New Zealander Australian
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New Zealander Australian is an Australian who has origins in New Zealand, as well as New Zealand migrants and expatriates based in Australia. Migration from New Zealand to Australia is a very common phenomenon, given Australia and New Zealand's cultural links. In 2013, there are about 650,000 New Zealand citizens living in Australia, which is about 15 per cent of the population of New Zealand.
History and demographics
Under various arrangements since the 1920s, there has been a free flow of people between Australia and New Zealand. Since 1973 the informal Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement has allowed for the free movement of citizens of one nation to the other. The only major exception to these travel privileges is for individuals with outstanding warrants or criminal backgrounds who are deemed dangerous or undesirable for the migrant nation and its citizens. In recent decades, many New Zealanders have migrated to Australian cities such as Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth. Since 1994 New Zealand passport holders are issued with special category visas on arrival in Australia. Although this agreement is reciprocal there has been resulting significant net migration from New Zealand to Australia. In 2001 there were eight times more New Zealanders living in Australia than Australians living in New Zealand. Many such New Zealanders include Maori Australians.
New Zealanders in Australia previously had immediate access to Australian welfare benefits and were treated as permanent residents. Regulations changed in 2001 by The Family and Community Services Legislation Amendment (New Zealand Citizens) Bill 2001 which categorises New Zealanders who arrived in Australia after February 26, 2001 as non-protected special visa holders. That makes them ineligible for many social security benefits. Those New Zealanders can stay in Australia indefinitely but without any civic rights (they cannot vote in any Government elections) or citizenship route. More than 175,000 people - or 47 per cent of the New Zealanders living in Australia - are thought to be affected by the law, which has been labelled "discriminatory" by campaigners. A series of anti-discrimination lawsuits have recently 2011- overturned decisions to deny New Zealand citizens social security benefits under 2001 Howard government laws that restricted access to permanent residency. Australian citizens who go and live in New Zealand continue to enjoy the social security benefits and are treated as permanent residents in New Zealand. In June 2011 Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard and New Zealand Prime Minister John Key had discussed the issue and Australia is reported to be looking at easing residency requirements for up to 100,000 New Zealanders stuck in limbo after this rule change in 2001. There are complaints in New Zealand that there is a brain drain to Australia.
Persons born in New Zealand continue to be the second largest source of immigration to Australia, representing 11% of total permanent additions in 2005–06 and accounting for 2.3% of Australia's population at June 2006. Australians make up a similar proportion of New Zealand's population. New Zealand citizens have a high labour-force participation rate (78.2 per cent at July 2012) compared with those born in Australia (68.0 per cent). New Zealanders living in Australia also have a higher median weekly income ($760) than Australians born in Australia ($597) and immigrants in general ($538), which be partially due to working long hours (51.8 hours per week) than Australian born (45.6 hours) or immigrants in general (44.7 hours).
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- http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/17nz.htm Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship Fact Sheet – New Zealanders in Australia
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