Newark Liberty International Airport
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
|Newark Liberty International Airport|
|IATA: EWR – ICAO: KEWR – FAA LID: EWR
– WMO: 72502
|Owner||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Operator||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Serves||New York metropolitan area|
|Location||Newark, New Jersey and Elizabeth, New Jersey|
|Elevation AMSL||18 ft / 5 m|
|New York metropolitan area|
|Aircraft operations (ACI)||403,880|
|Source: Federal Aviation Administration|
Newark Liberty International Airport (IATA: EWR, ICAO: KEWR, FAA LID: EWR), originally named Newark Metropolitan Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international airport which straddles the municipal boundary between Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States. The airport is owned by the city of Newark and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. It is about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Midtown Manhattan in New York City. Newark Airport was the first major airport in the United States and is the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area's busiest in terms of flights. [N 1]
The airports in the New York metropolitan area combine to create the largest airport system in the United States, the second largest in the world in terms of passenger traffic, and first largest in the world in terms of total flight operations. In 2012, Newark Airport handled 34 million passengers, JFK International handled 49.3 million, and LaGuardia handled 25.7 million.
Newark Liberty is the third-largest hub for United Airlines (after Houston and Chicago-O'Hare), which is the airport's largest tenant (operating within all of Terminal C and part of Terminal A). Newark's second largest tenant is FedEx Express, whose third largest cargo hub uses three buildings on two million square feet of airport property.
Newark Airport opened October 1, 1928 on 68 acres of reclaimed land along the Passaic River, the first major airport serving passengers in the New York City area. Newark was the busiest commercial airport in the world until LaGuardia Airport opened in December 1939; the March 1939 OAG shows 61 weekday departures on five airlines, but by mid-1940 passenger airlines had all left Newark. During World War II the field closed to commercial aviation when it was taken over by the United States Army for logistics operations. In 1945, captured German aircraft brought from Europe on the HMS Reaper for evaluation under Operation Lusty were off-loaded at Newark AAF and then flown or shipped to Freeman Field, Indiana or Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland.
The airlines returned in February 1946 and in 1948 the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey assumed control of the airport, later building new hangars, a new terminal and runway 4/22. The Art Deco Administration Building served as the terminal until the opening of the North Terminal in 1953, and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. The Newark Metropolitan Airport Terminal was once adorned with murals by Arshile Gorky,
The February 1947 C&GS diagram shows 5940-ft runway 1, 7900-ft runway 6 and 7100-ft runway 10.
On December 16, 1951 a Miami Airlines C-46 bound for Tampa lost a cylinder on takeoff from runway 28 and crashed in Elizabeth killing 56; on January 22, 1952 an American Airlines CV-240 crashed in Elizabeth while on approach to runway 6 killing all 23 aboard and seven on the ground; and on February 11, 1952 a National DC-6 crashed in Elizabeth after takeoff from runway 24 killing 29 of 63 on board and four on the ground. Inevitably the airport was closed for some months; airline traffic resumed later in the year, but the airport's continued unpopularity and the New York area's growing air traffic led to searches for new airport sites. A proposal to build a new airport at what is now the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was defeated by local opposition.
The April 1957 Official Airline Guide showed 144 weekday passenger fixed-wing departures from Newark: 40 Eastern, 19 Capital, 16 American, 14 United, 14 Mohawk, 13 Allegheny, 11 TWA, 8 National, 5 Delta, and 4 Braniff. National had a nonstop to Miami, Eastern had nonstops to Miami, New Orleans and Houston, Braniff had a nonstop DC-7C to Dallas, and TWA flew nonstop to St Louis; no other nonstops to points west of Chicago, and no international nonstops. (Eastern started a nonstop to Montreal in 1958, probably Newark's first scheduled international nonstop since 1939, though Eastern had nonstops to San Juan in 1951.) Jet airliners arrived in 1961; in 1964 American and TWA started flying nonstop to California, though Newark's longest runway remained 7,000 ft (2,100 m) until 1970. TWA's 707 nonstop to Heathrow in 1978 was probably Newark's first intercontinental nonstop.
In the 1970s the airport became Newark International Airport. Present Terminals A and B opened in 1973, although some charter and international flights requiring customs clearance remained at the North Terminal. The main building of Terminal C was completed at the same time, but only metal framing work was completed for the terminal's satellites, and it lay dormant until the mid-1980s when for a brief time the west third of the terminal was equipped for international arrivals and used for some People Express transcontinental flights. Terminal C was completed and opened in June 1988.
Underutilized through the 1970s, Newark expanded dramatically in the 1980s. People Express struck a deal with the Port Authority to use the North Terminal as both its air terminal and corporate office in 1981 and began operations at Newark that year. It grew quickly, increasing Newark's traffic through the 1980s. Virgin Atlantic began service between Newark and London in 1984, challenging JFK's status as New York's international gateway (but Virgin Atlantic now has more flights at JFK than at Newark). Federal Express (now known as FedEx Express) opened its second hub at the airport in 1986. When People Express merged into Continental in 1987 operations at the North Terminal were reduced and the building was demolished to make way for cargo facilities in the early 1990s. This merger started Continental's, and later United Airlines', dominance at Newark Airport.
Of the three New York Metropolitan Airports, only Newark Airport has served as a Philippine Airlines destination. Normally, JFK handles more international flights than Newark and, with O'Hare Airport, were the only destinations once served by the airline not on the west coast. Due to the Asian Financial crisis in 1997, Philippine Airlines terminated service to both Newark and O'Hare and only operates service to west coast cities in the United States.
In late 1996, the monorail system was opened, connecting all three terminals, the overflow parking lots and garages, and the rental car facilities. A brand new International Arrivals Facility also opened in Terminal B that year. The monorail was expanded the new Newark Airport train station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor line in 2001, and was renamed AirTrain Newark.
Newark is a major hub for United Airlines (previously Continental Airlines before the 2010 merger). Today United has its Global Gateway at Terminal C, having completed a major expansion project that included the construction of a new, third concourse and a new Federal Inspection Services facility. With its Newark hub United is the largest provider of air service to the New York metropolitan area. In anticipation of Super Bowl XLVIII, to be held in the nearby Meadowlands Sports Complex, United is building a new 132,000-square-foot, $25 million maintenance hangar on a 3-acre parcel to accommodate the new wide-body Boeing Dreamliners.
In 2004 Newark Liberty International Airport became the terminus of the world's longest non-stop scheduled airline route, Singapore Airlines' flight to Singapore; in October 2012 the airline announced that the non-stop to Singapore would cease in 2013, which it did on November 23rd.
United Airlines Flight 93 pushed back from gate A17 at 8:01 am, on its way from Newark to San Francisco International Airport, on September 11, 2001. Two hours later, it would crash into a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, when passengers attempted to take over the plane from a team of hijackers. Based on the direction the plane was flying at the time and information gathered afterwards, most observers believe that the hijackers intended to crash the plane into a target in Washington, D.C., such as the Capitol or White House. To honor the victims that died on 9/11, the airport's name was changed from Newark International Airport to Newark Liberty International Airport in 2002. This name was chosen over the initial proposal, Liberty International Airport at Newark, and also refers to the landmark Statue of Liberty, just 7 miles (11 km) east of the airport.
A modern control tower was constructed in 2002, and entered service in 2003, becoming the fourth and tallest tower in the airport's history, standing 325-feet over the main parking lot.
United (then Continental) began flying from Newark to Beijing on June 15, 2005 and to Delhi on November 1, 2005. The airline soon started flights to Mumbai. Continental became for a time the only airline to serve India nonstop from the United States, and the third U.S. carrier, after United and Northwest to serve mainland China nonstop and the only U.S. carrier with nonstop flights to Beijing from the New York City area. On July 16, 2007, Continental Airlines announced it would seek government approval for nonstops between Newark and Shanghai in 2009. In September 2007 the United States Department of Transportation tentatively awarded Continental the right to fly to Shanghai from Newark beginning March 25, 2009 using Boeing 777-200ER aircraft.
In June 2008, flight caps were put in place to restrict the number of flights to 81 per hour. The flight caps, in effect until 2009, were intended to be a short-term solution to Newark Airport's congestion. The FAA has since embarked on a seven-year long project to reduce congestion in all three New York area airports and the surrounding flight paths.
- Runway 4L/22R: 11,000 x 150 ft (3,353 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt/Concrete
- Runway 4R/22L: 10,000 x 150 ft (3,048 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
- Runway 11/29: 6,800 x 150 ft (2,073 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
- Helipad H1: 40 x 40 ft (12 x 12 m), Surface: Concrete
Runway 11/29 is one of the three runways built during World War II. In 1952 Runways 1/19 and 6/24 were closed and a modern Runway 4/22 (now 4R/22L) opened at a length of 7,000 ft (2,100 m) After 1970 this runway was extended to 9,800 feet (3,000 m), shortened for a while to 9,300 ft (2,800 m) and finally reached its present length by 2000. Runway 4L/22R opened in 1970 at a length of 8,200 ft (2,500 m) and was extended to its current length by 2000.
Most departing traffic uses Runway 4L/22R while arriving traffic uses 4R/22L, and 11/29 is used by smaller aircraft or when there are strong crosswinds on the two main runways. Newark's parallel runways (4L and 4R) are 950 feet (290 m) apart, the fourth smallest separation of major airports in the U.S., after SFO, LAX and SEA.
Newark Liberty International Airport has three passenger terminals. Terminal A and Terminal B were completed in 1973 and have four levels. Ticket counters are on the top floor, except for the second-floor Air India and first-floor British Airways desks in Terminal B. Gates and shops are on the third floor. Baggage carousels (both A and B) are on the second floor, and Terminal B has an international arrivals lounge on that floor too. Finally, short-term parking and ramp operations (restricted areas) are on the ground floor.
Terminal C, designed by Grad Associates and completed in 1988, has two ticketing levels, one for international check-in and one for domestic check-in. The main terminal building for Terminal C was built alongside Terminals A and B in the 1970s, but lay dormant until PEOPLExpress took it over as a replacement for the former North Terminal when the airline's hub there outgrew the old facility. Upon opening, Terminal C had 41 gates, originally with one departures level, one arrivals level, and an underground parking garage. The gates, as well as food and shopping outlets, are located on a mezzanine level between the two check-in floors.
From 1998 to 2003, Terminal C was rebuilt and expanded in a $1.2 billion program known as the Continental Airlines Global Gateway Project. The project, which was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, doubled the available space for outbound travelers as the former baggage claim/arrivals hall was remodeled and turned into a second departures level. Probably most significant was the addition of International Concourse C-3, a spacious and airy new facility with capacity for a maximum of 19 narrowbody aircraft (or 12 widebody planes). Completion of this new concourse brought Terminal C's total number of mainline jet gates to 57. Concomitant with Concourse C-3 is a new international arrivals facility. Also included in the project: a 3,400-space parking garage constructed in front of the terminal, a new airside corridor connecting Concourses C-1, C-2, and C-3, a new President's Club (now called United Club) lounge between C-2 and C-3, and all-new baggage processing facilities, including reconstruction of the former underground parking area into a new baggage claim and arrivals hall.
In 2008, Terminal B was renovated to increase capacity for departing passengers and passenger comfort. The renovations included expanding and updating the ticketing areas, building a new departure level for domestic flights, and building a new arrivals hall. Plans are also in place to expand Terminal A by adding a new parking garage and radically expanding the size of the first concourse to add new gates, ticketing, baggage and security areas.
Each terminal has three concourses: Terminal A, for instance, is divided into concourses A1, A2, and A3. Gate numbering is continuous through all the terminals. Wayfinding signage throughout the terminals was designed by Paul Mijksenaar, who also designed signage for LaGuardia and JFK Airports.
Terminal A is the only terminal having no immigration facilities: flights arriving from other countries cannot use Terminal A (except countries with US customs preclearance), although some departing international flights use the terminal.
Following the business model of the Port Authority's other facilities, in some cases entire terminals are operated by terminal operators and not by the Port Authority directly. At Newark Liberty, Terminal A and Terminal C are operated by United Airlines. Terminal B is the only passenger terminal directly operated by the Authority.
In January 2012, Port Authority executive director Patrick Foye said $350 million would be spent on Terminal B, addressing complaints by passengers that they cannot move freely. That renovation is currently underway. Foye also said a new Terminal A may be built.
Airlines and destinations
|ABX Air||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky|
|FedEx Express||Anchorage, Boston, Chicago–O'Hare, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Memphis, Miami, Newburgh, Syracuse, Washington–Dulles, Tampa|
operated by Mountain Air Cargo
|Baltimore, Buffalo, Washington–Dulles|
operated by Wiggins Airways
|Albany (NY), Boston, Bridgeport, Harrisburg, Hartford, Manchester (NH), Plattsburgh, Providence, Rochester (NY)|
|UPS Airlines||Chicago/Rockford, Cologne/Bonn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Des Moines, Hartford, London–Stansted, Louisville, Newburgh, Tokyo–Narita|
In 2012, Newark Liberty International Airport handled 33,993,962 passengers.
|1||London (Heathrow), United Kingdom||1,197,847||British Airways, Continental, Virgin Atlantic|
|2||Tel Aviv (Ben Gurion), Israel||501,018||Continental, El Al|
|3||Frankfurt, Germany||473,364||Continental, Lufthansa|
|4||Toronto (Pearson), Canada||462,253||Air Canada, Continental|
|5||Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France||355,139||Continental|
|6||Munich, Germany||296,070||Continental, Lufthansa|
|7||Amsterdam, Netherlands||279,020||Continental, Delta|
|8||Brussels, Belgium||275,427||Continental, Jet Airways|
|9||Mumbai, India||256,208||Air India, Continental, Jet Airways|
|10||Toronto (City Centre), Canada||252,903||Porter Airlines|
|1||Orlando, Florida||662,000||JetBlue, United|
|2||Chicago, Illinois||606,000||American, United|
|3||Fort Lauderdale, Florida||508,000||JetBlue, United|
|5||Charlotte, North Carolina||486,000||United, US Airways|
|6||Atlanta, Georgia||478,000||Delta, United|
|7||Boston, Massachusetts||471,000||JetBlue, United|
|8||San Francisco, California||437,000||United, Virgin America|
|9||Los Angeles, California||411,000||American, United, Virgin America|
|10||Denver, Colorado||401,000||Southwest, United|
|2||Delta Air Lines||1,457,794|
Newark is an intermodal airport. A monorail system, AirTrain Newark, was opened in 1996 and connects the terminals with the outer parking lots, parking garages, and rental car facilities. In 2001 it was extended to the Newark Liberty International Airport Station for connection to Amtrak and New Jersey Transit (NJT) service. Passengers can use this connection to travel from EWR to any station along New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor Line or North Jersey Coast Line, including regional transit hubs such as Newark Penn Station, Secaucus Junction, and New York Penn Station.
United Airlines uses this rail connection to transport passengers through Newark to 30th Street Station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Wilmington Station in Wilmington, Delaware; Penn Station in New York City; Stamford Station in Stamford, Connecticut; and Union Station in New Haven, Connecticut.
The monorail is free for use between all terminals and parking lot/garage stations, but passengers wishing to exit or enter the train station must pay a fee. NJ Transit tickets to or from the train station purchased at ticket windows and vending machines include this fee. Passengers who purchase tickets on board a train must pay the fee at the station if they wish to enter.
NJT buses operates northbound local service to Irvington, Downtown Newark, and Newark Penn Station, where connections are available to the PATH rapid transit system to Hudson County and Lower Manhattan, including the World Trade Center. The go bus 28 is a bus rapid transit line to Downtown Newark, Newark Broad Street Station and Bloomfield Station. Southbound service travels to Elizabeth, Lakewood, Toms River and intermediate points.
Private limousine, car service, and taxis also provide service to/from the airport. Taxis serving the airport charge a flat rate based on destination. For trips to/from New York, fares are set by the city's Taxi and Limousine Commission. Despite being outside the five boroughs, taxi and limo drivers within New York City may not refuse to take a passenger to Newark Liberty.
The airport is serviced directly by U.S. Route 1/9, which provides connections to Route 81 and Interstate 78, both of which have interchanges with the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95) at Exit 13A and 14, respectively. Northbound, Route 1/9 becomes the Pulaski Skyway to the Holland Tunnel into Lower Manhattan.
The airport operates short and long term parking lots with shuttle buses and monorail access to the terminals.
Within the Newark Liberty International Airport complex is a Marriott hotel, the only hotel located on airport property. Shuttle vans operate between the hotel and terminals because the Marriott is not serviced by the monorail and there is no official walking route to the terminals, despite the Marriott's immediate proximity to the main parking lot between the terminals. Several hotels are adjacent to Newark Airport including the Hilton Newark Airport Hotel and Renaissance Newark Airport Hotel.
Airport information can be obtained in several ways both before traveling to the airport and while there. In addition to the Web site listed below, travelers may call the airport at +1 (973)961-6000 or from within the United States and Canada, toll-free at 888-EWR-INFO (397-4636).
Newark Airport, along with LaGuardia and Kennedy airports, uses a uniform style of signage throughout the airport properties. Yellow signs direct passengers to airline gates, ticketing and other flight services; green signs direct passengers to ground transportation services, and black signs lead to restrooms, telephones and other passenger amenities.
New York City traffic reporter Bernie Wagenblast provides the voice for the airport's radio station and curbside announcements, as well as the messages heard onboard AirTrain Newark and in its stations.
The airport has the IATA designation EWR, rather than a designation that begins with the letter 'N' because the obvious designator of "NEW" is already assigned to Lakefront Airport in New Orleans, LA.
The airport has no official area to view flight traffic, but the Ikea of Elizabeth (located on the East side of the New Jersey Turnpike) may be used as an unofficial vantage point for aircraft both departing and landing.
Incidents and accidents
- December 16, 1951: A passenger C-46 lost a cylinder on takeoff from runway 28 and crashed in Elizabeth, killing 56.
- January 22, 1952 an American Airlines Convair 990 on approach to runway 6 crashed in Elizabeth, killing 30.
- February 11, 1952: A National DC-6 crashed in Elizabeth after takeoff from runway 24, killing 33.
- April 18, 1979: New York Airways Commuter helicopter on a routine flight to Laguardia and JFK Airports plunged 150 feet (46 m) into the area between Runways 4L/22R and 4R/22L killing 3 passengers and injuring 15. It was later determined the crash was due to a failure in the helicopter's tail rotor.
- July 31, 1997: FedEx Flight 14, a McDonnell Douglas MD-11, crashed during landing from Anchorage International Airport. The No. 3 engine contacted the runway during a rough landing which caused the aircraft to flip upside down, after which it was destroyed by fire. The two crewmembers and three passengers escaped uninjured.
- September 11, 2001: United Airlines Flight 93 to San Francisco International Airport was hijacked as part of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The passengers revolted forcing the hijackers to crash the aircraft into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. All of the passengers, crew and hijackers died in the crash. A flag now flies over Gate A17, the gate from which the flight pushed back from that day.
- February 12, 2009: Colgan Air Flight 3407, a Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 operating under contract with Continental Connection crashed into a home in Clarence Center, New York. The flight was scheduled to arrive at Buffalo Niagara International Airport and was approximately six miles away from the airport when it crashed. All 49 passengers and crew members on board the aircraft and one person on the ground perished in the incident.
- January 10, 2010: United Airlines Flight 634, an Airbus A319, made an emergency landing after the aircraft's right rear landing gear failed to deploy. No passengers or crew members were injured during the landing. The aircraft sustained substantial damage in the accident.
- January 21, 2013: United Airlines Flight 4480 from Rochester was landing when several rear tires blew. The plane veered onto a taxiway, but didn't strike anything. The plane was carrying eight passengers and five crew members. No one was hurt.
- May 1, 2013: Scandinavian Airlines Flight 908, an A330-300 that was cleared for takeoff at Newark collided with an ExpressJet Embraer ERJ-145 aircraft on the taxiway. As a result, a tail loss incident occurred of United Express Flight 4226, the ExpressJet Embraer ERJ-145.[dead link]
- May 18, 2013: A malfunctioning landing gear forced US Airways Flight 4560 to make a belly landing. None of the passengers or crew were injured.
- "Newark Liberty International Airport is an airport of firsts: the first major airport in the New York metropolitan area, the first with a control tower, and now the area's busiest. Sandwiched between the New Jersey Turnpike, U.S. Routes 1 and 9, and I-78, the airport handles more flights (though not as many passengers) as Kennedy International Airport, despite being 40 percent of the land size. The airport serves as a hub for United Airlines, among 50 other scheduled carriers. The City of Newark built the airport on 68 acres of marshland in 1928, and the Army Air Corps operated the facility during World War II. After the Port Authority took it over in 1948, an instrument runway, a terminal building, a control tower and an air cargo center were added. The airport's original 1935 central terminal building is a National Historic Landmark. Newark Liberty employs more than 24,000 people." Ken Belson, "Newark Liberty International Airport (NJ)" The New York Times July 10, 2008
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- "Plane Makes Belly Landing at Newark Airport". NY Times. May 18, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newark Liberty International Airport.|
- Newark Liberty International Airport (official site)
- "World's Busiest Airport" Popular Mechanics, May 1937
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NJ-133, "Newark International Airport"
- How To Get To Newark Airport
- Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
- (PDF), effective November 14, 2013
- Resources for this airport: