New Zealand general election, 1935

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New Zealand general election, 1935
New Zealand
1931 ←
members
26 (Māori) & 27 November (general) 1935
→ 1938
members

All 80 seats in the Parliament of New Zealand
41 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  Michael Joseph Savage.jpg George William Forbes.jpg
Leader Michael Joseph Savage George Forbes
Party Labour United/Reform
Leader since 1933 1925
Leader's seat Auckland West Hurunui
Last election 24 seats, 34.3% 51 seats, 55.4%
Seats after 53 19
Seat change Increase 29 Decrease 29
Percentage 46.1% 32.9%
Swing Increase 11.8% Decrease 22.5%

  Third party Fourth party
  Harold Montague Rushworth (1940).jpg Eruera Tirikatene.jpg
Leader Harold Rushworth Eruera Tirikatene
Party Country Party Ratana
Leader since 1928 1928
Leader's seat Bay of Islands Southern Maori
Last election 1 seat, 2.3% Not yet founded
Seats after 2 2
Seat change Increase 1 Increase 1
Percentage 2.5% 1.0%
Swing Increase 0.2% Increase 1.0%

Prime Minister before election

George Forbes
United/Reform

Elected Prime Minister

Michael Joseph Savage
Labour

The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the Parliament of New Zealand's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.

Background[edit]

Since 1931, New Zealand had been governed by a coalition of the United Party and the Reform Party. United and Reform had traditionally been enemies – United was a revival of the old Liberal Party, a progressive party with a strong urban base, while Reform was a conservative party with a strong rural base. When the 1928 elections left United and Reform with an equal number of seats, United managed to obtain support from the growing Labour Party, but in 1931, the worsening depression prompted a dispute over economic policy, and Labour withdrew its backing. Reform then agreed to go into coalition with United, fearing that an election would lead to significant gains for the "socialistic" Labour. The coalition held on to power in the 1931 elections, but the ongoing economic troubles made the government deeply unpopular, and by the time of the 1935 elections, Labour's support was soaring.

On Sunday 24 November, shortly before the election, an address by Colin Scrimgeour ("Uncle Scrim") on the Friendly Road radio station, which was expected to urge listeners to vote Labour, was jammed by the Post Office.

The election[edit]

The number of electorates being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since the 1902 Electoral Redistribution.[1][2]

Four of those were Māori electorates, and those elections were held on 26 November.[3] 19 candidates contested the four available positions, and in three out of four cases, the incumbents were returned.[4][5]

The election in the European electorates was held on the following day, a Wednesday.[3] A total of 246 candidates contested the 76 European electorates, between two and six per electorate (Wellington East had six candidates, and there was a contest in all electorates), i.e. an average of 3.2 candidates per electorate.[6] 919,798 people were registered to vote in European electorates (enrolment data for Māori electorates are only available since the 1954 election), and there was a turnout of 90.75%.[7] This turnout was considerably higher than the turnout in the previous election (84.26%) and the highest turnout so far, but still about average for the next decades.[7]

Results[edit]

Summary[edit]

The 1935 election saw a massive win for the opposition Labour Party, which won fifty-three seats, and formed the First Labour Government. The governing coalition won only nineteen. This difference was not so great in the popular vote, however, with Labour winning 45.7% to the coalition's 33.5%. Apart from Labour and the coalition, the only two groups to win places in Parliament were the Country Party and the Ratana movement, both of which gained two seats.

Four independents were elected, Harry Atmore, David McDougall, Charles Wilkinson and Robert Wright. The independents were tactically supported by one of the major parties who did not stand a candidate against them, and they generally voted with that party; Wilkinson and Wright supported National while Atmore and McDougall supported Labour. Labour did not stand candidates against the two Country Party members.[8]

Many commentators blamed the coalition's failure to win seats on vote splitting by the Democrat Party, an "anti-socialist" group founded by a former organiser for the coalition, Albert Davy, and headed by Thomas Hislop, the Mayor of Wellington. Perhaps as many as eight seats were an unexpected bonus to Labour because of the three-way split.[9] The Democrats won 7.8% of the vote, but no seats. Among their candidates were future National MPs Frederick Doidge[citation needed] and Matthew Oram.

Party totals[edit]

Party Votes Percentage Seats change
Labour 389,911 45.73 53 +29
United/Reform Coalition 285,422 33.48 19 −29
Democrats 66,695 7.82 0 -
Country Party 9,468 1.67 2 +1
Ratana 6,249 0.73 2 -
Independents 90,089 10.57 4 −1
Labour win from Coalition 852,637 80

Electorate results[edit]

The following table shows the detailed results:

Key

 Labour    Independent    United    Reform    United/Reform    Democrat    Ratana    Country Party  

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1935[10]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Auckland Central Bill Parry 5,301[11] Clifford Reid Dodd[12] (Democrat)
Auckland East Frederick Schramm 2,337[13] Harold Percy Burton[14] (United/Reform)
Auckland Suburbs Rex Mason 4,896[11] W A Bishop[15] (United/Reform)
Auckland West Michael Joseph Savage 6,180[16] Ernest David Stallworthy[17] (United/Reform)
Avon Dan Sullivan 5,410[18] L C Walker (Independent)
Awarua Philip De La Perrelle James Hargest[nb 1] 950[20] J F Doyle (Labour)
Bay of Islands Harold Rushworth 2,121[4] C Cameron (United/Reform)
Bay of Plenty vacant[nb 2] Gordon Hultquist 555[22] J T Merry[23] (United/Reform)
Buller Paddy Webb 4,499[24] John H Powell[25] (United/Reform)
Central Otago William Bodkin 1,819[24] H K Edie[26] (Labour)
Chalmers Alfred Ansell Archibald Campbell 1,071[20] Alfred Ansell (United/Reform)
Christchurch East Tim Armstrong 5,728[11] Sydney Richardson[27][28] (United/Reform)
Christchurch North Henry Holland Sidney Holland 971[11] Robert Macfarlane (Labour)
Christchurch South Ted Howard 5,585[11] Tom Milliken[29][30] (United/Reform)
Clutha Peter McSkimming James Roy[nb 3] 1,930[4] Rev. Edwin Thomas Cox[31] (Labour)
Dunedin Central Charles Statham Peter Neilson 1,729[20] D C Cameron[32] (United/Reform)
Dunedin North James Wright Munro 1,668[4] Alexander Smith Falconer[33][34][35] (United/Reform)
Dunedin South Fred Jones 3,378[22] Thomas Sidey (United/Reform)
Dunedin West William Downie Stewart Gervan McMillan 945[36] William Downie Stewart[37] (United/Reform)
Eden Arthur Stallworthy Bill Anderton 2,465[36] Arthur Stallworthy (Democrat)
Egmont Charles Wilkinson 3,172[11] James Ross[38] (Labour)
Franklin Jack Massey Arthur Sexton 685[4] Jack Massey (United/Reform)
Gisborne David William Coleman 1,817[13] Douglas Lysnar (Independent)
Grey Lynn John A. Lee 8,012[36] George Wildish[39] (United/Reform)
Hamilton Alexander Young Charles Barrell 1,391[4] Alexander Young (United/Reform)
Hauraki Walter William Massey Charles Robert Petrie 544[40] Walter William Massey (United/Reform)
Hawke's Bay Hugh Campbell Edward Cullen 1,010[20] Hugh Campbell (United/Reform)
Hurunui George Forbes 1,203[11] D C Davie[41] (Labour)
Hutt Walter Nash 7,757[13] Victor Emmanuel Jacobson[42] (United/Reform)
Invercargill James Hargest William Denham 346[20] Gordon Reed[43] (Democrat)
Kaiapoi Richard Hawke Morgan Williams 1,424[20] Richard Hawke (United/Reform)
Kaipara Gordon Coates 302[4] W Grounds (Independent)
Lyttelton Terry McCombs 2,775[13] Seton Fulton Marshall[44][45] (United/Reform)
Manawatu Joseph Linklater Clifford Hunter 60[24] Joseph Linklater (United/Reform)
Manukau William Joseph Jordan 6,402[36] Herbert Jenner Wily[46] (United/Reform)
Marsden Alfred Murdoch James Gillespie Barclay 347[11] Alfred Murdoch (United/Reform)
Masterton George Sykes John Robertson 325[22] George Sykes (United/Reform)
Mataura David McDougall 1,658[11] Thomas Golden[47] (United/Reform)
Mid-Canterbury vacant[nb 4] Horace Herring 462[11] James Carr[49] (United/Reform)
Motueka Keith Holyoake 280[20] Rubert York[50][51] (Labour)
Napier Bill Barnard 4,057[52] F B Logan (United/Reform)
Nelson Harry Atmore 2,610[4] Herbert Everett[53] (United/Reform)
New Plymouth Sydney George Smith 831[20] Frederick Frost (Labour)
Oamaru John Andrew MacPherson Arnold Nordmeyer 1,142[20] John Andrew MacPherson (United/Reform)
Oroua John Cobbe 2,333[4] W H Oliver (Labour)
Otaki William Hughes Field Leonard Lowry 1,720[24] G. A. Monk[54] (United/Reform)
Pahiatua Alfred Ransom 1,175[11] R A Gower (Labour)
Palmerston Jimmy Nash Joe Hodgens 115[55] Jimmy Nash (United/Reform)
Parnell Bill Endean 731[40] Arthur Osborne (Labour)
Patea Harold Dickie 649[20] W G Simpson (Labour)
Raglan Lee Martin 1,695[20] Stewart Reid[56] (United/Reform)
Rangitikei Alexander Stuart Ormond Wilson 907[57] Alexander Stuart (United/Reform)
Riccarton Herbert Kyle 1,139[11] G T Thurston (Labour)
Roskill Arthur Shapton Richards 4,023[40] Thomas James Fleming[17] (United/Reform)
Rotorua Cecil Clinkard Alexander Moncur 1,452[4] Frederick Doidge (Independent)
Stratford William Polson[nb 5] 339[4] Philip Skoglund (Labour)
Tauranga Charles MacMillan Charles Harris Burnett 41[24] Charles MacMillan (United/Reform)
Temuka Thomas David Burnett 605[4] T H Langford (Labour)
Thames Albert Samuel Jim Thorn 1,262[40] Albert Samuel (United/Reform)
Timaru Clyde Carr 1,059[20] W Thomas (United/Reform)
Waimarino Frank Langstone 1,863[4] C A Boles (United/Reform)
Waipawa Albert Jull Hubert Christie 259[20] Albert Jull (United/Reform)
Waikato Frederick Lye Robert Coulter 784[57] Frederick Lye (United/Reform)
Wairarapa Alexander McLeod Benjamin Roberts 33[20] John Wiltshire Card[58][59] (United/Reform)
Wairau Edward Healy Edwin Meachen 352[11] Edward Healy (United/Reform)
Waitaki John Bitchener David Barnes 479[37] John Bitchener (United/Reform)
Waitemata Alexander Harris Jack Lyon 2,684[11] Alexander Harris (Independent)
Waitomo Walter Broadfoot 1,526[4] Jack Jones[60] (Labour)
Wallace Adam Hamilton 2,034[11] L S Edmund (Labour)
Wanganui Bill Veitch Joseph Cotterill 1,569[11] Bill Veitch (Democrat)
Wellington Central Peter Fraser 4,479[4] Will Mason[61] (United/Reform)
Wellington East Bob Semple 3,323[11] Ossie Mazengarb (United/Reform)
Wellington North Charles Henry Chapman 794[13] Elizabeth Gilmer[62] (Independent)
Wellington South Robert McKeen 6,059[11] Henry Featherston Toogood[42][59] (United/Reform)
Wellington Suburbs Robert Alexander Wright 1,856[11] Peter Michael Butler[42] (United/Reform)
Westland James O'Brien 3,677[4] H R Young[63] (United/Reform)
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Apirana Ngata 3,224[4] Tiaki Omana (Ratana)
Northern Maori Taurekareka Henare 983[4] Paraire Karaka Paikea (Ratana)
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 43[4] Thomas Kaiporohu Bragg (Independent)
Western Maori Taite Te Tomo Toko Ratana 47[5] Taite Te Tomo (United/Reform)

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ James Hargest ran as an Independent, but was aligned to the Reform Party[19]
  2. ^ Kenneth Williams, the previous representative, died two days prior to the election[21]
  3. ^ James Roy ran as an Independent, but was aligned to the United/Reform Coalition
  4. ^ Jeremiah Connolly, the previous representative, died just prior to the election[48]
  5. ^ William Polson ran as an Independent, but was aligned to the United/Reform Coalition

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "General elections 1853–2005 – dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 67.
  3. ^ a b Wilson 1985, p. 138.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "General Election". The Evening Post CXX (138). 7 December 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Maori Seats". The Evening Post CXX (129). 27 November 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  6. ^ "The General Election". The Evening Post CXX (128). 26 November 1935. p. 20. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Wilson 1985, p. 286.
  8. ^ Milne, Robert Stephen (1966). Political Parties in New Zealand. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. p. 76. 
  9. ^ Bassett, Michael (2000). Tomorrow Comes the Song: A life of Peter Fraser. Auckland: Penguin. p. 136. ISBN 0-14-029793-6. 
  10. ^ The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1936. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Election Results". The Evening Post CXX (136). 5 December 1935. p. 5. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  12. ^ "Notice of Nominations Received and Polling Places Appointed". Auckland Star LXVI (268). 12 November 1935. p. 9. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c d e "Maori Seats". The Evening Post CXX (135). 4 December 1935. p. 12. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  14. ^ "Political Candidates". Auckland Star LXVI (191). 14 August 1935. p. 8. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "Suburbs Seat". Auckland Star LXVI (238). 8 October 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "Final Counts". Auckland Star LXVI (289). 6 December 1935. p. 8. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  17. ^ a b "Parliamentary Elections". Auckland Star LXVI (268). 12 November 1935. p. 9. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  18. ^ "Recount in Avon". The Evening Post CXX (134). 3 December 1935. p. 12. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  19. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 203.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Election Results". The Evening Post CXX (137). 6 December 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  21. ^ Robinson, Sheila. "Williams, Kenneth Stuart". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  22. ^ a b c "Further Final Counts". The Evening Post CXX (139). 9 December 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "Bay of Plenty Seat". Auckland Star LXVI (174). 25 July 1935. p. 9. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c d e "How the votes were cast". The Evening Post CXX (130). 28 November 1935. p. 8. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  25. ^ "Buller Seat". The Evening Post CXX (96). 19 October 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  26. ^ "General Election". The Evening Post CXX (10). 11 July 1935. p. 14. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  27. ^ "Christchurch East". The Evening Post CXX (106). 31 October 1935. p. 22. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  28. ^ "Obituary Hon. E. Richardson, C.M.G.". The Evening Post. LXXXIX (48). 26 February 1915. p. 8. Retrieved 21 March 2010. 
  29. ^ "Christchurch South". The Evening Post CXX (105). 30 October 1935. p. 4. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  30. ^ "History". Cavell Leitch. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  31. ^ "Dunedin Way". Auckland Star LXVI (275). 20 November 1935. p. 14. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  32. ^ "Dunedin Central". The Evening Post CXX (84). 5 October 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  33. ^ Ammentorp, Steen. "Falconer". generals.dk. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  34. ^ "Cenotaph Record". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  35. ^ "Brigadier A. S. Falconer". New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  36. ^ a b c d "Parliamentary Elections". Auckland Star LXVI (287). 4 December 1935. p. 3. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  37. ^ a b "Canterbury Westland Province". Auckland Star LXVI (282). 28 November 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  38. ^ "Eltham Seat". The Evening Post CXX (106). 31 October 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  39. ^ "Women Take Part". The Evening Post CXX (107). 1 November 1935. p. 14. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Final Counts". Auckland Star LXVI (288). 5 December 1935. p. 8. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  41. ^ "General Election". The Evening Post CXX (80). 1 October 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  42. ^ a b c "Notice of Nominations Received and Polling Places Appointed". The Evening Post CXX (116). 12 November 1935. p. 3. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  43. ^ "Otago Seats". The Evening Post CXX (127). 25 November 1935. p. 12. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  44. ^ "Lyttelton Seat". The Evening Post CXX (115). 11 November 1935. p. 4. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  45. ^ "Notice of Nominations Received and Polling Places Appointed". Akaroa Mail and Banks Peninsula Advertiser. LVIII (6155). 15 November 1935. p. 3. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  46. ^ "Manukau Contest". Auckland Star LXVI (249). 21 October 1935. p. 9. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  47. ^ "Mataura Seat". The Evening Post CXX (51). 28 August 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  48. ^ "Mr. J. Connolly, MP". The Evening Post CXX (82). 3 October 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  49. ^ "Local and General". Ellesmere Guardian LVI (80). 22 October 1935. p. 4. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  50. ^ "Uncertainty in Motueka". Auckland Star LXVI (280). 26 November 1935. p. 12. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  51. ^ Parker, Edmund (November 1958). "Recollections of Earlier Days in Motueka, Part 1". Nelson Historical Society Journal (Nelson, New Zealand: Nelson Historical Society). Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  52. ^ "Napier Seat". The Evening Post CXX (134). 3 December 1935. p. 12. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  53. ^ "Nelson Seat". The Evening Post CXX (34). 8 August 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  54. ^ "Otaki Seat". The Evening Post CXX (55). 2 September 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  55. ^ "General Election". The Evening Post CXX (136). 5 December 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  56. ^ "South Auckland". Auckland Star LXVI (202). 27 August 1935. p. 9. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  57. ^ a b "General Election". The Evening Post CXX (142). 12 December 1935. p. 13. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  58. ^ "Notice of Nominations Received and Polling Places Appointed". The Evening Post CXX (117). 13 November 1935. p. 3. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  59. ^ a b "Wairarapa Seat". The Evening Post CXX (16). 18 July 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  60. ^ "Mrs. R. Bleasel". Auckland Star LXIX (277). 23 November 1938. p. 4. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  61. ^ "Nationalist Party". The Evening Post CXX (47). 23 August 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  62. ^ Labrum, Bronwyn. "Gilmer, Elizabeth May". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved January 2013. 
  63. ^ "Avon Seat". The Evening Post CXII (118). 14 November 1931. p. 14. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 

References[edit]

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.