New Zealand general election, 1893

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1893 general election
New Zealand
1890 ←
members
28 November (general) & 20 December (Māori) 1893
→ 1896
members

All 74 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
38 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout 75.3%
  First party Second party
  RichardSeddon1905.jpg No image.png
Leader Richard Seddon No Leader
Party Liberal Independent
Leader since 1893
Leader's seat Westland
Last election 40 74 seats
Seats won 51 23
Seat change Increase 11 Decrease 51
Popular vote N/A N/A
Percentage N/A N/A
Swing N/A N/A

Prime Minister before election

Richard Seddon
Liberal

Prime Minister-designate

Richard Seddon
Liberal

The New Zealand general election of 1893 was held on 28 November and 20 December in the European and Māori electorates, respectively, to elect 74 MPs to the 12th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The election was won by the Liberal Party, and Richard Seddon became Prime Minister.

1893 was the year universal suffrage was granted to women over 21 (including Māori), plural registration was abolished, plural voting for Māori property-owners was abolished, and only those whose descent was exactly half Māori were allowed to choose whether to vote in European or Māori electorates. Women's suffrage was the most consequential change.

1892 electoral redistribution[edit]

The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1890 for the 1890 election. The 1891 census was the first to automatically trigger an electoral redistribution, which was undertaken in 1892. The population drift to the North Island resulted in the transfer of one electorate from the south to the north. Only three electorates remained with unaltered boundaries: Thames, Wairarapa, and Timaru.[1] 14 new electorates were established, and of those, eight electorates were established for the first time: Bay of Plenty, Otaki, Pareora, Patea, Riccarton, Waiapu, Waimea-Sounds, and Wellington Suburbs. The remaining six electorates had existed before, and they were re-established for the 12th Parliament: Caversham, Chalmers, Lyttelton, Rangitata, Waihemo, and Waipa.[2]

Women's suffrage[edit]

Tribute to the Suffragettes memorial in Christchurch adjacent to Our City. The figures shown from left to right are Amey Daldy, Kate Sheppard, Ada Wells and Harriet Morison

By far the most notable change for the 1893 election was that the Electoral Act, 1893, extended the franchise to all women (including Māori) aged 21 and over.[3] Women's suffrage was granted after about two decades of campaigning by women such as Kate Sheppard and Mary Ann Müller and organisations such as the New Zealand branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union led by Anne Ward.[4] Of countries presently independent, New Zealand was the first to give women the vote in modern times.[5] John Hall, a conservative politician and former premier, received most of the credit for pushing the legislation through Parliament; he is the only male who has his name inscribed on the national Kate Sheppard memorial.[5] There were only 10 weeks between the passage of the legislation and the election, and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) set about to enrol as many women as possible.[4]

The election[edit]

The 1893 election was held on Tuesday, 28 November in the general electorates, and on Wednesday, 20 December in the Māori electorates to elect a total of 74 MPs to the 12th Parliament.[6][7]

A total number of 302,997 (75.3%) voters turned out to vote.[8] 65% of all eligible New Zealand women voted in the 1893 election.[4] In 3 seats there was only one candidate.[9] 31 and 39 electorates were in the North Island and South Island, respectively, plus the 4 Māori electorates.[10]

Results[edit]

Party totals[edit]

The following table gives party strengths and vote distribution according to Wilson (1985), who records Maori representatives as Independents prior to the 1905 election.[11]

Party Total votes Percentage Seats won
Liberal 175,814 57.80% 51
Opposition 74,482 24.49% 13
Independent 53,880 17.71% 10

Electorate results[edit]

The following is a table of electorate results by electorate.

Key

 Liberal    Independent    Opposition  

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1893[12][13]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Ashburton Edward George Wright John McLachlan 26 Cathcart Wason (Opposition)
Ashley Richard Meredith 590 David Duncan Macfarlane (Opposition)
Auckland, City of Alfred Cadman George Grey 2,233 Thomas Tudehope[14]
Thomas Thompson William Crowther 438
John Shera Charles Button 68
Avon Edwin Blake William Tanner 653 George McIntyre (Independent)
Awarua Joseph Ward (uncontested)
Bay of Islands Robert Houston 231 James Trounsen[15] (Independent)
Bay of Plenty (new electorate) William Kelly 209 Henry Burton[16]
Bruce James Allen (uncontested)
Buller Eugene O'Conor Roderick McKenzie (N/A)
Caversham (new electorate) Arthur Morrison
Chalmers (new electorate) John A. Millar
Christchurch, City of Westby Perceval William Whitehouse Collins
William Pember Reeves
Richard Molesworth Taylor George Smith
Clutha Thomas Mackenzie (N/A)
Dunedin, City of William Hutchison
David Pinkerton
Henry Fish William Earnshaw
Eden Edwin Mitchelson 1,161 Malcolm Niccol (Liberal)
Egmont Felix McGuire (N/A)
Ellesmere John Hall William Montgomery (N/A)
Franklin Ebenezer Hamlin Benjamin Harris 89 William Massey (Opposition)
Grey Arthur Guinness (N/A)
Hawke's Bay William Russell 70 Charles William Reardon[17] (Liberal)
Inangahua Robert Stout Patrick O'Regan (N/A)
Invercargill James Kelly (N/A)
Kaiapoi Richard Moore David Buddo (N/A)
Lyttelton (new electorate) John Joyce
Manukau Frank Buckland Maurice O'Rorke 252 Frank Buckland (Opposition)
Marsden Robert Thompson[nb 1] 1,010 James Harrison[15] (Independent)
Masterton Alexander Hogg 1,228 Joseph Harkness (Opposition)
Mataura George Richardson Robert McNab (N/A)
Napier George Henry Swan Samuel Carnell 520 George Henry Swan (Opposition)
Nelson Joseph Harkness John Graham (N/A)
New Plymouth Edward Metcalf Smith 491 Robert Trimble (Opposition)
Oamaru Thomas Duncan (N/A)
Otaki (new electorate) James Wilson
Palmerston James Wilson Frederick Pirani (N/A)
Pareora (new electorate) Frederick Flatman
Parnell Frank Lawry 334 William Shepherd Allen (Independent)
Patea (new electorate) George Hutchison
Rangitata (new electorate) William Maslin
Rangitikei Robert Bruce John Stevens (N/A)
Riccarton (new electorate) George Russell
Selwyn Alfred Saunders (N/A)
Taieri Walter Carncross (N/A)
Thames James McGowan 311 Edmund Taylor (Liberal)
Timaru William Hall-Jones (N/A)
Tuapeka Hugh Valentine Vincent Pyke (N/A)
Waihemo (new electorate) John McKenzie
Waiapu (new electorate) James Carroll 497 Cecil de Lautour
Waikato Edward Lake Alfred Cadman 75 Isaac Coates[13] (Liberal)
Waikouaiti James Green (N/A)
Waimea-Sounds (new electorate) Charles H. Mills
Waipa (new electorate) Frederic Lang 989 Gerald Peacock[18]
Waipawa William Smith Charles Hall 378 George Hunter (Opposition)
Wairarapa Walter Clarke Buchanan 690 George Augustus Fairbrother[19] (Liberal)
Wakatipu Thomas Fergus William Fraser (N/A)
Wairau Lindsay Buick (N/A)
Waitaki John McKenzie William Steward (N/A)
Waitemata Jackson Palmer[nb 2] Richard Monk 239 Jackson Palmer (Independent)
Wallace James Mackintosh (N/A)
Wanganui John Ballance Archibald Willis (N/A)
Wellington Suburbs (new electorate) Alfred Newman
Wellington, City of John Duthie
George Fisher Francis Bell
Kennedy Macdonald Robert Stout
Westland Richard Seddon (uncontested)
Māori electorates[nb 3]
Eastern Maori James Carroll Wi Pere (N/A)
Northern Maori Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa Hone Heke Ngapua (N/A)
Southern Maori Tame Parata 185 Teoti Pita Mutu (N/A)
Western Maori Hoani Taipua Ropata Te Ao 90 Pepene Eketone (N/A)

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Robert Thompson was an Independent in the previous Parliament
  2. ^ Jackson Palmer was listed as Government in contemporary media, but as an Independent by Wilson
  3. ^ The affiliation of many of the Maori candidates is unknown or uncertain

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 55–60.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 59f.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 59.
  4. ^ a b c Malcolm, Tessa K. "Sheppard, Katherine Wilson". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "One giant leap for womankind". The New Zealand Herald. 13 November 2013. pp. F24–F25. 
  6. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  7. ^ "The general Election". Otago Daily Times. 23 December 1893. p. 2. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "General elections 1853-2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  9. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 286.
  10. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 173.
  11. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 287–289.
  12. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  14. ^ "Electorate City of Auckland". Auckland Star XXIV (273). 17 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "Page 4 Advertisements Column 3". The Northern Advocate. 25 November 1893. p. 4. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "Public Notice". Bay of Plenty Times. 20 November 1893. p. 5. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  17. ^ "Hawke's Bay Electorate". Hawke's Bay Herald. XXVIII (9544). 2 December 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  18. ^ "The General Elections". The Press L (8651). 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 29 November 2013. 
  19. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Borough Of Carterton". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 

References[edit]

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 

External links[edit]