New Zealand general election, 1879

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New Zealand general election, 1879
New Zealand
1875–76 ←
members
28 August – 15 September 1879 → 1881
members

All 88 seats in the House of Representatives of New Zealand
Turnout 66.5%
  First party


  Sir John Hall, ca 1880.jpg


Leader John Hall
Party Independent
Leader's seat Selwyn
Last election 88 seats
Seats won 88
Seat change Steady
Popular vote N/A
Percentage N/A
Swing N/A

Prime Minister before election

George Grey
Independent

Prime Minister-designate

John Hall
Independent

The New Zealand general election of 1879 was held between 28 August and 15 September 1879 to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 7th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 8 September. A total of 82,271 (66.5%) European voters turned out to vote, plus 14,553 Māori voters. Following the election, John Hall formed a new government.

Background[edit]

Sir George Grey, ca 1890

Political parties had not been established yet; this only happened after the 1890 election.[1] The same 73 electorates were used as for the last election,[2] which was held in 1875–76. In October 1875, Parliament passed the Representation Act 1875, which resolved to increase the size of Parliament to 88 representatives across the 73 electorates.[3][4]

Two of the electorates were represented by three members each (Christchurch and Dunedin).[5] A further eleven electorates were represented by two members each (Auckland West, Franklin, Grey Valley, Hokitika, Napier, City of Nelson, Thames, Wairarapa, Waitaki, Wanganui and City of Wellington).[3][6] The remaining 60 electorates were represented by a single member each.[3]

The election came about when George Grey's government was defeated in a no-confidence motion in July. He successfully requested a dissolution from the Governor of New Zealand, Sir Hercules Robinson.[7]

Male Māori received universal suffrage (two years before European males were granted universal suffrage). The parliamentary term was reduced from five to three years.[8]

Date[edit]

The election was held between 28 August and 15 September.[9] The date of election is defined here as the day on which the poll took place, or if there was no contest, the day of nomination.[10] The earliest date was the nomination meeting in the Avon electorate, where William Rolleston was declared elected unopposed.[11][12] The last elections were held on 15 September, where John Studholme and Edward George Wright were elected in the Gladstone and Coleridge electorates, respectively.[13]

The election in the Maori electorates were held on 8 September.[14]

Candidates[edit]

At the nomination meeting in the Waimea electorate on 5 September 1879, Joseph Shephard, Albert Pitt, Oswald Curtis and Acton Adams were proposed, the latter three without their knowledge or consent, presumably by opponents of George Grey who had the support of Shephard.[15] With Pitt, Curtis and Adams all formally withdrawing from the contest, the returning officer declared Shephard elected unopposed.[16] In 14 seats there was only one candidate.[17]

Result[edit]

In the European electorates, the male population over 21 years of age was 116,008.[18] Of those, 82,271 were enrolled and the turnout was 66.5%.[9] The male Māori population was estimated at 14,553, of which 6,686 voted (turnout 46%). The Maori statistics are to be treated with caution, though, as not much emphasis was put into precise data gathering. When the first Maori roll was established for the 1949 election, for example, more votes were cast than were voters on the roll.[9]

George Grey was elected in both the Thames and the City of Christchurch electorates.[19] Grey came first in the three-member Christchurch electorate (Samuel Paull Andrews and Edward Stevens came second with equal numbers of votes, and only 23 votes ahead of Edward Richardson).[20] Richardson petitioned against Grey's return on technical grounds, as Grey had already been elected in the Thames electorate.[21][22] The electoral commission unseated Grey on 24 October,[23] with Richardson offered to fill this vacancy a few days later. Grey kept the Thames seat and remained a member of parliament through that constituency.[24]


Member Electorate MP's term Election date
Montgomery, WilliamWilliam Montgomery Akaroa Third 1 September[25]
Moorhouse, William SeftonWilliam Sefton Moorhouse Ashley Sixth 11 September[25]
Speight, WilliamWilliam Speight Auckland East First 10 September[26]
Hurst, William JohnWilliam John Hurst Auckland West First 6 September[27]
Wallis, JamesJames Wallis Auckland West Second 6 September[28]
Rolleston, WilliamWilliam Rolleston Avon Fourth 28 August[29]
Murray, WilliamWilliam Murray Bruce Third 9 September[30]
Fisher, James BickertonJames Bickerton Fisher Buller First 9 September[31]
Barron, WilliamWilliam Barron Caversham First 9 September[32]
Saunders, AlfredAlfred Saunders Cheviot Third 6 September[33]
Andrews, Samuel PaullSamuel Paull Andrews Christchurch First 10 September[34]
Grey, GeorgeGeorge Greya Christchurch Third 10 September[35]
Stevens, Edward Cephas JohnEdward Cephas John Stevens Christchurch Third 10 September[26]
Ormond, John DaviesJohn Davies Ormond Clive Fifth 10 September[36]
Thomson, James WilliamJames William Thomson Clutha Third 11 September[37]
Wright, Edward GeorgeEdward George Wright Coleridge First 15 September[38]
Gibbs, WilliamWilliam Gibbs Collingwood Third 11 September[39]
Dick, ThomasThomas Dick Dunedin, City ofCity of Dunedin Third 2 September[40]
Oliver, RichardRichard Oliver Dunedin, City ofCity of Dunedin Second 2 September[36]
Stewart, William DownieWilliam Downie Stewart Dunedin, City ofCity of Dunedin Second 2 September[41]
Pyke, VincentVincent Pyke Dunstan Third 3 September[42]
McDonald, AllanAllan McDonald East Coast First 5 September[43]
Tole, JosephJoseph Tole Eden Second 5 September[44]
Atkinson, HarryHarry Atkinson Egmont Fifth 5 September[34]
Harris, BenjaminBenjamin Harris Franklin First 11 September[45]
Hamlin, EbenezerEbenezer Hamlin Franklin Second 11 September[46]
Wakefield, EdwardEdward Wakefield Geraldine Second 9 September[28]
Studholme, JohnJohn Studholme Gladstone Fourth 15 September[41]
Trimble, RobertRobert Trimble Grey and Bell First 8 September[44]
Reeves, RichardRichard Reeves Grey Valley Second 5 September[47]
Masters, EdwardEdward Masters Grey Valley First 5 September[48]
Fisher, JamesJames Fisher Heathcote Second 8 September[31]
Seddon, RichardRichard Seddon Hokitika First 5 September[49]
Reid, RobertRobert Reid Hokitika First 5 September[47]
Mason, ThomasThomas Mason Hutt First 9 September[50]
Bain, James WalkerJames Walker Bain Invercargill First 1 September[32]
Bowen, Charles ChristopherCharles Christopher Bowen Kaiapoi Third 5 September[51]
Allwright, HarryHarry Allwright Lyttelton First 4 September[10]
Johnston, Walter WoodsWalter Woods Johnston Manawatu Third 6 September[52]
Colbeck, William HenryWilliam Henry Colbeck Marsden First 11 September[53]
Shanks, JamesJames Shanks Mataura Second 29 August[49]
Lundon, JohnJohn Lundon Mongonui and Bay of Islands First 10 September[54]
Hursthouse, RichmondRichmond Hursthouse Motueka Second 2 September[55]
de Lautour, CecilCecil de Lautour Mount Ida Second 30 August[40]
Sutton, FredFred Sutton Napier Second 8 September[41]
Russell, WilliamWilliam Russell Napier Second 8 September[33]
Pitt, AlbertAlbert Pitt Nelson, City ofCity of Nelson First 6 September[56]
Adams, ActonActon Adams Nelson, City ofCity of Nelson Second 6 September[10]
Richmond, AndrewAndrew Richmond Nelson SuburbsSuburbs of Nelson Fifth 8 September[29]
Kelly, ThomasThomas Kelly New Plymouth Fourth 6 September[57]
Swanson, WilliamWilliam Swanson Newton Third 2 September[41]
O'Rorke, MauriceMaurice O'Rorke Onehunga Fifth 9 September[36]
Moss, FrederickFrederick Moss Parnell Second 4 September[30]
Kenny, CourtneyCourtney Kenny Picton Fourth 30 August[57]
Macandrew, JamesJames Macandrew Port Chalmers Seventh 5 September[58]
Willis, William JarvisWilliam Jarvis Willis Rangitikei First 3 September[59]
McCaughen, PatrickPatrick McCaughen Riverton First 6 September[58]
George, Seymour ThorneSeymour Thorne George Rodney Second 8 September[39]
Driver, HenryHenry Driver Roslyn Fourth 5 September[60]
Hall, JohnJohn Hall Selwyn Fourth 29 August[46]
Fulton, JamesJames Fulton Taieri First 9 September[39]
Grey, GeorgeGeorge Greya Thames Third 2 September[35]
Sheehan, JohnJohn Sheehan Thames Third 2 September[49]
Turnbull, RichardRichard Turnbull Timaru Second 6 September[44]
Gisborne, WilliamWilliam Gisborne Totara Third 29 August[39]
Brown, James ClarkJames Clark Brown Tuapeka Fourth 6 September[61]
Ireland, GeorgeGeorge Ireland Waikaia First 8 September[55]
Whyte, John BlairJohn Blair Whyte Waikato First 8 September[62]
McLean, GeorgeGeorge McLean Waikouaiti Third 6 September[63]
Shephard, JosephJoseph Shephard Waimea Second 5 September[15][16]
Whitaker, Frederick AlexanderFrederick Alexander Whitaker Waipa First 10 September[62]
Bunny, HenryHenry Bunny Wairarapa Fifth 4 September[64]
Beetham, GeorgeGeorge Beetham Wairarapa Second 4 September[65]
Seymour, ArthurArthur Seymour Wairau Third 8 September[49]
Shrimski, SamuelSamuel Shrimski Waitaki Second 5 September[66]
Hislop, Thomas WilliamThomas William Hislop Waitaki Second 5 September[67]
Wood, ReaderReader Wood Waitemata Fifth 9 September[38]
Finn, HughHugh Finn Wakatipu First 12 September[31]
Hirst, HenryHenry Hirst Wallace First 4 September[67]
Bryce, JohnJohn Bryce Wanganui Fourth 5 September[61]
Ballance, JohnJohn Ballance Wanganui Third 5 September[32]
Hutchison, WilliamWilliam Hutchison Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington First 5 September[55]
Levin, WilliamWilliam Levin Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington First 5 September[54]
Brandon, AlfredAlfred Brandon Wellington Country Sixth 11 September[61]
Tomoana, HenareHenare Tomoana X-01Eastern Maori Second 8 September[44]
Tawhai, HoneHone Tawhai X-02Northern Maori First 8 September[68]
Tainui, IhaiaIhaia Tainui X-03Southern Maori Second 8 September[68]
Wheoro, Wiremu TeWiremu Te Wheoro X-04Western Maori First 8 September[62]

a George Grey was unseated on petition in Christchurch, as he had already been elected in the Thames electorate[69]


Government formation[edit]

Following the election, John Hall formed a new government on 8 October 1879, and Hall thus became the 12th Premier of New Zealand.[70][71] The Hall Ministry stayed in power until 21 April 1882, i.e. some months after the next general election.[71]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 177.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 43.
  3. ^ a b c "Representation Act 1875 (39 Victoriae 1875 No 77)". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "Special Parliamentary Telegram". Otago Daily Times (4267). 21 October 1875. p. 3. Retrieved 17 March 2012. 
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 156.
  6. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 154–167.
  7. ^ Martin, John E. (2004). The House: New Zealand's House of Representatives, 1854–2004. Palmerston North: Dunmore Publishing Limited. p. 80. ISBN 9780864694638. 
  8. ^ "Key dates in New Zealand electoral reform". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c "General elections 1853–2005 – dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 92.
  11. ^ "The General Election". The Star (3551). 28 August 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  12. ^ "The First Election". Auckland Star X (2924). 28 August 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  13. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 142, 149.
  14. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 142, 144, 147.
  15. ^ a b "Waimea Nomination". Nelson Evening Mail XIV (201). 5 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "Electoral District of Waimea.". Colonist XXII (2598). 9 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  17. ^ Wilson (1985) page 285
  18. ^ "The Electors of New Zealand". The Star (3596). 20 October 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  19. ^ "General Election News" XII (9511). Wanganui Herald. 11 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  20. ^ "The Christchurch Election". The Star (3563). 11 September 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  21. ^ "The Timaru Herald : Thursday, October 30, 1879". The Timaru Herald XXXI (1594). 30 October 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  22. ^ "The Christchurch Election". The Star (3608). 3 November 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  23. ^ "Sir George Grey unseated for Christchurch". The Timaru Herald XXXI (1590). 25 October 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  24. ^ "Parliamentary" VI (934). Poverty Bay Herald. 27 October 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  25. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 127.
  26. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 140.
  27. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 115.
  28. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 145.
  29. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 136.
  30. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 128.
  31. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 106.
  32. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  33. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 137.
  34. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
  35. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 110.
  36. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 130.
  37. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  38. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 149.
  39. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 108.
  40. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 103.
  41. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 141.
  42. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 133.
  43. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 122.
  44. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 144.
  45. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  46. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 111.
  47. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  48. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 126.
  49. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 138.
  50. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 125.
  51. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 96.
  52. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  53. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 101.
  54. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 120.
  55. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 116.
  56. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 132.
  57. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
  58. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
  59. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 148.
  60. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 104.
  61. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  62. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  63. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 124.
  64. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 98.
  65. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 95.
  66. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 139.
  67. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 114.
  68. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 142.
  69. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 201.
  70. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 37.
  71. ^ a b Wilson 1985, p. 57.

References[edit]

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.