||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
|Part of a series on|
The New Age movement is a Western spiritual movement that developed in the second half of the 20th century. Its central precepts have been described as "drawing on both Eastern and Western spiritual and metaphysical traditions and infusing them with influences from self-help and motivational psychology, holistic health, parapsychology, consciousness research and quantum physics". The term New Age refers to the coming astrological Age of Aquarius.
The New Age aims to create "a spirituality without borders or confining dogmas" that is inclusive and pluralistic. It holds to "a holistic worldview", emphasising that the Mind, Body, and Spirit are interrelated and that there is a form of monism and unity throughout the universe. It attempts to create "a worldview that includes both science and spirituality" and embraces a number of forms of mainstream science as well as other forms of science that are considered fringe.
The origins of the movement can be found in Medieval astrology and alchemy, such as the writings of Paracelsus, in Renaissance interests in Hermeticism, in 18th century mysticism, such as that of Emanuel Swedenborg, and in beliefs in animal magnetism espoused by Franz Mesmer. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, authors such as Godfrey Higgins and the esotericists Eliphas Levi, Helena Blavatsky, and George Gurdjieff articulated specific histories, cosmologies, and some of the basic philosophical principles that would influence the movement. It experienced a revival as a result of the work of individuals such as Alice Bailey and organizations such as the Theosophical Society. It gained further momentum in the 1960s, taking influence from metaphysics, perennial philosophy, self-help psychology, and the various Indian gurus who visited the West during that decade. In the 1970s, it developed a social and political component.
The New Age movement includes elements of older spiritual and religious traditions ranging from Monotheism through Pantheism, Pandeism, Panentheism, and Polytheism combined with Science and Gaia philosophy; particularly Archaeoastronomy, Astronomy, Ecology, Environmentalism, the Gaia hypothesis, UFO religions, Psychology, and Physics.
New Age practices and philosophies sometimes draw inspiration from major world religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Chinese folk religion, Christianity, Hinduism, Sufi Islam, Judaism (especially Kabbalah), Sikhism; with strong influences from East Asian religions, Esotericism, Gnosticism, Hermeticism, Idealism, Neopaganism, New Thought, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Universalism, and Wisdom tradition.
- The first of these was Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772), a Swedish scientist who after a religious experience devoted himself to Christian mysticism, believing that he could travel to Heaven and Hell and communicate with angels, demons and spirits, and who published widely on the subject of his experiences.
- The second person was Franz Mesmer (1734–1815), who had developed a form of healing using magnets, believing that there was a force known as "animal magnetism" that affected humans.
- The third figure was the Russian Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891), one of the founders of the Theosophical Society, through which she propagated her religious movement of Theosophy, which itself combined a number of elements from Eastern religions like Hinduism and Buddhism with Western elements.
- The fourth figure was George Gurdjieff (c. 1872–1949), who founded the philosophy of the Fourth Way, through which he conveyed a number of spiritual teachings to his disciples.
- A fifth individual whom Drury identified as an important influence upon the New Age movement was the Indian Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902), an adherent of the philosophy of Vedanta who first brought Hinduism to the West in the late 19th century.
The term New Age was used as early as 1809 by William Blake who described a coming era of spiritual and artistic advancement in his preface to Milton a Poem by stating: "... when the New Age is at leisure to pronounce, all will be set right ..."
Some of the New Age movement's constituent elements appeared initially in the 19th-century metaphysical movements: Spiritualism, Theosophy, and New Thought and also the alternative medicine movements of chiropractics and naturopathy. These movements have roots in Transcendentalism, Mesmerism, Swedenborgianism, and various earlier Western esoteric or occult traditions, such as the hermetic arts of astrology, magic, alchemy, and Kabbalah. The term New Age was used in this context in Madame Blavatsky's book The Secret Doctrine, published in 1888.
A weekly journal of Christian liberalism and socialism titled The New Age was published as early as 1894; it was sold to a group of socialist writers headed by Alfred Richard Orage and Holbrook Jackson in 1907. Contributors included H. G. Wells, George Bernard Shaw, and William Butler Yeats; the magazine became a forum for politics, literature, and the arts. Between 1908 and 1914, it was instrumental in pioneering the British avant-garde from Vorticism to Imagism. Orage met P. D. Ouspensky, a follower of Gurdjieff, in 1914 and began correspondence with Harry Houdini; he became less interested in literature and art with an increased focus on mysticism and other spiritual topics; the magazine was sold in 1921. According to Brown University, The New Age "... helped to shape modernism in literature and the arts from 1907 to 1922."
Popularisation behind these ideas has roots in the work of early 20th century writers such as D. H. Lawrence and William Butler Yeats. In the early- to mid-1900s, American mystic, theologian, and founder of the Association for Research and Enlightenment Edgar Cayce was a seminal influence on what later would be termed the New Age movement; he was known in particular for the practice some refer to as channeling.
This year reminds me of the enormous earthquake in 26 B.C. that shook down the great temple of Karnak. It was the prelude to the destruction of all temples, because a new time had begun. 1940 is the year when we approach the meridian of the first star in Aquarius. It is the premonitory earthquake of the New Age ..."
Former Theosophist Rudolf Steiner and his Anthroposophical movement are a major influence. Neo-Theosophist Alice Bailey published the book Discipleship in the New Age (1944), which used the term New Age in reference to the transition from the astrological age of Pisces to Aquarius. While claims of racial bias in the writings of Rudolf Steiner and Alice Bailey were made, Bailey was firmly opposed to the Axis powers; she believed that Adolf Hitler was possessed by the Dark Forces, and Steiner emphasized racial equality as a principle central to anthroposophical thought and humanity's progress. Any racial elements from these influences have not remained part of the Anthroposophical Society as contemporary adherents of the society have either not adopted or repudiated these beliefs.
Another early usage of the term, was by the American artist, mystic, and philosopher Walter Russell, who spoke of
... this New Age philosophy of the spiritual re-awakening of man ... Man's purpose in this New Age is to acquire more and more knowledge ...
in his essay "Power Through Knowledge," which was also published in 1944.
Contemporary usage of the term
The subculture that later became known as New Age already existed in the early 1970s, based on and adopting ideas originally present in the counterculture of the 1960s. Two entities founded in 1962: the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California and the Findhorn Foundation—an intentional community which continues to operate the Findhorn Ecovillage near Findhorn, Moray, Scotland—played an instrumental role during the early growth period of the New Age movement.
Widespread usage of the term New Age began in the mid-1970s (reflected in the title of monthly periodical New Age Journal), "when increasing numbers of people [...] began to perceive a broad similarity between a wide variety of "alternative ideas" and pursuits, and started to think of them as part of one "movement"". This probably influenced several thousand small metaphysical book- and gift-stores that increasingly defined themselves as "New Age bookstores." As a result of the large-scale activities surrounding the Harmonic Convergence in 1987, the American mass-media further popularised the term as a label for the alternative spiritual subculture, including practices such as meditation, channeling, crystal healing, astral projection, psychic experience, holistic health, simple living, and environmentalism; or belief in phenomena such as Earth mysteries, ancient astronauts, extraterrestrial life, unidentified flying objects, crop circles, and reincarnation. Several New Age publications appeared by the late 1980s such as Psychic Guide (later renamed Body, Mind & Spirit), Yoga Journal, New Age Voice, New Age Retailer, and NAPRA ReView by the New Age Publishers and Retailers Alliance.
Several key events occurred, which raised public awareness of the New Age subculture: the production of the musical Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical (1967) with its opening song "Aquarius" and its memorable line "This is the dawning of the Age of Aquarius"; publication of Linda Goodman's best-selling astrology books Sun Signs (1968) and Love Signs (1978); the release of Shirley MacLaine's book Out on a Limb (1983), later adapted into a television mini-series with the same name (1987); and the "Harmonic Convergence" planetary alignment on August 16 and 17, 1987, organized by José Argüelles at Sedona in the U.S. state of Arizona. The claims of channelers Jane Roberts (Seth Material), Helen Schucman (A Course in Miracles), J. Z. Knight (Ramtha), Neale Donald Walsch (Conversations with God) (note that Walsch denies being a "channeler" and his books make it obvious that he is not one, though the text emerged through a dialogue with a deeper part of himself in a process comparable to automatic writing), and Rene Gaudette (The Wonders) contributed to the movement's growth. Relevant New Age works include the writings of James Redfield, Eckhart Tolle, Barbara Marx Hubbard, Christopher Hills, Marianne Williamson, Deepak Chopra, John Holland, Gary Zukav, Wayne Dyer, and Rhonda Byrne.
While J. Gordon Melton, Wouter Hanegraaff, and Paul Heelas have emphasised personal aspects, Mark Satin, Theodore Roszak, Marilyn Ferguson, and Corinne McLaughlin have described New Age as a values-based sociopolitical movement.
While the New Age lacks any unified belief-system, many spiritual practices and philosophies feature commonly among adherents of the movement—sometimes referred to as New Agers.
|Theism||General and abstract idea of God, understood in many ways and seen as superseding the need to anthropomorphize deity.|
|Spiritual beings||Many believe that gods, devas, angels, Ascended Masters, elementals, ghosts, faeries, Spirit guides and extraterrestrials can spiritually guide people who open themselves to such guidance.|
|Afterlife||The New Age sets no restrictions on one's beliefs about an afterlife. Each person can find their own path - whether it involves reincarnation, non-existence, or a higher plane of consciousness. Some believe consciousness persists after death as life in different forms; the afterlife exists for further learning through the form of a spirit, reincarnation and/or near-death experiences. The New Age belief in reincarnation can differ from the Buddhist or Hindu concepts: seeing a soul, for example, born into a spiritual realm or even on a far-away planet, and there is no desire to end this process; there are also beliefs that either all individuals (not just a minority) can choose where they reincarnate, or that God/the universe always chooses the best reincarnation for each person. There may be a belief in a limited number of earthly lives which are followed by some guaranteed higher existence. One version is that the individual must incarnate once under each of the twelve signs of the zodiac. There may be a belief in hell, but typically not in the traditional Christian sense or Islamic sense of eternal damnation. Universalist views of the afterlife are common.|
|Age of Aquarius||Some astrologers[which?] regard the current time-period[when?] as the dawning of the Age of Aquarius, correlated to various changes in the world; and some claim that the early 1960s was the actual beginning of the Age of Aquarius, though this claim is highly contentious. Common claims about the developments associated with the Age of Aquarius include, but are not limited to, human rights, democracy, innovative technology, electricity, computers, and aviation. Esoteric claims are that the Age of Aquarius will see a rise in consciousness.|
|Eschatology||Related to the above; a belief that we are living on the threshold of a great change in human consciousness usually focused on the date December 21, 2012 when a major, usually positive, change is anticipated. See 2012 phenomenon.|
|Astrology||Horoscopes and the Zodiac are used in understanding, interpreting, and organizing information about personality, human affairs, and other terrestrial matters.|
|Teleology||Life has a purpose; this includes a belief in synchronicity—that coincidences have spiritual meaning and lessons to teach those open to them. Everything is universally connected through God and participates in the same energy. There is a cosmic goal and a belief that all entities are (knowingly or unknowingly) cooperating towards this goal.|
|Indigo children||Children are being born with a more highly developed spiritual power than earlier generations.|
|Interpersonal relationships||Opportunities to learn about one's self and relationships are destined to be repeated until they are healthy. Those in the New Age movement accept women's complete equality in all aspects of society including religion and the complete acceptance of one's sexual orientation, whether heterosexual, homosexual (gay or lesbian) or bisexual and gender identity, whether cisgender, transgender, or intersexual as a means of spiritual development.|
|Intuition||An important aspect of perception – offset by a somewhat strict rationalism – noted especially in the works of psychologist Carl Jung.|
|Optimism||Positive thinking supported by affirmations will achieve success in anything, based on the concept that Thought Creates. Therefore, as one begins focusing attention and consciousness on the positive, on the "half-filled" glass of water, reality starts shifting and materializing the positive intentions and aspects of life. A certain critical mass of people with a highly spiritual consciousness will bring about a sudden change in the whole population. Humans have a responsibility to take part in positive creative activity and to work to heal ourselves, each other and the planet.|
|Human Potential Movement||The human mind has much greater potential than that ascribed to it and can even override physical reality.|
|Spiritual healing||Humans have potential healing powers, such as therapeutic touch, which they can develop to heal others through touch or at a distance.|
|Time||Concept of Eternal Now as a true nature of time (including the past, present, and a multitude of "snapshots" of the pre-constructed variants of the future). Cyclic, as well as relative nature of time. "Spirit sees things differently than you do. You work in a linear time frame and Spirit does not." A human's choices made in the present affect his/her linear past, as the totality of time is a closed dynamic system. "You are eternal in both directions... If you look far enough into your past, you'll find your future there."|
|Eclecticism||New Age spirituality is characterized by an individual approach to spiritual practices and philosophies, and the rejection of religious doctrine and dogma.|
|Matriarchy||Feminine forms of spirituality, including feminine images of the divine, such as the female Aeon Sophia in Gnosticism, are deprecated by patriarchal religions.|
|Ancient civilizations||Atlantis, Lemuria, Mu, and other lost lands existed. Relics such as the crystal skulls and monuments such as Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid of Giza were left behind.|
|Psychic perception||Certain geographic locations emanate psychic energy (sometimes through ley lines) and were considered sacred in pagan religions throughout the world.|
|Eastern world practices||Meditation, Yoga, Tantra, Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, martial arts, T'ai chi ch'uan, Falun Gong, Qigong, Reflexology, Reiki, and other Eastern practices may assist in focusing spirituality.|
|Diet||Food influences both the mind and body; it is generally preferable to practice vegetarianism, veganism and rawfoodism by eating fresh organic food, which is locally grown and in season; fasting may be used.|
|Mathematics||An appeal to the language of nature and mathematics, as evidenced by numerology, Kabbalah, Sacred geometry, and gnosticism to discern the nature of God.|
|Science||Quantum mechanics, parapsychology, and the Gaia hypothesis have been used in quantum mysticism to explain spiritual principles. Authors Deepak Chopra, Fritjof Capra, Fred Alan Wolf, and Gary Zukav have linked quantum mechanics to New Age spirituality, which is presented in the film What the Bleep Do We Know!? (2004); also, in connection with the Law of Attraction, which is related to New Thought and presented in the film The Secret (2006). They have interpreted the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, quantum entanglement, wave function collapse, or the many-worlds interpretation to mean that all objects in the universe are one (monism), that possibility and existence are endless, and that the physical world is only what one believes it to be. In medicine, such practices as therapeutic touch, homeopathy, chiropractic, and naturopathy involve hypotheses and treatments that have not been accepted by the conventional, science-based medical community through the normal course of empirical testing. New Age thought often includes references to the paranormal and to parapscyhology.|
New Age spirituality has led to a wide array of literature on the subject and an active niche market, with books, music, crafts, and services in alternative medicine available at New Age stores, fairs, and festivals.
People who practice New Age spirituality or who embrace its lifestyle are included in the Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability (LOHAS) demographic market segment, currently in a growth phase, related to sustainable living, green ecological initiatives, and generally composed of a relatively affluent and well-educated segment. The LOHAS market segment in 2006 was estimated at USD$300 billion, approximately 30 percent of the United States consumer market. According to The New York Times, a study by the Natural Marketing Institute showed that in 2000, 68 million Americans were included within the LOHAS demographic. The sociologist Paul H. Ray, who coined the term Cultural Creatives in his book The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World (2000), states, "What you're seeing is a demand for products of equal quality that are also virtuous."
The New Age is strongly gendered; sociologist Ciara O'Connor argues that it shows a tension between commodification and women's empowerment.
Some New Agers advocate living in a simple and sustainable manner to reduce humanity's impact on the natural resources of Earth; and they shun consumerism. The New Age movement has been centered around rebuilding a sense of community to counter social disintegration; this has been attempted through the formation of intentional communities, where individuals come together to live and work in a communal lifestyle.
Practitioners of New Age spirituality may use alternative medicine in addition to or in place of conventional medicine; while some conventional physicians have adopted aspects or the complete approach of holistic health. The mainstreaming of the Holistic Health movement in the UK is discussed by Maria Tighe. The inter-relation of holistic health with the New Age movement is illustrated in Jenny Butler's ethnographic description of "Angel therapy" in the Republic of Ireland.
New Age music is peaceful music of various styles intended to create inspiration, relaxation, and positive feelings while listening. Studies have determined that New Age music can be an effective component of stress management.
The style began in the 1970s with the works of free-form jazz groups recording on the ECM label; such as Oregon, the Paul Winter Consort, and other pre-ambient bands; as well as ambient music performer Brian Eno and classical avant-garde musician Daniel Kobialka. In the early 1970s, it was mostly instrumental with both acoustic and electronic styles. New Age music evolved to include a wide range of styles from electronic space music (like Constance Demby's) using synthesizers and acoustic instrumentals using Native American flutes and drums, singing bowls, and world music sounds to spiritual chanting from other cultures.
Mainstream religious institutions have been critical of New Age spirituality. Author Johanna Michaelson published her own experiences with various New Age practices in The Beautiful Side of Evil (1982); after concluding these activities were demonic, she converted to Christianity. Michigan attorney and activist Constance Cumbey offered the first major criticism of the New Age movement from a Christian perspective in The Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow: The New Age Movement and Our Coming Age of Barbarism (1983).
The Roman Catholic Church published A Christian reflection on the New Age in 2003, following a six-year study; the 90-page document criticizes New Age practices such as yoga, meditation, feng shui, and crystal healing. According to the Vatican, euphoric states attained through New Age practices should not be confused with prayer or viewed as signs of God's presence. Cardinal Paul Poupard, then-president of the Pontifical Council for Culture, said the "New Age is a misleading answer to the oldest hopes of man." Monsignor Michael Fitzgerald, then-president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, stated at the Vatican conference on the document: the "Church avoids any concept that is close to those of the New Age."
Expressing agreement with the Vatican's position, Richard Land of the Southern Baptist Convention stated that many Baptists would regard New Age ideas as contrary to Christian tradition and doctrine.
In the 2003 book A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America written by Michael Barkun, professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs Barkun argues New age beliefs have been greatly facilitated by the advent of the internet which has exposed people to beliefs once consigned to the outermost fringe of political and religious life. He identifies two trends which he terms, " the rise of improvisational millennialism" and "the popularity of stigmatized knowledge". He voices concern that these trends could lead to mass hysteria and could have a devastating effect on American political life.
The author Ken Wilber posits that most New Age thought falls into what he termed the pre/trans fallacy. According to Wilber, human developmental psychology moves from the pre-personal, through the personal, then to the transpersonal (spiritually advanced or enlightened) level. He regards 80 percent of New Age spirituality as pre-rational (pre-conventional) and as relying primarily on mythic-magical thinking; this contrasts with a post-rational (including and transcending rational) genuinely world-centric consciousness. Despite his criticism of most New Age thought, Wilber has been categorized as New Age due to his emphasis on a transpersonal view, and more recently, as a philosopher.
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Some adherents of traditional disciplines, such as the Lakota people—a tribe of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, reject "the expropriation of [their] ceremonial ways by non-Indians." They see the New Age movement as either not fully understanding, deliberately trivializing, or distorting their disciplines.
They have coined the term plastic medicine men to describe individuals, from within their own communities "who are prostituting our spiritual ways for their own selfish gain, with no regard for the spiritual well-being of the people as a whole." The term plastic shaman has been applied to outsiders who identify themselves as shamans, holy people, or other traditional spiritual leaders, but who have no genuine connection to the traditions or cultures they claim to represent.
The academic Ward Churchill criticized the New Age movement as an instrument of cultural imperialism that is exploitative of indigenous cultures by reducing them to a commodity to be traded. In Fantasies of the Master Race, he criticized the cultural appropriation of Native American culture and symbols in not only the New Age movement, but also in art and popular culture.
Followers of the Goddess movement have severely criticized the New Age as fundamentally patriarchal, analytical rather than intuitive, and as supporting the status quo, particularly in its implicit gender roles. Monica Sjöö (1938–2005) wrote that New Age channelers were virtually all women, but the spirits they purported to channel, offering guidance to humanity, were nearly all male. Sjöö was highly critical of Theosophy, the "I AM" Activity, and particularly Alice Bailey, whom she saw as promoting Nazi-like Aryan ideals. Sjöö's writings also condemn the New Age for its support of communication and information processing technologies which, she believes, may produce harmful low-level electromagnetic radiation.
Social and political movement
While many commentators have focused on the personal aspects of the New Age movement, it also has a social and political component. The New Age political movement became visible in the 1970s, peaked in the 1980s, and continued into the 1990s. In the 21st century, the political movement evolved in new directions.
Late 20th century
After the political turmoil of the 1960s, many activists in North America and Europe became disillusioned with traditional reformist and revolutionary political ideologies. Some began searching for a new politics that gave special weight to such topics as consciousness, ecology, personal and spiritual development, community empowerment, and global unity. An outpouring of books from New Age thinkers acknowledged that search and attempted to articulate that politics.
According to some observers, the first was Mark Satin's New Age Politics (1978). It originally appeared in Canada in 1976. Other books that have been described as New Age political include Theodore Roszak's Person / Planet (1978), Marilyn Ferguson's The Aquarian Conspiracy (1980), Alvin Toffler and Heidi Toffler's The Third Wave (1980), Hazel Henderson's The Politics of the Solar Age (1981), Fritjof Capra's The Turning Point (1982), Robert Muller's New Genesis (1982), John Naisbitt's Megatrends (1982), Willis Harman's Global Mind Change (1988), James Redfield's The Celestine Prophecy (1993), and Corinne McLaughlin and Gordon Davidson's Spiritual Politics (1994).
All these books were issued by major publishers. Some became international bestsellers. By the 1980s, New Age political ideas were being discussed in big-city newspapers and established political magazines. In addition, some of the New Age's own periodicals were regularly addressing social and political issues. In the U.S., observers pointed to Leading Edge Bulletin, New Age Journal, New Options Newsletter, and Utne Reader. Other such periodicals included New Humanity (England), Alterna (Denmark), Odyssey (South Africa), and World Union from the Sri Aurobindo Ashram (India).
As with any political movement, organizations sprang up to generate popular support for New Age political ideas and policy positions. In the U.S., commentators identified the New Age Caucus of California, the New World Alliance, Planetary Citizens, and John Vasconcellos's Self-Determination: A Personal / Political Network as New Age political organizations. So, on occasion, did their own spokespeople. There may have been more New Age political organizing outside the U.S.; writer-activists pointed to the Future in Our Hands movement in Norway (which claimed 20,000 adherents out of a population of four million), the early European Green movements, and the Values Party of New Zealand.
Although these books, periodicals, and organizations did not speak with one voice, commentators found that many of them sounded common themes:
- Our world does not reflect who we at our best can be.
- All our most significant social and political problems go back at least 300 years.
- The political system therefore needs to be transformed, not just reformed, with the help of a new political theory appropriate to our time.
- Holism – seeing everything as connected – is the first step on the way to creating that new political theory.
- Doing away with the categories of "left" and "right" is another essential part of that task.
- Significant social change requires deep changes in consciousness; institutional change is not enough.
- Above all, consciousness needs to become more ecologically aware, more feminist, and more oriented to compassionate global unity.
- Desirable values include nonviolence, diversity, a sense of community, and a sense of enoughness.
- Human growth and development, not economic growth, should be the overarching goal of New Age society.
- Ownership and control of institutions is important. But the size of institutions is at least as important. We must move away from big governments, big corporations, and other large institutions to the extent it enhances our lives.
- We can begin this process by interlacing hierarchical structures with horizontal networks.
- Global unification is a key goal, but is probably best accomplished by networking at many levels rather than establishing a centralized world state.
- The agent of political change is no longer the working class, or any economic class. Instead, it is all those who are developing themselves personally and spiritually – all who aspire to live lives of dignity and service.
- Evolution is to be preferred to revolution. However, the forces of evolutionary change need not be a statistical majority. A "critical mass" of informed, committed, and spiritually aware people can move a nation forward.
Political objections at century’s end
On the left, scholars argued that New Age politics is an oxymoron: that personal growth has little or nothing to do with political change. One political scientist said New Age politics fails to recognize the "realities" of economic and political power; another faulted it for not being opposed to the capitalist system, or to liberal individualism. Antinuclear activist Harvey Wasserman argued that New Age politics is too averse to social conflict to be effective politically.
On the right, some worried that the drive to come up with a new consciousness and new values would topple time-tested old values. Others worried that the celebration of diversity would leave no strong viewpoint in place to guide society. The passion for world unity – one humanity, one planet – was said to lead inevitably to the centralization of power. Some doubted that networking could provide an effective counterweight to centralization and bureaucracy.
Neither left nor right was impressed with the New Age's ability to organize itself politically. Many explanations were offered for the New Age's practical political weakness. Some said that the New Age political thinkers and activists of the 1970s and 1980s were simply too far in advance of their time. Others suggested that New Age activists' commitment to the often frustrating process of consensus decision-making was at fault. After it dissolved, New World Alliance co-founder Marc Sarkady told an interviewer that the Alliance had been too "New Age counter-cultural" to appeal to a broad public.
New directions in the 21st century
In the 21st century, writers and activists continue to pursue a political project with New Age roots. However, it differs from the project that had come before, in part as a result of learning from the criticisms that had been directed at the earlier wave of New Age political actors.
The principal difference was anticipated in texts like New Age Politics author Mark Satin's essay "Twenty-eight Ways of Looking at Terrorism" (1991), human potential movement historian Walter Truett Anderson's essay "Four Different Ways to Be Absolutely Right" (1995), and mediator Mark Gerzon's book A House Divided (1996). In these texts, the New Age political perspective is recognized as legitimate. But it is presented as merely one among many, with strong points and blind spots just like all the rest. The result was to alter the nature of the New Age political project. If every political perspective had unique strengths and significant weaknesses, then it no longer made sense to try to convert everyone to the New Age political perspective, as had been attempted in the 1970s and 1980s. It made more sense to try to construct a higher political synthesis that took every political perspective into account, including that of the New Age.
Many 21st century books have attempted to articulate foundational aspects of this approach to politics and social change. They include Ken Wilber's A Theory of Everything (2001), Mark Satin's Radical Middle (2004), David Korten's The Great Turning (2006), Steve McIntosh's Integral Consciousness and the Future of Evolution (2007), Marilyn Hamilton's Integral City (2008), and Carter Phipps's Evolutionaries (2012). In addition, many organizations are providing opportunities for focused political listening and learning that can contribute to the construction of a higher political synthesis. They include AmericaSpeaks, Association Reset-Dialogues on Civilizations, Listening Project, Search for Common Ground, Spiral Dynamics Integral, and World Public Forum: Dialogue of Civilizations.
Another difference between the two eras of political thought is that, in the 21st century, few political actors use the term "New Age" or even "post-New Age" to describe themselves or their work. Some observers attribute this to the negative connotations that the term "New Age" had acquired. Instead, other terms are employed that connote a similar sense of personal and political development proceeding together over time. For example, according to an anthology from three political scientists, many writers and academics use the term "transformational" as a substitute for such terms as New Age and new paradigm. Ken Wilber has popularized use of the term "integral", Carter Phipps emphasizes the term "evolutionary", and both terms can be found in some authors' book titles.
- 2012 phenomenon
- Centering prayer
- Higher consciousness
- New Age communities
- New Age music
- Holotropic breathing
- Paradigm shift
- Peace movement
- Philosophy of happiness
- Social conditioning
- Social equality
- Spiritual evolution
- Transcendental meditation
- Transpersonal psychology
Notes and references
- Melton, J. Gordon – Director Institute for the Study of American Religion. New Age Transformed, retrieved 2006-06
- Drury 2004, p. 12
- Drury 2004, p. 8
- Drury 2004, p. 11
- Michael D. Langone, Ph.D. Cult Observer, 1993, Volume 10, No. 1. What Is "New Age"?, retrieved 2006-07
- Drury 2004, p. 10
- Drury 2004, pp. 8–10
- Mayne, Alan J. (1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Praeger Publishers / Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 167–68 and 177–80. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0.
- Lewis 1992, pp. 15–18
- Drury 2004, pp. 27–28
- Blake, William; Sampson, John (2006), "Selections from Milton", in John Sampson, The Poetical Works of William Blake: Including the Unpublished French Revolution; Together with the Minor Prophetic Books and Selections from the Four Zoas, Milton and Jerusalem, Whitefish, Montana, US: Kessinger Publishing, p. 369, ISBN 978-1-4286-1155-9, retrieved 2010-10-05
- Spencer, Neil (2000), True as the Stars above: Adventures in Modern Astrology, Victor Gollancz, pp. 115–27, ISBN 0-575-06769-1
- General Introduction to The New Age 1907–1922, Brown University & The University of Tulsa—The Modernist Journals Project, retrieved 2010-10-28
- Modernism In and Beyond the “Little Magazines”, Winter 2007, Professor Ann Ardis, Brown University
- "The New Age" Encyclopædia Britannica article on Orage
- Modernist Journals Project Has Grant to Digitize Rare Magazines, Brown University, 2007-04-19, retrieved 2009-02-20
- York, Michael (1995), The Emerging Network: A Sociology of the New Age and Neo-Pagan Movements, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 60, ISBN 0-8476-8001-0
- Stein, Murray (2005), Transformation, Texas A & M University Press, p. 138, ISBN 1-58544-449-9
- Letters of C. G. Jung: Volume I, 1906–1950, p. 285
- Dunne, Claire (2000), "Visions", Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul: An Illustrated Biography (Illustrated (2003) ed.), London, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 126, ISBN 978-0-8264-6307-4, retrieved 2010-10-04
- Acta no. 13, Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism. The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 1998. Shnirelman, Victor A. Russian Neo-pagan Myths and Antisemitism, retrieved 2007-08-22
- Bailey, Alice A. The Externalisation of the Hierarchy New York:1957 Lucis Publishing Co. p. 425
- Hansson, Sven Ove (2005-06-01), The racial Teachings of Rudolf Steiner, SkepticReport, retrieved 2007-04-11
- mit einem Vorwort von Justus Wittich und einer Analyse nach deutschem Recht von Ingo Krampen ; die Überarbeitung in deutscher Sprache wurde von der Kommission "Anthroposophie und die Frage der Rassen" autorisiert ; Übersetzung: Ramon Brüll. (2000), Anthroposophie und die Rassismus-Vorwürfe (in German), Frankfurt am Main: Info3-Verlag, pp. 309ff, ISBN 978-3-924391-24-9
- Kerkvliet, Von Gerard, Commission on "Anthroposophy and the Question of Race", Anthroposophical Society in The Netherlands, archived from the original on June 25, 2007, retrieved 2007-09-22
- Position Statement on Diversity, The General Council of the Anthroposophical Society in America, 1998, archived from the original on 2008-01-06, retrieved 2007-04-12, "We explicitly reject any racial theory that may be construed to be part of Rudolf Steiner's writings. The Anthroposophical Society in America is an open, public society and it rejects any purported spiritual or scientific theory on the basis of which the alleged superiority of one race is justified at the expense of another race."
- (The University of Science and Philosophy). "Power Through Knowledge", retrieved 2010-10-12
- Hanegraaff 1996, pp. 38–39
- Hanegraaff 1996, p. 97.
- Algeo, John; Adele S. Algeo (1991), Fifty Years Among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms, 1941–1991, Cambridge University Press, p. 234, ISBN 0-521-44971-5
- Materer, Timothy (1995), Modernist Alchemy: Poetry and the Occult, Cornell University Press, p. 14, ISBN 0-8014-3146-8
- Hanegraaff 1996, pp. 10–11
- Hanegraaff 1996, p. 335
- Lewis 1992, pp. 22–23
- Drury 2004, pp. 133–34
- Melton, J. Gordon (1989), New Age Encyclopaedia, Routledge, ISBN 0-8103-7159-6 Unknown parameter
- Hanegraaff 1996, pp. 1ff
- Heelas, Paul (2004), The Spiritual Revolution: Why Religion is Giving Way to Spirituality (Religion and Spirituality in the Modern World), WileyBlackwell, ISBN 1-4051-1959-4 Unknown parameter
- Satin, Mark (1978). New Age Politics: Healing Self and Society. Delta Books / Dell Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-440-55700-5.
- Roszak, Theodore (1978). Person / Planet: The Creative Disintegration of Industrial Society. Anchor Press / Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-00063-5.
- Ferguson, Marilyn (1980). The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation in the 1980s. Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc. ISBN 978-0-87477-191-6.
- McLaughlin, Corinne; Davidson, Gordon (1994). Spiritual Politics: Changing the World from the Inside Out. Ballantine Books / Random House. ISBN 978-0-345-36983-3.
- Ascended Masters Research Center, retrieved 2001-07-01
- New Age Afterlife and Salvation, Patheos online library
- The Secret Language of Birthdays. Goldschneider and Elffers
- Sacha Defesche (2007). "'The 2012 Phenomenon': A historical and typological approach to a modern apocalyptic mythology.". skepsis. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Lewis 1992, pp. 187–88
- Only God Exists, archived from the original on 2006-08-04, retrieved 2006-07-01
- CNN News transcript of interview with Sandy Bershad, an Indigo Child, Cable News Network, 2005-11-15, retrieved 2009-06-09
- "Indigo Children – Crystalline Children", Awakening-Healing News, 2002-06-04, ISBN 1-56414-948-X, retrieved 2006-10-01
- Rudhyar, Dane. Chapter 6: The Time For Mutation is Now. Directives for New Life
- Hanegraaff 1996, pp. 217–24
- The Salem New Age Center. Salem, Massachusetts, US. Supercharged Affirmations, retrieved 2007-08
- Carroll, Robert Todd (2005), "The Hundredth Monkey Phenomenon", Skeptic's Dictionary, retrieved 2007-08-23
- Accepting Total and Complete Responsibility: New Age NeoFeminist Violence against Sethna Feminism Psychology. (1992) 2: pp. 113–19
- Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006), New Religions in Global Perspective: A Study of Religious Change in the Modern World, Routledge, pp. 31–32, ISBN 0-415-25747-6
- Hanegraaff 1996, pp. 203–55
- Hunt, Stephen (2003), Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 5–6, ISBN 0-7546-3410-8
- Reality Shifters news
- Lewis 1992, p. 14
- Letters from home : loving messages from the family. by Kryon, (Spirit); Lee Carroll. ISBN 1-888053-12-7, ISBN 978-1-888053-12-8
- Тhe end times : new information for personal peace : Kryon book 1. Lee Carroll; Kryon, (Spirit). ISBN 0-9636304-2-3, ISBN 978-0-9636304-2-1
- 2000: passing the marker (understanding the new millenium energy) -- Kryon Book VIII, by Kryon, (Spirit); Lee Carroll. ISBN 1-888053-11-9, ISBN 978-1-888053-11-1
- Lewis 1992, pp. 6–7
- Hanegraaff 1996, pp. 309–10
- Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E., Sacred Places, retrieved 2006-07-01
- Heindel, Max (1968), New age Vegetarian Cookbook, Rosicrucian Fellowship OCLC 4971259
- Max, Peter (1971), The Peter Max new age organic vegetarian cookbook, Pyramid Communications OCLC 267219
- The Global Oneness Commitment. Fast Fasting – New Age Spirituality Dictionary, retrieved 2008-04
- Kabbalah, Light for the Last Days, 2006-10-24, retrieved 2009-06-09
- Quantum Interconnectedness, retrieved 2007-08-23
- Shine, KI (2001), "A critique on complementary and alternative medicine", J Altern Complement Med., 7 Suppl 1: S145–52, doi:10.1089/107555301753393922, PMID 11822630 Unknown parameter
- Singh, Simon; Edzard Ernst (2008), Trick or Treatment, The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine, Norton, ISBN 0-393-06661-4
- Hess, David J. (1993). Science in the New Age: The Paranormal, Its Defenders and Debunkers, and American Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-13824-0.
- University of Montana (Winter 1998), Alternative medicine: from New Age to mainstream, Montana Business Quarterly[dead link]
- Heelas, Paul (1996), The New Age Movement: Religion, Culture and Society in the Age of Postmodernity, Blackwell Publishing, p. 116, ISBN 0-631-19332-4
- David Moore (2002-06-17), Body & Soul, yoga w/o the yoyos, Media Life
- Rosen, Judith (2002-05-27), Crossing the Boundaries:Regardless of its label, this increasingly mainstream category continues to broaden its subject base, Publishers Weekly, archived from the original on 2010-10-29[dead link]
- Cohen, Maurie J. (2007-01), "Consumer credit, household financial management, and sustainable consumption", International Journal of Consumer Studies 31 (1): 57–65, doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2005.00485.x
- Halweil, Brianink; Lisa Mastny, Erik Assadourian, Linda Starke, Worldwatch Institute (2004), State of the World 2004: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society, W. W. Norton & Company, p. 167, ISBN 0-393-32539-3
- Cortese, Amy (2003-07-20), "Business; They Care About the World (and They Shop, Too)", The New York Times (The New York Times Company), retrieved 2009-02-27
- Everage, Laura (2002-10-01), "Understanding the LOHAS Lifestyle", The Gourmet Retailer Magazine (The Nielsen Company), retrieved 2009-02-27
- O'Connor, Ciara, "Becoming whole: an exploration of women's choices in the holistic and New Age movement in Ireland". 220–39 in Olivia Cosgrove et al. (eds), Ireland's new religious movements. Cambridge Scholars, 2011
- Adams, W.M. (2006). "The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century." Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, 29–31 January 2006, retrieved 2009-02-16
- Spring, Joel H. (2004), "Chapter 4: Love the Biosphere: Environmental Ideologies Shaping Global Society", How Educational Ideologies Are Shaping Global Society: Intergovernmental Organizations, NGO's, and the Decline of the Nation-state (illustrated ed.), Mahwah, New Jersey, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, p. 119, ISBN 0-8058-4915-7, archived from the original on 2010-10-29, retrieved 2009-03-27
- Satin (1978), p. 199.
- Lewis 1992, pp. 200–01
- Butler, Jenny and Maria Tighe, "Holistic Health and New Age in the British Isles". 415-34 in Kemp, Daren and Lewis, James R., ed. (2007), Handbook of New Age, Boston, Massachusetts, US: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-15355-1
- National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, retrieved 2006-06-01
- Lehrer, Paul M.; David H. (FRW) Barlow, Robert L. Woolfolk, Wesley E. Sime (2007), Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 46–47, ISBN 1-59385-000-X
- Martin, Walter R.; Martin Rische, Jill; Van Gorden, Kurt (2008), The Kingdom of the Occult, Nashville, Tennessee, US: Thomas Nelson, pp. 241–42, ISBN 1-4185-1644-9, retrieved 2010-11-08
- Lewis 1992, pp. 154–56
- Vatican sounds New Age alert, BBC News, 2003-02-04, retrieved 2010-10-27
- Handbook of vocational psychology by W. Bruce Walsh, Mark Savickas 2005 ISBN 0-8058-4517-8 p. 358
- Steinfels, Peter (1990-01-07), "Trying to Reconcile the Ways of the Vatican and the East", New York Times, retrieved 2008-12-05
- Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Paul Poupard (2003), "Presentations of Holy See's Document on "New Age"", Jesus Christ the Bearer of the Water of Life: a Christian Reflection on the "New Age" (Vatican City: Roman Catholic Church), retrieved 2010-11-06
- Stammer, Larry B. (February 8, 2003), "New Age Beliefs Aren't Christian, Vatican Finds", Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California, US: Tribune Company), retrieved 2010-10-04
- Barkun, Michael (2003). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press; 1 edition. ISBN 0-520-23805-2.
- Wilber, Ken (1999), "Introduction to the Third Volume", The Collected Works of Ken Wilber 3, Boston, MA, US: Shambhala Publications, ISBN 1-59030-321-0, retrieved 2009-06-12
- Hanegraaff 1996, p. 250
- Wouter J. Hanegraaff, New Age Religion and Western Culture, SUNY, 1998, pp.70 ("Ken Wilber [...] defends a transpersonal worldview which qualifies as 'New Age'").
- Marian de Souza (ed.), International handbook of the religious, moral and spiritual dimensions in education. Dordrecht: Springer 2006, p. 93. ISBN 978-1-4020-4803-6.
- Fenelon, James V. (1998), Culturicide, resistance, and survival of the Lakota ("Sioux Nation"), New York: Taylor & Francis, pp. 295–97, ISBN 0-8153-3119-3, retrieved 2009-03-16
- Churchill, Ward (1992), Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema and the Colonization of American Indians, Common Courage Press, p. 304, ISBN 0-9628838-7-5
- Sjöö, Monica (1998).Bristol, England: Green Leaf Bookshop. New Age Channelings - Who Or What Is Being Channeled?, retrieved 2010-06-28
- Sjöö, Monica. Notes and explanations to accompany Return of the Dark/Light Mother. Originally appeared in From the Flames, Radical Feminism with Spirit, Issue 22 (Winter 1998/99). Sinister Channelings, retrieved 2010-06-28
- Sjöö, Monica (1999-09-09). Return of the Dark/Light Mother or New Age Armageddon? Towards a Feminist Vision of the Future. Texas: Plain View Press
- Kyle, Richard G. (Autumn 1995). "The Political Ideas of the New Age Movement". Journal of Church and State, pp. 831–48. Alternate version in Kyle, Richard (1994). The New Age Movement in American Culture. University Press of America, pp. 113–31. ISBN 978-0-7618-0010-1.
- Cloud, Dana L. (1994). "'Socialism of the Mind': The New Age of Post-Marxism". In Simons, Herbert W.; Billig, Michael, eds. (1994). After Postmodernism: Reconstructing Ideology Critique. SAGE Publications, Chap. 10. ISBN 978-0-8039-8878-1. Alternate version in Cloud, Dana (1997). Control and Consolation in American Life: Rhetoric of Therapy. SAGE Publications, Chap. 6. ISBN 978-0-7619-0506-6.
- Gottlieb, Annie (1987). Do You Believe in Magic?: Bringing the 60s Back Home. Simon & Schuster, pp. 124–62. ISBN 978-0-671-66050-5.
- Ray, Paul H.; Anderson, Sherry Ruth (2000). The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World. Random House, pp. 188–92. ISBN 978-0-609-60467-0.
- Capra, Fritjof (1993). "Vorwort". In Satin, Mark (1993). Heile dich selbst und unsere Erde. Arbor Verlag, pp. 1–5. German language publication. ISBN 978-3-924195-01-4.
- Wasserman, Harvey (31 August 1985). "The Politics of Transcendence". The Nation, pp. 145–48.
- Armstrong, David (1981). A Trumpet to Arms: Alternative Media in America. Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc., pp. 315–16. ISBN 978-0-89608-193-2.
- Nielsen, Robert (26 January 1977). "A Slightly Flawed Blueprint for a Whole New Society". Toronto Star, p. B4. Editorial page.
- Amodeo, John (November–December 1980). "Spiritual Revolution". Yoga Journal, issue no. 35, pp. 55–56.
- Toffler, Alvin; Toffler, Heidi (1980). The Third Wave. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 978-0-688-03597-6.
- Henderson, Hazel (1981). The Politics of the Solar Age: Alternatives to Economics. Anchor Press / Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-17150-2.
- Capra, Fritjof (1982) The Turning Point: Science, Society, and the Rising Culture. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-34572-8.
- Muller, Robert (1982). New Genesis: Shaping a Global Spirituality. Doubleday and Company. ISBN 978-0-385-19332-0.
- Chandler, Russell. Understanding the New Age. Zondervan Publishing House, Chap. 21. ISBN 978-0-310-38561-5.
- Naisbitt, John (1982). Megatrends: Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives. Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-446-51251-0.
- Harman, Willis (1988). Global Mind Change: The New Age Revolution in the Way We Think. Warner Books edition. ISBN 978-0-446-39147-4. Substantially revised in 1998 as Global Mind Change: The Promise of the 21st Century. Introduction by Hazel Henderson. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57675-029-2.
- Redfield, James (1993). The Celestine Prophecy: An Adventure. Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-446-67100-2.
- Sidenbladh, Erik (5 October 1980). "Krerativ Rorelse for 'Den Nya Tidsaldern'". Svenska Dagbladet (Stockholm), "Idag" section, p. 1. Swedish language publication.
- Thomas, Bill (17 April 1984). "Now 'New Age' Activists Search for Alternatives". The Baltimore Sun, pp. B1–2.
- McClaughry, John (August 1980). "What's This New Age Stuff?" Reason, pp. 46–47.
- Ferguson (1980), cited above, p. 426.
- Gottlieb (1987), cited above, p. 372.
- Satin (1978), cited above, p. 316.
- Gottlieb (1987), cited above, pp. 153–54 and 372.
- Gruson, Lindsay (1988). "Utne Reader Is a New Age Digest". The Milwaukee Journal, p. 5G. New York Times Service article.
- Ferguson (1980), cited above, pp. 229 and 410.
- Ferguson (1980), cited above, p. 409.
- Satin (1978), cited above, pp. 339–40.
- Henderson (1981), cited above, p. 383.
- Clark, Jerome (1990). "New Age Politics". In Melton, J. Gordon; Clark, Jerome; Kelly, Aidan A., eds. (1990). New Age Encyclopedia. Gale Research, Inc., pp. 323–25. ISSN 1047-2746. ISSN accessed 28 August 2012.
- Stein, Arthur (1985). Seeds of the Seventies: Values, Work, and Commitment in Post-Vietnam America. University Press of New England, pp. 134–39. ISBN 978-0-87451-343-1.
- Groothuis, Douglas R. (1987). "Politics: Building an International Platform". In Hoyt, Karen; Yamamoto, J. Isamu, eds. (1987). The New Age Rage. Fleming H. Revell Company / Baker Publishing Group, Chap. 5. ISBN 978-0-8007-5257-6.
- Satin (1978), cited above, p. 345.
- Saunders, Marilyn, interviewer; Olson, Bob (December 1980). "The New World Alliance: Toward a Transformational Politics". AHP Newsletter, pp. 14–16. A publication of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. Accessed 23 August 2012.
- Ferguson (1980), cited above, pp. 409–10.
- Satin (1978), cited above, pp. 14–15.
- Henderson (1980), cited above, pp. 373 and 397.
- Slaton, Christa Daryl; Woolpert, Stephen; Schwerin, Edward W. (1998). "Introduction: What Is Transformational Politics?" In Woolpert, Stephen; Slaton, Christa Daryl; and Schwerin, Edward W., eds. (1998). Transformational Politics: Theory, Study, and Practice. State University of New York Press, pp. xix–xxiii. ISBN 978-0-7914-3945-6.
- Boggs, Carl (2000). The End of Politics. Guilford Press, pp. 169–73. ISBN 978-1-57230-504-5.
- Lipnack, Jessica; Stamps, Jeffrey (1982). Networking: The First Report and Directory. Doubleday and Company, Chap. 6. ISBN 978-0-385-18121-1.
- Jamison, Andrew (2001). The Making of Green Knowledge: Environmental Politics and Cultural Transformation. Cambridge University Press, p. 5. ISBN 978-0-521-79252-3.
- Zizek, Slavoj (2000). The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology. Verso Books, pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-85984-291-1.
- Sessions, George (23 September 1987). "Deep Ecology and the New Age". Earth First! Journal, pp. 27–30. Deep ecologist says New Age politics is too enamored of high technology, space exploration, and computer management systems. Accessed 15 September 2012.
- Weigel, George (March 1989). "No Options". American Purpose, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 21–22. Mainstream conservative says New Age politics is just a retooled version of leftism.
- Jamison (2001), cited above, p. 169.
- Zizek (2000), cited above, pp. 1–2 and 70.
- LaHaye, Tim; Hindson, Ed (2001). Seduction of the Heart: How to Guard and Keep Your Heart from Evil. W Publishing Group / Thomas Nelson, Inc., p. 178. ISBN 978-0-8499-1726-4.
- Rhodes, Ron (1995). New Age Movement. Zondervan Publishing House, p. 20. ISBN 978-0-310-70431-7.
- Ray and Anderson (2000), cited above, pp. 206–07.
- Gottlieb (1987), cited above, p. 153.
- Satin, Mark (1991). New Options for America: The Next American Experiment Has Begun. Foreword by Marilyn Ferguson. The Press at California State University / Southern Illinois University Press, Chap. 19. ISBN 978-0-8093-1794-3.
- Anderson, Walter Truett, ed. (1995). "Four Different Ways to Be Absolutely Right". In Anderson, Walter Truett, ed. (1995). The Truth About the Truth: De-Confusing and Re-Constructing the Postmodern World. A Jeremy P. Tarcher Putnam Book / G. P. Putnam’s Sons, Chap. 18. ISBN 978-0-87477-801-4.
- Gerzon, Mark (1996). A House Divided: Six Belief Systems Struggling for America's Soul. A Jeremy P. Tarcher Putnam Book / G. P. Putnam’s Sons. ISBN 978-0-87477-823-6.
- As shown above, the Satin text was published in a book foreworded by Marilyn Ferguson, and the Anderson and Gerzon texts were published under the imprint of Ferguson's publisher, Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc.
- McLaughlin (1993), cited above, p. 81 (quoting Satin).
- Gerzon (1996), cited above, Chaps. 7–8.
- Wilber, Ken (2000). A Theory of Everything: An Integral Vision for Business, Politics, Science, and Spirituality. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-1-57062-724-8.
- Satin, Mark (2004). Radical Middle: The Politics We Need Now. Westview Press and Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-8133-4190-6.
- Korten, David C. (2006). The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. ISBN 978-1-887208-07-9.
- McIntosh, Steve (2007). Integral Consciousness and the Future of Evolution: How the Integral Worldview Is Transforming Politics, Culture, and Spirituality. Paragon House. ISBN 978-1-55778-867-2.
- Hamilton, Marilyn (2008). Integral City: Evolutionary Intelligences for the Human Hive. New Society Publishers / Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 978-0-86571-629-2.
- Phipps, Carter (2012). Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science’s Greatest Idea. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-191613-7.
- AmericaSpeaks. Official website. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Association Reset-Dialogues on Civilizations. Official website. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Listening Project. Official website. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Search for Common Ground. Official website. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Spiral Dynamics Integral. Official website. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Roemischler, Jessica, interviewer and narrator; Beck, Dr. Don (Fall–Winter 2002). "The Never-Ending Upward Quest". EnlightenNext, issue no. 22, pp. 3–24. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- World Public Forum: Dialogue of Civilizations. Official website. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Melton, John Gordon (2012). "New Age Movement". In Encyclopedia Britannica (2012). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Drury, Nevill (2004), The New Age: Searching for the Spiritual Self, London, England, UK: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-28516-0
- Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (1996), New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought, Boston, Massachusetts, US: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-90-04-10696-3
- Lewis, James R. (1992), Perspectives on the New Age, Albany, New York, US: State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1213-8
- Balmforth, David N. (1996). New Age Menace: the Secret War against the Followers of Christ. Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers. 171 p. N.B.: Despite the innate affinities of certain doctrines of L.D.S. Mormonism with New Age thought, this Mormon author warns his co-religionists against its seductive appeal for them. ISBN 0-88290-535-X
- Boynton, Dori, compiler (1991). Lady Boynton's "New Age" Dossiers: a Serendipitous Digest of News and Articles on Trends in Modern Day Mysticism and Decadence. New Port Richey, Flor.: Lady D. Boynton. 2 vol. N.B.: Anthology of reprinted articles, pamphlets, etc. on New Age aspects of speculation in psychology, philosophy, music (especially music therapy), religion, sexuality, etc. Without ISBN
- Cotter, John (1990). The New Age and Syncretism, in the World and in the Church. Long Prairie, Minn.: Neumann Press. 38 p. N.B.: The approach to the issue is from a conservative Roman Catholic position. ISBN 0-911845-20-8
- Eadie, Betty J., and Curtis Taylor (1992). Embraced by the Light. New York: Bantam Books, 1994, cop. 1992. 147 p. N.B.: New Age expression of speculation about the afterlife and related matters by a celebrated and somewhat dissident L.D.S. Mormon (i.e. Eadie herself) who obviously finds such views to be compatible with Mormonism's doctrines concerning such subjects. ISBN 0-553-56591-5
- Hammer, Olav (2003), Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age, Boston, Massachusetts, US: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-13638-X
- Heelas, Paul (1996), The New Age Movement: Religion, Culture and Society in the Age of Postmodernity, Cambridge, Massachusetts, US: Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-19332-4
- Kemp, Daren (2004), New Age, a Guide: Alternative Spiritualities from Aquarian Conspiracy to Next Age, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-1532-6
- Kemp, Daren and Lewis, James R., ed. (2007), Handbook of New Age, Boston, Massachusetts, US: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-15355-1
- Pacwa, Mitch (1992). Catholics and the New Age: How Good People Are Being Drawn into Jungian Psychology, the Enneagram, and the Age of Aquarius. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Servant Publications. 234 p. ISBN 0-89283-756-X
- Pike, Sarah M. (2004), New Age and Neopagan Religions in America, New York City, New York, US: Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-12402-3
- Spretnak, Charlene (1986). The Spiritual Dimension of Green Politics. Santa Fe, N.M.: Bear & Co. 95 p. ISBN 0-939680-29-7