A section of the Newark Great Circle
Location of Newark, Ohio
Location in Licking County
|• Mayor||Jeff Hall|
|• Total||21.37 sq mi (55.35 km2)|
|• Land||20.88 sq mi (54.08 km2)|
|• Water||0.49 sq mi (1.27 km2)|
|Elevation||833 ft (254 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||47,688|
|• Density||2,278.4/sq mi (879.7/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP codes||43055, 43056, 43058, 43093|
|GNIS feature ID||1065144|
Newark is a city in and the county seat of Licking County, Ohio, United States, 33 miles (53 km) east of Columbus, at the junction of the forks of the Licking River. The population was 47,573 at the 2010 census which makes it the 20th largest city in Ohio.
Newark is located at (40.063014, −82.416779).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.37 square miles (55.35 km2), of which 20.88 square miles (54.08 km2) is land and 0.49 square miles (1.27 km2) is water.
The median income for a household in the city was $19,791, and the median income for a family was $42,138. Males had a median income of $18,542 versus $12,868 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,819. About 10.1% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.9% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 47,573 people, 19,840 households, and 12,057 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,278.4 inhabitants per square mile (879.7/km2). There were 21,976 housing units at an average density of 1,052.5 per square mile (406.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 92.8% White, 3.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population.
There were 19,840 households of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.2% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.94.
The median age in the city was 37.3 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.6% were from 25 to 44; 26% were from 45 to 64; and 14.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.8% male and 52.2% female.
Indigenous peoples lived along the river valleys for thousands of years before European contact. From more than two thousand years ago, 100 BC to 500 AD, people of the Hopewell culture transformed the area of Newark. They built many earthen mounds and enclosures, creating the single largest earthwork complex in the Ohio River Valley. The Newark Earthworks, designated a National Historic Landmark, have been preserved to document and interpret the area's significant ancient history. The earthworks cover several square miles. The Observatory Mound, Observatory Circle, and the interconnected Octagon earthworks span nearly 3,000 feet (910 m) in length. The Octagon alone is large enough to contain four Roman Coliseums. The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt would fit precisely inside Observatory Circle. The even larger 1,180-foot (360 m)-diameter Newark Great Circle is the largest circular earthwork in the Americas. The 8 feet (2.4 m)-high walls surround a 5 feet (1.5 m)-deep moat. At the entrance, the walls and moat are of greater and more impressive dimensions.
In addition, the remains of a road leading south from the Octagon have been documented and explored. It was first surveyed in the 19th century, when its walls were more apparent. Called the Great Hopewell Road, it may extend 60 miles (97 km) to the Hopewell complex at Chillicothe, Ohio. It was surveyed at least six miles (10 km) south of the Octagon, and can be seen on photographs and with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensing technology south of that.
Contemporary archaeogeodesy and archaeoastronomy researchers have demonstrated that the Hopewell and other prehistoric cultures had advanced scientific understandings which they used to create their earthworks for astronomical observations, markings and celebrations. Researchers analyzed the placements, alignments, dimensions, and site-to-site interrelationships of the Hopewell earthworks to understand what had been done. Today, the Ohio Historical Society preserves the Great Circle Earthworks in a public park near downtown Newark, called Mound Builders Park (or the Newark Earthworks) located at 99 Cooper Ave, Newark, Ohio. The area of the Octagon Earthworks had been leased to a country club, but new arrangements in 1997 provide for more public access to it.
Later American Indian tribes inhabiting the area at the time of European contact were distant descendants of the earlier peoples.
After exploration by traders and trappers in earlier centuries, the first European-American settlers arrived in 1802, led by Gen. William C. Schenck. He named the new village after his New Jersey hometown. Later public improvements led to growth in the town, as it was linked to major transportation and trade networks. On July 4, 1825, Governors Clinton of New York and Morrow of Ohio dug the first shovelfuls of dirt for the Ohio and Erie Canal project, at the Licking Summit near Newark, Ohio. On April 11, 1855, Newark became a stop along the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad that connected Pittsburgh to Chicago and St. Louis. On April 16, 1857, the Central Ohio Railroad connected Newark west to Columbus, and later Newark maintained a station on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
The Heisey Glass Company started in Newark in 1895. The factory operated there for 62 years, until the company's demise in 1957 due to changing tastes. The National Heisey Glass Museum, operated by the Heisey Collectors of America, Inc., is located on Sixth Street in Newark.
In 1909, The Arcade was opened. Modeled after innovative European buildings, it became one of Newark's first successful retail emporiums. Later versions became known as shopping malls. At 60,000 square feet (5,600 m2), the Arcade is one-third the size of an average modern Wal-Mart. The original architecture provides a beautiful setting that attracts shoppers to its businesses.
|Climate data for Newark, Ohio|
|Record high °F (°C)||76
|Average high °F (°C)||36
|Average low °F (°C)||20
|Record low °F (°C)||−24
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.1
Newark is the site of several major manufacturers. The corporate headquarters of basket-maker Longaberger had their new building designed as a gigantic "medium market basket," their most popular model. Holophane, founded in 1898, is one of the world's oldest manufacturers of lighting-related products. The main factory of Owens Corning Fiberglass is also located in Newark. State Farm Insurance has Regional Headquarters in Newark, Ohio. Several industrial parks house such major companies as Kaiser Aluminum, Dow Chemical Company, General Electric, Bayer, THK, Harry & David, Communicolor, Diebold, Boeing, Anomatic, International Paper and Tamarack Farms Dairy. The Park National Bank Corporation is headquartered in downtown Newark.
The main shopping center in the area is the Indian Mound Mall (located in nearby Heath). The mall is named after the world-famous Indian earthworks built 2,000 years ago by the Hopewell Indians of central Ohio. Both earthworks are located less than a mile away from the shopping mall named for them.
In 2007, Newark/Granville native, Tom Atha Jr., opened Earthwork Media Productions, located on Main Street in Newark. Earthwork Media Productions is a full-scale, professional recording studio, production house, and strategic marketing. Earthwork has catered to many national performers, such as Brendan James and Toubab Krewe. Earthwork Media Productions opened a second production studio, Studio B, in November, 2012.
Newark City School District serves the city of Newark. Newark High School consists of nearly 2,000 students and competes at the OHSAA D1 level. Newark High School has a storied tradition in Academics and Sports, as well as Performing Arts. Newark High School has won 4 OHSAA Basketball titles (36', 38', 43', 08') and 3 AP Football titles. The Pride of Newark Marching Band has made an unprecedented 35 consecutive years to the OMEA state finals. The Newark High School Sinfonia, under the direction of Susan Larson, tied for first runner-up at the National Orchestra Cup in New York City on April 5, 2009. The Sinfonia was featured in a front-page article of the April 14, 2009, edition of The New York Times, and received an invitation to the White House in the fall of 2009. Their Concert Choir recently sang in Italy and was sponsored by Disney. Under the direction of Kimberly & Michael Wigglesworth, the choir has qualified for OMEA Choir state Finals for the past 15 years. A regional campus of Ohio State University is also located in the city. The Ohio State University, Newark Campus, founded in 1957, schools just over 2,000 students, primarily serving as a bridge to the main campus in Columbus. The campus also shares its establishment with a two-year technical college, COTC (Central Ohio Technical College). Newark is also home to a number of private religious schools, including Blessed Sacrament School, St. Francis de Sales School and Newark Catholic High School. C-TEC ([Career & Technology Education Centers of Licking County]) offers high school and adult programs.
Newark is a community renowned for its many historic churches, most being in the downtown area. Some historic and influential churches include:
- Church of the Blessed Sacrament Roman Catholic Church
- St. Francis de Sales Roman Catholic Church
- First Presbyterian Church
- Second Presbyterian Church
- Christian Apostolic Church
- St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church
- First United Methodist Church (Originally First Methodist Episcopal Church)
- Christ United Methodist Church (Originally East Main Methodist Church)
- Cox United Methodist Church
- Faith United Methodist Church
- Neal Avenue United Methodist Church
- Trinity Episcopal Church
- First Baptist Church
- St. John's United Church of Christ
- Plymouth Church
- Newark Memorial Gardens
- Cedar Hill Cemetery
- Newark Memorial Gardens
- Wilson Cemetery
- Spring Grove Cemetery
- Smith Chapel Church
- Mount Calvary Cemetery
- Gary A. Braunbeck, award-winning author, sets much of his fiction in the town of Cedar Hill, Ohio, a fictionalized version of Newark.
- Johnny Clem (AKA "Johnny Shiloh"), the youngest-known soldier in the U.S. Army
- Mike Collins, NFL pro with the Detroit Lions and St. Louis Rams
- Woody English, MLB player for the Chicago Cubs
- Jon Hendricks, jazz singer
- Derek Holland, MLB starting pitcher for the Texas Rangers
- Rob Kelly, five-year NFL pro with the New Orleans Saints and New England Patriots
- Jake Mcelfresh, musician who performs under the name Front Porch Step
- Andy Merrill, the voice of Brak (the main character in The Brak Show and Cartoon Planet on Cartoon Network).
- Jerrie Mock, first woman to fly solo around the world
- Bruce Mozert, photographer
- Wayne Newton, Las Vegas Strip entertainer
- Henry Putnam, Wisconsin State Senator
- Edward James Roye, President of Liberia from 1870–1871
- Fred Schaus, Hall of Fame Head Coach of the Los Angeles Lakers, Purdue University Boilermakers and West Virginia University Mountaineers
- William Stanbery, U.S. Congressman
- Jim Tyrer, professional football player for the Kansas City Chiefs and the Washington Redskins.
- Jeff Uhlenhake, 12-year NFL pro with the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins and New Orleans Saints
- Geoffrey C. Ward, historian and writer
- Clarence Hudson White, early photographer, member of the modernist "Photo Secessionist" group.
- Michael Z. Williamson, science fiction author
- Charles R. Woods, Civil War general
- William Burnham Woods, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice
References in culture
- Isaac Asimov refers to the Newark Earthworks in a short story.
- Robert Silverberg's novella "Born With The Dead" is set partly in Newark, and refers to the Great Circle and Octagon Mounds
- Parts of The Tales of Alvin Maker series of novels by Orson Scott Card refer to the earthworks.
- Gary A. Braunbeck sets much of his fiction in Cedar Hill, a city based on Newark.
- Parts of James Frey's highly successful book, A Million Little Pieces are based in and around Newark.
Points of interest
- Newark Earthworks
- Blackhand Gorge State Nature Preserve
- Dawes Arboretum
- National Heisey Glass Museum
- Ye Olde Mill Velvet Ice Cream Company
- The Works
- Pounder's Pizza
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "American FactFinder2". Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- William F. Romain and Jarrod Burks, "LiDAR Imaging of the Great Hopewell Road", 04 February 2008, Ohio Archaeological Council, accessed 24 Feb 2010
- "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Newark, Ohio, United States of America". July 2011.
- Ohio State Parks: Great Circle Earthworks
- Atha, Thomas. "Earthwork Recording Studio Newark, Ohio". Earthwork Media Productions. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- 4244 Marion Rd NE Newark, OH 43055
- Smucker, Isaac (1807-1894): Recollections of Newark, Ohio Archæological and Historical Society Publications: Volume 20 , pp. 240-247.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Newark, Ohio.|
- City of Newark, Ohio
- Community resource website for Newark, Ohio
- OSU-Newark and COT
- Newark travel guide from Wikivoyage