New institutional economics
New institutional economics (NIE) is an economic perspective that attempts to extend economics by focusing on the social and legal norms and rules that underlie economic activity and with analysis beyond earlier institutional economics and neoclassical economics.
NIE has its roots in two articles by Ronald Coase, "The Nature of the Firm" (1937) and "The Problem of Social Cost" (1960). In the latter, the Coase Theorem (subsequently so termed) maintains that without transaction costs alternative property right assignments can equivalently internalize conflicts and externalities. Therefore, comparative institutional analysis arising from such assignments is required to make recommendations about efficient internalization of externalities and institutional design, including Law and Economics.
At present NIE analyses are built on a more complex set of methodological principles and criteria. They work within a modified Neoclassical framework in considering both efficiency and distribution issues, in contrast to "traditional," "old" or "original" institutional economics, which is critical of mainstream neoclassical economics.
Among the many aspects in current NIE analyses are these: organizational arrangements, property rights, transaction costs, credible commitments, modes of governance, persuasive abilities, social norms, ideological values, decisive perceptions, gained control, enforcement mechanism, asset specificity, human assets, social capital, asymmetric information, strategic behavior, bounded rationality, opportunism, adverse selection, moral hazard, contractual safeguards, surrounding uncertainty, monitoring costs, incentives to collude, hierarchical structures, bargaining strength, etc.
Major scholars associated with the subject include Armen Alchian, Harold Demsetz, Steven N. S. Cheung, Avner Greif, Yoram Barzel, Claude Menard and four Nobel laureates — Ronald Coase, Douglass North, Elinor Ostrom and Oliver Williamson. A convergence of such researchers resulted in founding the International Society for New Institutional Economics in 1997.
Institutional levels 
Although no single, universally accepted set of definitions has been developed, most scholars doing research under the NIE methodological principles and criteria follow Douglass North's demarcation between institutions and organizations. Institutions are the "rules of the game", consisting of both the formal legal rules and the informal social norms that govern individual behavior and structure social interactions (institutional frameworks).
Organizations, by contrast, are those groups of people and the governance arrangements they create to coordinate their team action against other teams performing also as organizations. Firms, Universities, clubs, medical associations, unions etc. are some examples.
Because some institutional frameworks are realities always "nested" inside other broader institutional frameworks, this clear demarcation is always blurred in actual situations. A case in point is a University. When the average quality of its teaching services must be evaluated, for example, a University may be approached as an organization with its people, physical capital, the general governing rules common to all that were passed by the University governing bodies etc. However, if the task consists of evaluating people's performance in a specific teaching department, for example, along with their own internal formal and informal rules, then the University as a whole enters the picture as an institution. General University rules, then, form part of the broader institutional framework influencing people's performance at the said teaching department.
- Malcolm Rutherford (2001). "Institutional Economics: Then and Now," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(3), pp. 185-90 (173-194).
L. J. Alston, (2008). "new institutional economics," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
- Warren Samuels ( 2008). "institutional economics" The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Abstract. A scholarly journal particularly featuring traditional institutional economics is the Journal of Economic Issues; see article-abstract links to 2008. Scholarly journals particularly featuring the new institutional economics include the Journal of Law Economics and Organization, the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, and the Journal of Law and Economics.
- Oliver E. Williamson (1975). Markets and Hierarchies, Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization.
- Dean Lueck (2008). "property law, economics and," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
- M. Klaes (2008). "transaction costs, history of," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
- Harold Demsetz (1967). "Toward a Theory of Property Rights," American Economic Review, 57(2), pp. 347-359.
- Harold Demsetz (1969) "Information and Efficiency: Another Viewpoint," Journal of Law and Economics, 12(1), pp. .
- Steven N. S. Cheung (1970). "The Structure of a Contract and the Theory of a Non-Exclusive Resource," Journal of Law and Economics, 13(1), pp. 49-70.
- S. N. S. Cheung (1973). "The Fable of the Bees: An Economic Investigation," Journal of Law and Economics, 16(1), pp. 11-33.
- Ronald Coase (1998). "The New Institutional Economics," American Economic Review, 88(2), pp. 72-74.
- R. H. Coase (1991). "The Institutional Structure of Production," Nobel Prize Lecture PDF, reprinted in 1992, American Economic Review, 82(4), pp. 713-719.
- Douglass C. North (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge University Press.
- Douglass C. North (1995). "The New Institutional Economics and Third World Development," in The New Institutional Economics and Third World Development, J. Harriss, J. Hunter, and C. M. Lewis, ed., pp. 17-26.
- Elinor Ostrom (2005). "Doing Institutional Analysis: Digging Deeper than Markets and Hierarchies," Handbook of New Institutional Economics, C. Ménard and M. Shirley, eds. Handbook of New Institutional Economics, pp. 819-848. Springer.
- Oliver E. Williamson (2000). "The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead," Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), pp. 595-613 (press +).
Further reading 
- Aoki, Masahiko (2001). Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-01187-5.
- Eggertsson, T. (2005). Imperfect Institutions. Opportunities and Limits of Reform. University of Michigan Press.
- Furubotn, Eirik G., and Rudolf Richter, ed. (1991). The New Institutional Economics: A Collection of Articles from The Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics. Mohr Siebeck. Chapter-preview links.
- Furubotn, Eirik G., and Rudolf Richter (2005). Institutions and Economic Theory: The Contribution of the New Institutional Economics (Economics, Cognition, and Society). University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Description and Chapter-preview links.
- Ménard, Claude, ed. (2004), The International Library of the New Institutional Economics, 7 v., Edwar Elgar. Description and contents.
- Ménard, Claude and Mary M. Shirley, eds. (2005). Handbook of New Institutional Economics. Springer. Preview.
- Li, Rita Yi Man (2011). "Everyday Life Application of Neo-institutional Economics: A Global Perspective", Germany, Lambert.
- North, D.C. (2005). Understanding the Process of Economic Change. Princeton University Press.
- Ostrom, Elinor (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press. Description and preview links. ISBN 9780521405997.
- Schmid, A. Allan (2004). Conflict & Cooperation: Institutional & Behavioral Economics, Blackwell. Review excerpt.
- Alston, L. J. (2008). "new institutional economics," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
- Besley, Timothy, and Torsten Persson (2008). "political institutions, economic approaches to," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
- Dixit, Avinash K. (2008). "economic governance," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
- Easterly, William (2001). "Can Institutions Resolve Ethnic Conflict?" Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49(4), pp. 687-706.
- _____ (2008). "Institutions: Top down or Bottom up?" American Economic Review, 98(2), pp. 95-99.
- North, Douglass C. (1993 working paper). "New Institutional Economics and Development".
- North, Douglass C. (1997). "Understanding Economic Change", in Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies, Joan M. Nelson, Charles Tilly and Lee Walker, eds., Washington D. C.: National Academy Press. pp. 13–18.
- Ostrom, Elinor (2010). "Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems," American Economic Review, 100(3), pp. 641-72.
- Polterovich, Victor. "institutional traps." The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
- Robé, Jean-Philippe, The Legal Structure of the Firm, Accounting, Economics, and Law: Vol. 1 : Iss. 1, Article 5, Available at: http://www.bepress.com/ael/vol1/iss1/5 (2011).
- Roumasset, James. (1978). "The New Institutional Economics and Agricultural Organization" Philippine Economic Journal, 17(3).
- Toboso, F. (2001). "Institutional Individualism and Institutional Change: the Search For a Middle Way Mode of Explanation", Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol. 25, n.6, November, pp. 765–784.
- Toboso, F. and Arias, X.C. (eds.) (2006). "Organizing Governments and Markets. Some Case Studies from a NIE Perspective". PUV-Universitat de València, (Edited jointly with the Universidad de Vigo). (In Spanish)
- ISNIE - International Society for New Institutional Economics.
- ESNIE - European School on New Institutional Economics.
- Introductory Reading List in New Institutional Economics - The Ronald Coase Institute
- IRIS Center - Founded by Mancur Olson, University of Maryland.
- Contracting and Organizations Research Center University of Missouri
- Economics and Institutions WEBSITE - by prof. F. Toboso, University of Valencia, Spain.