New Zealand general election, 2002
The 2002 New Zealand general election was held on 27 July 2002 to determine the composition of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. It saw the reelection of Helen Clark's Labour Party government, as well as the worst-ever performance by the opposition National Party.
Arguably the most controversial issue in the election campaign was the end of a moratorium on genetic engineering, strongly opposed by the Green Party. Some commentators have claimed that the tension between Labour and the Greens on this issue was a more notable part of the campaign than any tension between Labour and its traditional right-wing opponents. The release of Nicky Hager's book Seeds of Distrust prior to the election also sparked much debate. The book examined how the government handled the contamination of a shipment of imported corn with genetically modified seeds. Helen Clark called the Greens "goths and anarcho-feminists" during the campaign.
On 12 June the government announced that the country would have a general election on 27 July. This was several months earlier than was required, a fact which caused considerable comment. The Prime Minister, Helen Clark, claimed that an early poll was necessary due to the collapse of her junior coalition partner, the Alliance. Critics, however, claimed that Clark could have continued to govern, and that the early election was called to take advantage of Labour's strong position in the polls. Some commentators believe that a mixture of these factors was responsible.
Before the election, the Labour Party held 49 seats in parliament. It governed in coalition with the smaller (and more left-wing) Alliance, which had 10 seats. It also relied on support from the Greens, but this was a largely informal arrangement, and the Greens were not a part of the administration itself. Opposing Labour were the National Party (centre-right), New Zealand First (radical centrist and nationalist), ACT New Zealand (strongly supportive of the free market), and United Future (centrist). Many opinion polls, indicated that Labour was popular enough to conceivably win an absolute majority, leaving it able to govern without the support of smaller parties. Labour's dominance over National was such that for many people, the question was not whether Labour would win, but whether Labour would receive the absolute majority it sought.
There were 2,670,030 registered voters, the highest number for any election in New Zealand. However, only 77% of these registered voters chose to cast a vote, a considerable drop from previous elections. Many commentators cited Labour's dominance in the polls as a reason for this lack of voting. Many people saw the outcome as inevitable, and so did not bother to vote at all.
In the election 683 candidates stood, and there were 14 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 433 were electorate and list, 160 were electorate only, and 90 were list only. 71% of candidates (487) were male and 29% (196) female.
Summary of results
As most people expected, Labour was victorious. It did not, however, receive an absolute majority, gaining only 52 seats (eight seats short of the half-way mark). Labour's former coalition partner, the Alliance (which had splintered shortly before the election), was not returned to parliament. However, the new Progressive Coalition (now the Progressive Party) started by former Alliance leader Jim Anderton won two seats, and remained allied with Labour. The Greens, who were now distanced from Labour over the genetic engineering controversy, gained nine seats (an increase of two).
In general, it was a bad election for the parties of the right. The National Party, once referred to as "the natural party of government", suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat, gaining only 21% of the vote. ACT New Zealand, National's more right-wing neighbour, failed to capitalize on the exodus of National supporters, retaining the same number of seats as before. Instead, the most notable gains among opposition parties were made by two centrist parties. One of these was Winston Peters's New Zealand First party, a radical centrist and nationalist party opposed to immigration. Strong campaigning by Peters allowed the party to recover from its serious losses in the 1999 election. The other was United Future New Zealand party, a centrist party based on a merger of the United Party and the Future New Zealand party - primarily due to the performance of leader Peter Dunne, the party shot from having one seat to having eight seats.
Once the final distribution of seats was determined, it was clear that Labour would be at the centre of the government, and that it would be allied with the Progressives. However, this still left Labour needing support in matters of confidence and supply, as the two parties together fell short of an absolute majority. Labour expressed a preference for an "agreement" rather than a full coalition, hoping to establish an arrangement similar to the one that existed with the Greens prior to the election. Three realistic choices existed for a partner - the Greens, United Future, and New Zealand First. Labour had repeatedly ruled out deals with New Zealand First during the election campaign, and reaffirmed this soon after the election, leaving just the Greens and United Future as candidates. After a period of negotiation, Labour opted to ally with United Future, being unwilling to change their genetic engineering policies to secure the Green Party's support.
Labour and the Progressives remained in power, with support in confidence and supply votes from United Future.
|party||votes||% of votes||seats|
|disallowed special votes||15,156|
|total votes cast||2,055,404|
|One New Zealand||1782||0.09||+0.03|
|Minor parties, total||99,388||4.89|
Party vote by electorate
Graph of party vote
Of the 69 electorates in the 2002 election, a majority (45) were won by the Labour Party. The opposition National Party won 21 electorate seats. Labour dominated the urban areas, where it has traditionally been strongest, while National performed best in rural areas. However, Labour's strong position in this election led to National losing ground in a number of its traditional strongholds. The loss of Otago electorate, a rural area, was one notable example.
Labour also dominated in the seven Maori seats. National gained second place in only one Maori electorate, with Labour's main rivals being the Mana Maori Movement, the Greens, and the Alliance.
Of the minor parties, only three managed to win electorates, mostly due to the strong personal following of the incumbents. United Future leader Peter Dunne retained his strong support in the Wellington electorate of Ohariu-Belmont, while New Zealand First leader Winston Peters retained Tauranga. Progressive leader Jim Anderton retained the Christchurch seat of Wigram, which he had formerly held as leader of the Alliance.
|Electorate||Incumbent||Winner||Majority||Runner up||Third place|
|Aoraki||Jim Sutton||Wayne F Marriott (National)||Tony Bunting (United Future)|
|Auckland Central||Judith Tizard||Pansy Wong (National)||Nandor Tanczos (Green)|
|Banks Peninsula||Ruth Dyson||David Carter (National)||Rod Donald (Green)|
|Bay of Plenty||Tony Ryall||Peter Brown (NZ First)||Mei Taare (Labour)|
|Christchurch Central||Tim Barnett||Nicky Wagner (National)||Matt Morris (Green)|
|Christchurch East||Lianne Dalziel||Stephen Johnston (National)||Mary McCammon (Green)|
|Clevedon||(new electorate)||Judith Collins||Dave Hereora (Labour)||Brent Catchpole (NZ First)|
|Clutha-Southland||Bill English||Lesley Soper (Labour)||Dave Mackie (NZ First)|
|Coromandel||Jeanette Fitzsimons||Sandra Goudie||Max Purnell (Labour)||Jeanette Fitzsimons (Green)|
|Dunedin North||Pete Hodgson||Katherine Rich (National)||Pip Direen (Green)|
|Dunedin South||David Benson-Pope||Paul Foster (National)||Fliss Butcher (Green)|
|East Coast||Janet Mackey||Leanne Jensen-Daines (National)||Judy Turner (United Future)|
|East Coast Bays||(new electorate)||Murray McCully||Hamish McCracken (Labour)||Paul Adams (United Future)|
|Epsom||Richard Worth||Di Nash (Labour)||Rodney Hide (ACT)|
|Hamilton East||Tony Steel||Dianne Yates||614||Tony Steel (National)||Doug Woolerton (NZ First)|
|Hamilton West||Martin Gallagher||Bob Simcock (National)||Bill Gudgeon (NZ First)|
|Helensville||(new electorate)||John Key||1,705||Gary Russell (Labour)||Brian Neeson (Independent)|
|Hutt South||Trevor Mallard||Richard Townley (National)||Murray Smith (United Future)|
|Ilam||Gerry Brownlee||Richard Pole (Labour)||Marc Alexander (United Future)|
|Invercargill||Mark Peck||Eric Roy (National)||Stephnie de Ruyter (Progressive)|
|Kaikoura||Lynda Scott||Brendon Burns (Labour)||Ian Ewen-Street (Green)|
|Mana||Graham Kelly||Winnie Laban||Sue Wood (National)||Olivia Mitchell (Green)|
|Mangere||Taito Philip Field||Sylvia Taylor (National)||Steve Abel (Green)|
|Manukau East||Ross Robertson||Arthur Anae (National)||Gerald Trass (ACT)|
|Manurewa||George Hawkins||Enosa Auva'a (National)||John Bryce Geary (NZ First)|
|Maungakiekie||Mark Gosche||Belinda Vernon (National)||Don Fairley (Green)|
|Mount Albert||Helen Clark||16,024||Raewyn Bhana (National)||Bruce Williams (ACT)|
|Mount Roskill||Phil Goff||Brent Trewheela (National)||Kenneth Wang (ACT)|
|Napier||Geoff Braybrooke||Russell Fairbrother||Anne Tolley (National)||Terry Creighton (Green)|
|Nelson||Nick Smith||John Kennedy (Labour)||Mike Ward (Green)|
|New Lynn||(new electorate)||David Cunliffe||Brendan Beach (National)||Saffron Toms (Green)|
|New Plymouth||Harry Duynhoven||Brent Trewheela (National)||Tom Smithers (United Future)|
|North Shore||Wayne Mapp||Helen Duncan (Labour)||Deborah Coddington (ACT)|
|Northcote||Ann Hartley||Jeremy Sole (National)||Grant Gillon (Progressive)|
|Northland||John Carter||Rachel Rose (Labour)||Jim Peters (NZ First)|
|Ohariu-Belmont||Peter Dunne||Gil Boddy-Greer (Labour)||Dale Stephens (National)|
|Otago||Gavan Herlihy||David Parker||694||Gavan Herlihy (National)||Gerry Eckhoff (ACT)|
|Otaki||Judy Keall||Darren Hughes||Roger Sowry (National)||Caroline Greig (Green)|
|Pakuranga||Maurice Williamson||Michael Wood (Labour)||Andrew Jollands (ACT)|
|Palmerston North||Steve Maharey||Dave Scott (National)||Margaret McKenzie (Green)|
|Piako||(new electorate)||Lindsay Tisch||Sue Moroney (Labour)||Gordon Stewart (NZ First)|
|Port Waikato||Paul Hutchison||Lesley Harry (Labour)||Bob Daw (NZ First)|
|Rakaia||Jenny Shipley||Brian Connell||Tony Milne (Labour)||Graeme Barr (United Future)|
|Rangitikei||Simon Power||Margaret Hayward (Labour)||Jim Howard (United Future)|
|Rimutaka||Paul Swain||Mike Leddy (National)||Wayne Chapman (United Future)|
|Rodney||Lockwood Smith||Grant Duffy (Labour)||Craig McNair (NZ First)|
|Rongotai||Annette King||Glenda Hughes (National)||Celia Wade-Brown (Green)|
|Rotorua||Stephanie Chadwick||Malcolm Short (National)||Fletcher Tabuteau (NZ First)|
|Tamaki||Clem Simich||1,407||Leila Boyle (Labour)||Ken Shirley (ACT)|
|Taranaki-King Country||Shane Ardern||Judy Hawkins (Labour)||Owen Jennings (ACT)|
|Taupo||Mark Burton||Weston Kirton (National)||Nick Fisher (Green)|
|Tauranga||Winston Peters||10,742||Margaret Wilson (Labour)||Tim Macindoe (National)|
|Te Atatu||Chris Carter||Tau Henare (National)||Christine Ritchie (NZ First)|
|Tukituki||Rick Barker||Craig Foss (National)||John Ormond (ACT)|
|Waimakariri||Clayton Cosgrove||Dan Gordon (National)||Ron Mark (NZ First)|
|Wairarapa||Georgina Beyer||Ian Buchanan (National)||Merepeka Raukawa-Tait (Christian Heritage)|
|Waitakere||Brian Neeson||Lynne Pillay||2,333||Laila Harré (Alliance)||Marie Hasler (National)|
|Wellington Central||Marian Hobbs||Hekia Parata (National)||Sue Kedgley (Green)|
|West Coast-Tasman||Damien O'Connor||Barry Nicolle (National)||Richard Davies (Green)|
|Whanganui||Jill Pettis||Chester Borrows (National)||Peter Russell (Green)|
|Whangarei||Phil Heatley||David Shearer (Labour)||Brian Donnelly (NZ First)|
|Wigram||Jim Anderton||Jim Anderton||Mike Mora (Labour)||Alec Neill (National)|
|Ikaroa-Rawhiti||Parekura Horomia||Glenis Philip-Barbara (Mana Māori)||Alan Delamere (National)|
|Tainui||(new electorate)||Nanaia Mahuta||Willie Jackson (Alliance)||Angeline Greensill (Mana Māori)|
|Tamaki Makaurau||(new electorate)||John Tamihere||9,444||Metiria Turei (Green)||George Ngatai (National)|
|Ikaroa-Rawhiti||Tariana Turia||Ken Mair (Mana Māori)||Greg White (National)|
|Te Tai Tokerau||Dover Samuels||Mere Mangu (Independent)||Naida Glavish (Alliance)|
|Te Tai Tonga||Mahara Okeroa||Bill Karaitiana (National)||Jacqui Amohanga (Mana Māori)|
|Waiariki||Mita Ririnui||6,707||Rihi Vercoe (Mana Māori)||Hamuera Mitchell (National)|
|Unsuccessful: Moana Mackey2, Lesley Soper2, Carol Beaumont, Max Purnell, David Shearer, Gill Boddy-Greer, Brendon Burns, Louisa Wall, David Maka, Hamish McCracken, Eamon Daly, Lesley Harry, Brenda Lowe-Johnson, Steven Ching, Leila Boyle, John Cheesman, Richard Pole, Paul Gibson, Margaret Hayward, Di Nash, Denise Mackenzie, Judy Hawkins, Dinesh Tailor, Kath Peebles, Mike Mora, Yani Johanson, Nathan Saminathan, Ola Kamel, Jan Noonan, Maureen Waaka, Lyndsay Rackley, Wayne Hawker|
Georgina Te Heuheu
|Unsuccessful: Hekia Parata, Gavan Herlihy, Bob Simcock, Allan Peachey, Sue Wood, Guy Salmon, Alec Neill, Belinda Vernon, Anne Tolley, Eric Roy, Arthur Anae, Ian Buchanan, Greg White, Marie Hasler, Annabel Young, Eric Liu, Tau Henare, Chester Borrows, Nicky Wagner, Leanne Jensen-Daines, Tim Macindoe, Wayne Marriott, Dan Gordon, Jeremy Sole, George Ngatai, Dale Stephens, Craig Foss, Glenda Hughes, Dave Scott, Weston Kirton, Hamuera Mitchell, Enosa Auva'a, Sylvia Taylor, Barry Nicolle, Paul Foster, Mita Harris, Brent Trewheela, Raewyn Bhana, Bill Karaitiana, Geoff Horton, Rodney Williams, Alan Delamere, Peter O'Brien, Rod O'Beirne|
|New Zealand First||Peter Brown
|Unsuccessful: Rob Harris, Dawn Mullins, Brett Webster, Gordon Stewart, Fletcher Tabuteau, Bob Daw, Dave Mackie, John Riley, John Bryce Geary|
Donna Awatere Huata2
|Unsuccessful: Kenneth Wang1, Paul King, Owen Jennings, Penny Webster, Andrew Davies, Dick Quax, Nigel Mattison, David Edward Olsen, Willie James Martin, Mary Hackshaw, John Thompson, Lech Beltowski, Joanne Reeder, Nicholas Cairney, Bruce Williams, Gerald Trass, Andrew Jollands, Bryce Bevin, Ron Scott, Dianne Mulcock, Shirley Marshall, Juanita Angell, John Peters, Glen Snelgar, Matt Ball, Ray Bassett, Carl Beentjes, Michael Coote, Brian George Dawson, Dianne Dawson, Ted Erskine-Legget, Simon Anthony Ewing-Jarvie, Ted Howard, Elizabeth Hurley, Dorothy King, Chris Newman, Chris O'Brien, Julie Pepper, Peter Phiskie, John Riddell, Robin Roodt, Ian Sage, Greg Sneddon, Graham Douglas Steenson, Ian Swan, Peter Talbot-King, Anthony Watson, John Waugh, Roland Weber, Trevor West, Smilie Wood|
|Unsuccessful: Catherine Delahunty, Roland Sapsford, Meriel Anne Watts, Jon Carapiet, Richard Davies, Celia Wade-Brown, Cathy Olsen, Russel Norman, Janine McVeagh, Steffan Browning, Dayle Belcher, Kei Clendon, Craig Potton, David Musgrave, Deborah Martin, Te Ruruanga Te Keeti, Steve Abel, Sarah Millington, Calvin Green, Caro Henckels, Fliss Butcher, Peter Berger, Hana Blackmore, Gareth Bodle, Paul Bruce, Craig Carson, Terry Creighton, Jan Davey, Paul de Spa, Pip Direen, Ian Douglas, Gaye Dyson, Jeanette Elley, Don Fairley, Nick Fisher, Jo Francis, Richard Green, Caroline Greig, Lois Griffiths, Perce Harpham, David Hill, Laurie Hoverd, Stephen Lee, Kate Lowe, Paul Lowe, Rachel Mackintosh, Mary McCammon, Margaret McKenzie, Olivia Mitchell, Matt Morris, Chris Norton-Brown, Fraser Palmer-Hesketh, Di Pennell, David Rose, Christiaan Briggs, Jane Williams|
|United Future||Gordon Copeland
|Unsuccessful: Kelly Chal*, Wayne Chapman, Andrew Kubala, Gray Eatwell, Bruce McGrail, Hassan Hosseini, Craig Hunt, Kevin Harper, Russell Judd, Anne Drake, Ian McInnes, Graham Butterworth, Andrea Deeth, Cindy Ruakere, Chris Bretton, Susanne Fellner, Jim Howard, Martyn Seddon, Tom Smithers, Ross Tizard, Grant Bowater, Steve Taylor, Graham Turner, Dave Fitness, Paul Duxbury, Richard Carter, Lee Edmonds, Stephen Russell, Sharee Adams, Lee Robertson, Rachel Smithers, Rob Moodie, Witana Murray, Frank Owen, Graeme Torckler, Denis Gilmore, Andrew Smith, Tony Bunting, Graeme Barr, James Te Kahupuku Hippolite, Mike Mitcalfe, Stephanie McEwin, Bruce Settle, Peter Collins, Todd Whitcombe, Joy Lietze, Gray Phillips, Chris Collier, Allan Smellie, Jesse O'Brien, Julee Smith-Mischeski, Vince Smith, Dennis Wells|
|Unsuccessful: Grant Gillon, John Wright, Stephnie de Ruyter, Peter Campbell, Rosie Brown, Meng Ly, Susi Pa'o Williams, Jill Henry, Phil Clearwater, David Angus Wilson, Sue Elizabeth Wharewaka-Topia Watts, Pasene Tauialo-o-Lilimaiava, Nong Li, John Pemberton, Bruce Parr, Vivienne Shepherd, Trevor Lance Barnard, Russell Franklin, Annette Anderson, Adrian James Bayly, Victor Bradley, Lyndsay Brock, Robert Bryan, Christine Cheesman, Fleur Churton, David Culverhouse, Jamie Daly, Clare Dickson, Bob Fox, Russell Edwards, David Espin, Bill Henderson, Steven Charles Ihaia, Frede Jorgensen, Te Pare Joseph, Doreen Henderson, Toni Jowsey, Peter David Kane, C Kerr, John Kilbride, Martin Lawrence, Doug McCallum, Philippa Main, John Neill, Garry Oster, Ram Parkash, Dawn Patchett, Bob Peck, Jim Medland, Rob Shirley, Lynley Simmons, Heather Marion Smith, Arthur Toms, Gillian Dance, Hessel Van Wieren, Ross Weddell, Roger White, Barry Pulford|
|Christian Heritage||Unsuccessful: Graham Capill, Merepeka Raukawa-Tait, Vic Pollard, Dick Holland, Vic Jarvis, Gerald Barker, Ken Munn, Roger Payne, Ruth Jarvis, Nick Barber, Gavin Denby, Chris Salt, Ian Cummings, Grant Bradfield, McGregor Simpson, Rod Harris, Margaret Burgess, Mike Ferguson, Matthew Flannagan, Madeline Jane Flannagan|
|Outdoor Recreation||Unsuccessful: Lester Phelps, David O'Neill, Paul Check, Warren Sinclair, Henry Willems, Peter Ellery, Edwin Sylva, James Cook, Peter Gibbons, Michael Holmes, James Rudd, Harry Bimler|
|Alliance||Unsuccessful: Laila Harré, Willie Jackson, Matt McCarten, Liz Gordon, Tricia Cutforth, Gerard Hehir, Vern Winitana, Rebecca Matthews, Mike Treen, Naida Glavish, Robert Reid, Jill Ovens, Sam Huggard, Janice Panoho-Smith, Vernon Iosefa Tile, Julie Fairey, Gavin MacLean, Carolyn Payne-Harker, Kamaka Manuel, Mary-Ellen O'Connor, Maxine Boag, Moira Lawler, Len Richards, Ravaani Ghaemmaghamy, John Tuwhakairiora Tibble, Anna McMartin, Anna Sutherland, Hayley Rawhiti, Joseph Randall, Sean Gourley, Peter Wheeler, Val McClimont, Margaret Jeune, Dion Martin, Paula Henderson, Brendon Lane, Peter Jamieson, Fiona McLaren, Solly Southwood, Michael Gilchrist, Paul Protheroe, Justin Wilson, Karl Bartleet, Richard Wallis, Simon Shields, Craig Willis, Helen Mackinlay, Robert Van Ruyssevelt|
|Legalise Cannabis||Unsuccessful: Michael Appleby, Michael Britnell, Irinka Britnell, Dave Moore, Christine Mitchell, Jeanette Saxby, Paul John Michael McMullan, Judy Daniels, Judy Matangi, Paula Lambert, Sugra Morley, Peter Green|
|Mana Maori||Unsuccessful: Angeline Greensill, Ken Mair, Glenis Philip-Barbara, Tame Iti, Jacqui Amohanga, Rihi Vercoe, Mere Takoko, Tanima Bernard, Colleen Skerrett-White, Piripi Haami, Ngahape Lomax, Sharon Pehi-Barlow|
|One New Zealand||Unsuccessful: John Porter, Jim White, Alan McCulloch, Janet White, Richard Fisher, David Moat, Walter Christie, Gill Edwards, Peter Grove, John Bull|
|NMP||Unsuccessful: Mark Atkin, Brett Kenneth Gifkins|
*Chal was ranked fifth on the United Future list and was declared elected, serving as an MP for 17 days. However, it emerged that Chal was not actually eligible to stand for election, as she was not a New Zealand citizen. As a result, she was removed from the party list.
- These party list members later entered parliament in the term as other list MPs elected resigned from parliament.
- These party list members later resigned during the parliamentary term.
Summary of seat changes
- Electoral redistributions:
- A minor reconfiguration of electorates and their boundaries occurred between the 1999 and 2002 elections. Five seats were abolished and seven were created, giving a net increase of two electorates.
- The seats of Albany, Hunua, Karapiro, Titirangi and Hauraki (Maori) ceased to exist.
- The seats of Clevedon, East Coast Bays, Helensville, New Lynn, Piako, Tainui (Maori) and Tamaki Makaurau (Maori) came into being.
- Seats captured:
- By Labour: Hamilton East, Otago and Waitakere were captured from National.
- By National: Coromandel was captured from the Greens.
- The seat of Wigram transferred from the Alliance to the Progressives due to a change of its MP's party affiliation.
- Seats transferred from departing MPs to new MPs:
- The seat of Rakaia, held by a departing National MP, was won by a new National candidate.
- The seats of Mana, Napier, Otaki, and Te Tai Hauauru, all held by departing Labour MPs, were won by new Labour candidates (although the departing Mana MP became a list MP and the departing Te Tai Hauauru MP returned to Parliament in another electorate).
- Labour list seats: Lost 1 (was 8, fell to 7)
- Retired: 1
- Became electorate MPs: 3
- Re-elected: 4
- Newly elected: 3 (including a former electorate MP)
- National list seats: Lost 11 (was 17, fell to 6)
- Retired: 4
- Re-elected: 5
- Not re-elected: 8
- Newly elected: 1
- New Zealand First list seats: Gained 8 (was 4, rose to 12)
- Re-elected: 4
- Newly elected: 8
- ACT list seats: No change (was 9, remained 9)
- Re-elected: 7
- Not re-elected: 2
- Newly elected: 2
- Green list seats: Gained 3 (was 6, rose to 9)
- Re-elected: 6
- Newly elected: 3 (including a former electorate MP)
- Alliance list seats: Lost 9 (was 9, fell to 0)
- Retired: 1
- Not re-elected: 3
- (Transferred to Progressives: 5)
- United Future list seats: Gained 7 (was 0, rose to 7)
- Newly elected: 7
- Progressive list seats: Gained 1 (was 0, rose to 1)
- (Transferred from Alliance: 5)
- Retired: 2
- Re-elected: 1
- Not re-elected: 2
- James, Colin (14 June 2011). "John Key, modest constitutional innovator". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- The Baubles of Office: The New Zealand General Election of 2005 p87, edited by Stephen Levine & Nigel S Roberts (2007, Victoria University Press, Wellington) ISBN 978-0-86473-539-3
- Boston, Jonathan (2003). New Zealand Votes: The General Election of 2002. Wellington: Victoria University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-86473-468-9. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- "Official Count Results -- Electorate Status". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Party Lists of Unsuccessful Registered Parties". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Vowles et al. (2004). Jack Vowles, Peter Aimer, Susan Banducci, Jeffrey Karp and Raymond Miller (eds), ed. Voters' Veto: the 2002 Election in New Zealand and the Consolidation of Minority Government. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press.
- Boston, Jonathan, ed. (2003). New Zealand votes: the general election of 2002. Wellington [N.Z.]: Victoria University Press. ISBN 0864734689.
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