Masters Election declared void Robert Masters
Bay of Plenty 1920 30 September William MacDonald Death Kenneth Williams
Patea 1921 13 April Walter Powdrell Death Edwin Dixon
Auckland East 1921 2 November Arthur Myers Resignation Clutha Mackenzie
Southern Maori 1922 25 January Hopere Uru Death Henare Uru
Dunedin North 1922 21 June Edward Kellett Death James Munro

21st Parliament (1923–1925)[edit]

Tauranga 1923 28 March William Herries Death Charles MacMillan
Oamaru 1923 1 May John MacPherson Election declared void[78] John Macpherson
Franklin 1925 17 June William Massey Death Ewen McLennan

22nd Parliament (1926–1928)[edit]

Eden 1926 15 April[79] James Parr Appointed High Commissioner, UK Rex Mason
Raglan 1927 30 September[79] Richard Bollard Death Lee Martin

23rd Parliament (1929–1931)[edit]

Bay of Islands 1929 10 April[80] Harold Rushworth Election declared void Harold Rushworth
Hutt 1929 18 December[48] Thomas Wilford Resignation Walter Nash
Parnell 1930 7 May[24] Harry Jenkins Resignation Bill Endean
Invercargill 1930 13 August[28] Joseph Ward Death Vincent Ward
Waipawa 1930 8 October[34] George Hunter Death Albert Jull
Western Maori 1930 8 October[3] Maui Pomare Death Taite Te Tomo
Hauraki 1931 27 May[79] Arthur Hall Death Walter Massey

24th Parliament (1932–1935)[edit]

Southern Maori 1932 3 August[3] Tuiti Makitanara Death Eruera Tirikatene
Motueka 1932 1 December[81] George Black Death Keith Holyoake
Lyttelton 1933 13 September[33] James McCombs Death Elizabeth McCombs
Buller 1933 22 November[28] Harry Holland Death Paddy Webb
Lyttelton 1935 24 July[33] Elizabeth McCombs Death Terry McCombs

25th Parliament (1936–1938)[edit]

Manukau 1936 30 September[3] Bill Jordan Appointed High Commissioner, UK Arthur Osborne

Two-party era[edit]

Key

 Labour    National    Independent    Social Credit  

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

26th Parliament (1939–1943)[edit]

Christchurch South 1939 3 June Ted Howard Death Robert Macfarlane
Auckland West 1940 18 May Michael Joseph Savage Death Peter Carr
Waipawa 1940 16 November Albert Jull Death Cyril Harker
Waitemata 1941 19 July Jack Lyon Death Mary Dreaver
Bay of Plenty 1941 13 December Gordon Hultquist Death Bill Sullivan
Mid-Canterbury 1942 27 January Arthur Grigg Death Mary Grigg
Hauraki 1942 7 February John Allen Death Andrew Sutherland
Temuka 1942 7 February Thomas Burnett Death Jack Acland
Christchurch East 1943 6 February Tim Armstrong Death Mabel Howard
Northern Maori 1943 19 June Paraire Karaka Paikea Death (by-election postponed by legislation)[82]

27th Parliament (1943–1946)[edit]

Awarua 1944 28 October James Hargest Death George Herron
Western Maori 1945 10 February Haami Ratana Death Matiu Ratana
Hamilton 1945 26 May Frank Findlay Death Hilda Ross
Dunedin North 1945 21 July James Munro Death Robert Walls
Raglan 1946 5 March Robert Coulter Death Hallyburton Johnstone

28th Parliament (1946–1949)[edit]

Avon 1947 28 May Dan Sullivan Death Jock Mathison
Mount Albert 1947 24 September Arthur Richards Death Warren Freer
Westland 1947 3 December James O'Brien Death James Kent

29th Parliament (1950–1951)[edit]

Brooklyn 1951 17 February Peter Fraser Death Arnold Nordmeyer

30th Parliament (1951–1954)[edit]

Dunedin North 1953 12 December Robert Walls Death Ethel McMillan
Onehunga 1953 19 December Arthur Osborne Death Hugh Watt
Onslow 1954 7 July Harry Combs Death Henry May
Patea 1954 31 July William Sheat Resignation William Sheat

31st Parliament (1955–1957)[edit]

Riccarton 1956 27 October Angus McLagan Death Mick Connelly
Bay of Plenty 1957 6 April Bill Sullivan Resignation Percy Allen

32nd Parliament (1958–1960)[edit]

Hamilton 1959 2 May Hilda Ross Death Lance Adams-Schneider

33rd Parliament (1961–1963)[edit]

Hurunui 1961 10 June William Gillespie Death Herbert Pickering
Waitaki 1962 10 March Thomas Hayman Death Allan Dick
Buller 1962 7 July Jerry Skinner Death Bill Rowling
Timaru 1962 21 July Clyde Carr Resignation Basil Arthur
Otahuhu 1963 16 March James Deas Death Bob Tizard
Northern Maori 1963 16 March Tapihana Paikea Death Matiu Rata
Grey Lynn 1963 18 May Fred Hackett Death Reginald Keeling

34th Parliament (1964–1966)[edit]

There were no by-elections during the term of the 34th Parliament.[83]

35th Parliament (1967–1969)[edit]

Southern Maori 1967 11 March Eruera Tirikatene Death Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan
Fendalton 1967 15 April Harry Lake Death Eric Holland
Petone 1967 15 April Michael Moohan Death Fraser Colman
Eastern Maori 1967 12 August Puti Tipene Watene Death Paraone Reweti
Palmerston North 1967 2 December Bill Brown Death Joe Walding
Hutt 1968 3 August Walter Nash Death Trevor Young

36th Parliament (1970–1972)[edit]

Marlborough 1970 21 February Tom Shand Death Ian Brooks

37th Parliament (1973–1975)[edit]

Sydenham 1974 2 November Norman Kirk Death John Kirk

38th Parliament (1976–1978)[edit]

Nelson 1976 28 February Stanley Whitehead Death Mel Courtney
Mangere 1977 26 March Colin Moyle Resignation David Lange
Pahiatua 1977 30 April Keith Holyoake Appointed as Governor-General John Falloon
Rangitikei 1978 18 February Roy Jack Death Bruce Beetham

39th Parliament (1979–1981)[edit]

Christchurch Central 1979 18 August Bruce Barclay Death Geoffrey Palmer
Northern Maori 1980 7 June Matiu Rata Resignation Bruce Gregory
Onehunga 1980 7 June Frank Rogers Death Fred Gerbic
East Coast Bays 1980 6 September Frank Gill Appointed as Ambassador to US Gary Knapp

40th Parliament (1982–1984)[edit]

There were no by-elections during the term of the 40th Parliament.[83]

41st Parliament (1984–1987)[edit]

Timaru 1985 15 June Basil Arthur Death Maurice McTigue

42nd Parliament (1987–1990)[edit]

There were no by-elections during the term of the 40th Parliament.

43rd Parliament (1990–1993)[edit]

Tamaki 1992 15 February Robert Muldoon Resignation Clem Simich
Wellington Central 1992 12 December Fran Wilde Election as Mayor of Wellington Chris Laidlaw
Tauranga 1993 17 April Winston Peters Resignation Winston Peters

44th Parliament (1994–1996)[edit]

Selwyn 1994 13 August Ruth Richardson Resignation David Carter

MMP era[edit]

Key

 National    Labour    Māori    Independent    Mana  

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

45th Parliament (1997–1999)[edit]

Taranaki-King Country 1998 2 May Jim Bolger Resignation Shane Ardern

46th Parliament (2000–2002)[edit]

There were no by-elections during the term of the 46th Parliament.

47th Parliament (2003–2005)[edit]

Te Tai Hauauru 2004 10 July Tariana Turia Resignation Tariana Turia

48th Parliament (2006–2008)[edit]

There were no by-elections during the term of the 48th Parliament.

49th Parliament (2009–2011)[edit]

Mount Albert 2009 13 June Helen Clark Resignation David Shearer
Mana 2010 20 November Winnie Laban Resignation Kris Faafoi
Botany 2011 5 March Pansy Wong Resignation Jami-Lee Ross
Te Tai Tokerau 2011 25 June Hone Harawira Resignation Hone Harawira

50th Parliament (2011 – present)[edit]

Ikaroa-Rāwhiti 2013 29 June[84] Parekura Horomia Death[85] Meka Whaitiri
Christchurch East 2013 30 November Lianne Dalziel Resignation[86] Poto Williams

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wood, G. A. (1996) [1987]. Ministers and Members in the New Zealand Parliament (2 ed.). Dunedin: University of Otago Press. p. 85. ISBN 1 877133 00 0. 
  2. ^ By-elections in New Zealand; An Overview by J Boston in Political Science (32)2.
  3. ^ a b c d e Scholefield 1950, p. 144.
  4. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 140.
  5. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 100.
  6. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 95.
  7. ^ a b c d e Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  8. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 131.
  9. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 102.
  10. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  11. ^ "Canterbury". Daily Southern Cross XIII (978). 11 November 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2010. 
  12. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 130.
  13. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 120.
  14. ^ "Canterbury". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle XV (79). 31 December 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2010. 
  15. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 138.
  16. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  17. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 99.
  18. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 107.
  19. ^ "The Elections". Daily Southern Cross XV (1132). 4 May 1858. p. 3. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  20. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  21. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 142.
  22. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  23. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  24. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 104.
  25. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 127.
  26. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  27. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 106.
  28. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 146.
  29. ^ "Nomination and Election of a Member of the House of Representatives for the Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay Districts". Hawke's Bay Herald 1 (45). 31 July 1858. p. 2. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 139.
  31. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 105.
  32. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 135.
  33. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
  34. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  35. ^ "Canterbury". Wellington Independent XV (1398). 17 January 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  36. ^ "Mr. Sewell's Policy". Wellington Independent XV (1402). 31 January 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 108.
  38. ^ "Northern Division election". Daily Southern Cross XVII (1297). 25 May 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  39. ^ "Grey and Bell election". Taranaki Herald VIII (409). 2 June 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 15 June 2010. 
  40. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 215.
  41. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1905). "Ex-Members". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Otago & Southland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 30 June 2010. 
  42. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 94, 97.
  43. ^ "Dunedin and Suburbs South Election". Otago Daily Times (463). 15 June 1863. p. 5. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  44. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  45. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 137.
  46. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 132.
  47. ^ "Election of a Member for Lyttelton". The Star (148). 2 November 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  48. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 128.
  49. ^ "SOUTHERN TELEGRAMS". Daily Southern Cross. 19 August 1871. p. 3. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  50. ^ "COLERIDGE ELECTION". The Star (1375). 24 July 1872. p. 2. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  51. ^ "Heathcote Election". The Star (1381). 31 July 1872. p. Page 2. Retrieved 3 March 2010. 
  52. ^ "LYTTELTON ELECTION.". The Star (1634). 20 May 1873. p. 3. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  53. ^ "GENERAL ASSEMBLY". The Star (1912). 21 April 1874. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  54. ^ "LATEST TELEGRAMS". The Star (2006). 10 August 1874. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  55. ^ "House of Representatives". The Star (1998). 31 July 1874. p. 2. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  56. ^ "AUCKLAND CITY WEST" (5490). Daily Southern Cross. 29 March 1875. p. 5. Retrieved 13 January 2011. 
  57. ^ "City West Election". Daily Southern Cross. XXXII (5238). 26 July 1876. p. 3. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  58. ^ "Christchurch. 8th May". The Evening Post XVII (505). 9 May 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  59. ^ "Stanmore Election". The Star (4437). 14 July 1882. p. 3. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  60. ^ "The Peninsula Election". Otago Daily Times (6534). 23 January 1883. p. 2. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  61. ^ "Result of the Polling". The Star (5847). 9 February 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  62. ^ "The Avon Election". The Star (5944). 2 June 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  63. ^ "Christchurch North Election" (6577). The Star. 20 June 1889. p. 3. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  64. ^ "Obituary". The Star (7022). 28 November 1890. p. 3. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  65. ^ "The Maori Elections". Northern Advocate. 6 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  66. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
  67. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 122.
  68. ^ "The Wellington City Election". XXXII (9384). Wanganui Herald. 10 March 1898. p. 2. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  69. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 148.
  70. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 123.
  71. ^ "The Patea Election Petition" XXXV (10465). Wanganui Herald. 9 October 1901. p. 3. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  72. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
  73. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 119.
  74. ^ "Declaration of Result of Poll and Notification of Second Ballot". Grey River Argus. 24 July 1913. p. 1. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  75. ^ "Mr McCombs Returned". Northern Advocate. 17 December 1913. p. 4. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  76. ^ "Election void, Vernon Reed disqualified for a year". Colonist LVII (13773). 10 May 1915. p. 4. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  77. ^ "Mr Jennings Unseated for Taumarunui". Ashburton Guardian XXXV (9140). 14 May 1915. p. 4. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  78. ^ "Result of Oamaru Petition". Evening Post, Volume CV, Issue 77. 31 March 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  79. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 125.
  80. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 136.
  81. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 114.
  82. ^ "By-election Postponement Act 1943". Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  83. ^ a b Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
  84. ^ "Ikaroa-Rawhiti by-election date set". New Zealand Herald. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013. 
  85. ^ Small, Vernon; Chapman, Kate (29 April 2013). "MP Parekura Horomia dead". Fairfax Media New Zealand (via Stuff.co.nz). Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  86. ^ Small, Vernon (27 July 2013). "Shearer is running of out time". The Press (Christchurch). p. A21. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 

External links[edit]