Newcastle & Carlisle Railway

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An early train on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway

The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway (N&CR) was an English railway company formed in 1825 that built a line from Newcastle upon Tyne on Britain's east coast, to Carlisle, on the west coast. The railway began operating freight trains in 1834 between Blaydon and Hexham, and passengers were carried for the first time the following year. The rest of the line opened in stages: from Hexham to Haydon Bridge and isolated section in the west from Carlisle to Greenhead opened in 1836, the eastern section was extended to Redheugh on the south bank of the Tyne in 1837, and the central section of line opened allowing trains to operate between Redheugh and Carlisle in 1838. A bridge at Scotswood allowed a temporary station to open in Newcastle, north of the Tyne, in 1839, although Newcastle Central did not open until 1851. A branch line from Haltwhistle to Alston opened in 1852.

A short branch to Brampton was worked by a horse hauling a carriage. In 1837, Thomas Edmondson, a N&CR station master at Milton (now Brampton (Cumbria)) printed numbered card tickets were dated by a press. The N&CR ran excursion trains from 1840.

The N&CR was absorbed by the larger North Eastern Railway in 1862. Today the Tyne Valley Line follows much of the former N&CR route between the two cities.

Origins[edit]

A painting by John Wilson Carmichael of the Corby Viaduct, built by the N&CR across the Drybeck Valley

Plans for a canal linking Newcastle upon Tyne, on Britain's east coast, with Carlisle, on the west coast had existed since 1794,[1] and a canal opened between the Solway Firth and Carlisle on 12 March 1823. The engineer William Chapman estimated the cost of extending the canal to Newcastle as £888,000, whereas building a railway between the two cities would cost £252,488. These estimates were confirmed by the engineer Josias Jessop and the Newcastle upon Tyne and Carlisle Railroad Company was formed on 26 March 1825 with a capital of £300,000.[2]

So as to allow a private bill to be presented to Parliament in 1826, Chapman, Jessop and Benjamin Thompson surveyed a route between Newcastle and Carlisle that avoided, as far as possible, the houses of gentlemen. It was proposed that horses would provide the motive power, as this would have fewer objections from the landed gentry and allow for cheaper rails. A route to Carlisle from Newcastle quay that crossed over to the south side of the River Tyne at Scotswood was published on 12 November 1825, but George Stephenson, surveying a rival route on the north side of the Tyne, found some errors in Chapman's route. With elections delaying further work it was 1827 before the route could be revised and the company returned to Parliament in 1828. Although opposed and with Stephenson claiming a cheaper route was possible, the bill was read for a third time in the House of Commons on 1 May 1829 and received Royal Assent on 28 May 1829. The Act[a] give permission to raise £400,000, £300,000 as shares and £100,000 in loans, to build a 63-mile (101 km) long railway, but forbade the use of steam locomotives as this would have been opposed by the landowners.[3][4] Like the Stockton & Darlington Railway, the railway was expected to be open to anyone on payment of tolls.[5]

Before the first meeting of the thirty directors in October, a shareholder suggested that the line continue on the south side into Gateshead to save the cost of a bridge crossing the Tyne at Scotswood.[5] The board appointed Francis Giles as engineer and asked for him to report on the merits of the two routes. Construction started on the west end of the line on 25 March 1830 and Giles suggested a branch along the south bank as far as a lead refinery at Blaydon, which could later be extended to Gateshead.[6] The Wetheral Bridge was built across the River Eden, with 5 arches, 564-foot (172 m) long and 90 feet (27 m) above the river's summer level, the Corby Viaduct crossed the Drybeck Valley and River Gelt was crossed by skew bridge at an angle of 63 degrees. There were two short tunnels, one 170 yards (160 m) long at Farnley Scars, near Corbridge, and another 202 yards (185 m) long at Whitchester, near Haltwhistle. A mile long (1.6 km) cutting at Cowran was up to 110 feet (34 m) depth, and at the time reported to be the largest in England.[7]

Opening[edit]

Newcastle and Carlisle Railway
in the 1840s
Newcastle (Shot Tower)
Redheugh
Scotswood Bridge
Blaydon
Ryton
Wylam
Prudhoe
Stocksfield
Riding Mill
Corbridge
Hexham
Fourstones
Haydon Bridge
Bardon Mill
Haltwhistle
Greenhead
Rose Hill
Low Row
Hartleyburn and
Brampton Railway
Milton
Brampton
How Mill
Wetheral
Scotsby
Carlisle (London Road)
Canal Depot

When it came time to lay the lay single track railway for the first section of line between Blaydon and Hexham, steam locomotives were reconsidered, as horses would require more crossing loops. The directors announced that they would apply for permission to use steam locomotives, and ordered three, one each from R. Stephenson & Co, R & W Hawthorn, and Edward Bury,[8] and on 26 November 1834 4 34 miles (7.6 km) of double and 12 miles (19 km) of single line opened for minerals and goods between Blaydon and Hexham.[9]

The railway opened for passengers with ceremony on 9 March 1835. With 600 tickets issued, two locomotives, "Rapid" built by Stephenson and "Comet" built by Hawthorns, each hauled three carriages, gentlemen's carriages mounted on trucks and wagons fitted with seats. A return journey was made to Hexham, and a public service of two trains a day each way started the next day, coaches connecting Blaydon with St Nicholas Square in Newcastle. However, steam locomotives were not permitted by the N&CR Act, a local landowner, Charles Bacon Grey applied for an injunction to prevent their use and traffic was suspended after this was served on 28 March 1835. Local public opinion was in the favour of the railway, the Mayor supporting repeal of the clause that forbade steam traction. Grey withdrew his opposition, allowing the railway to use steam locomotives from 6 May, before Royal Assent was given to an Act with the necessary permissions[b] on 17 June 1835.[11][12]

A rival company, the Blaydon, Gateshead and Hebburn Railway (BG&HR), had obtained authority in 1834 to build a line from Blaydon to Gateshead, the Act also allowing the N&CR to build the line subject to conditions. The BG&HR protested after the N&CR announced its intention to build a line, and it was agreed that the BG&HR build the line from Gateshead to the Derwent and N&CR would build to the west.[13] The BG&HR hesitated, and in May 1835 had just begun work as the Branding brothers announced plans to build a railway from Gateshead to South Shields and Monkwearmouth. The Brandling Junction Railway was formed on 5 September, and it was agreed in the negotiations that followed that the N&CR would take over and extend the BG&HR from the Derwent through to Gateshead.[14]

The N&CR opened from Blaydon to the Derwent on 11 June 1836 and from Hexham to Haydon Bridge on 28 June.The 20 miles (32 km) from Blenkinsopp Colliery opened to a temporary terminus at Rome Street in Carlisle on 19 July,[12][15] a wooden bridge crossing the Tyne at Warden. The eastern section between Blaydon and Heydon was officially opened by two trains, hauled by "Hercules" and "Samson", one locomotive built by Stephensons and the other by Hawthorns. The western section from a passenger station at Carlisle London Road to Greenhead was ceremonially opened by four trains, two hauled by borrowed locomotives, and watched by an estimated 40,000 people.[16] The private Hartleyburn and Brampton Railway opened on 8 July 1836 and horses provided the motive power for a short period between Milton [now Brampton (Cumbria)[17][c]] and Carlisle, the horses riding in dandy carts downhill.[18]

After taking over the 1 34 miles (2.8 km) BG&HR and extending it a further 1 mile (1.6 km) to Redheugh Quay, the railway opened to Gateshead on 1 March 1837. A few days later, 9 March, the railway was extended the 1 12 miles (2.4 km) from Carlisle London Road to the Canal Basin, allowing coal to be transferred onto ships at the docks.[19] The central section between Greenhead and Haydon bridge was completed and on 15 June 1838 a train carried directors over the line between Newcastle and Carlisle. The anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo, 18 June, was chosen as the official opening day. Five trains left Carlisle from 6 am to arrive in Redheugh between 9:30 am and just after 10 am.[20] The official passengers crossed the Tyne in barges and steam packets and marched through Newcastle to a breakfast at the Assembly Rooms, before returning to the trains about an hour late. A procession of thirteen trains, led by "Rapid" running light engine, left at 12:30 pm, and the procession left Blaydon at 1:50 pm. While the trains were travelling between Ryton and Brampton rain fell and soaked most of the 3,500 passengers who were travelling in uncovered wagons. The last train arrived in Carlisle after 6:00 pm and there was "a disorderly stampede for refreshments".[21] By 6:30 pm some passengers had returned to their seats to wait in the uncovered wagons while the rain continued, the first train not leaving until nearly 10 pm when a thunderstorm broke. On the return journey a collision between two trains at Milton held up the trains until 1 am, the trains arriving back in Redheugh between 3 am and after 6 am.[22]

A 3 34 miles (6.0 km) branch from Blaydon, crossing the Tyne by a wooden bridge at Scotswood, was officially opened to Newcastle on 21 May 1839, although a regular service between a temporary station near the Shot Tower in Newcastle and Carlisle did not start until 21 October.[23]

Operations[edit]

In the early 1840s, the railway was 61 miles 67 chains (99.5 km) from Newcastle Shot Tower to Carlisle London Road with a 3-mile-63-chain (6.1 km) long branch from Blaydon to Redheugh. The line was mainly double track, with trains running on the right hand track, although 20 miles (32 km) was still single track.[24][25] The track was standard gauge, originally the rails weighed 42 lbs per yard, although by 1837 heavier rails weighing 47–50 lbs per yard were being used. These were fixed onto stone blocks, and small coal, cinders and loam were used for ballast.[26] The stations were without platforms, the carriages being lower than those on other railways and provided with footboards.[27] The station at Milton had a stable, the branch line to Brampton being worked by a horse and a "dandy" coach.[28][29]

The "Comet", one of the N&CR first locomotives

There were locomotive depots at Carlisle, Blaydon and Greenhead, the depot at Carlisle having space for eight locomotives with their tenders, and there was room for four at Greenhead as locomotives were exchanged on the mixed trains at the station.[30] There was a shed for two locomotives at Redheugh, as well as a repair shop for carriages.[31] These early railway steam locomotives had no brakes, although some tenders were fitted with them,[32] and there were no weatherboards, the driver and firemen wearing moleskin suits for protection.[33] The N&CR experimented with sanding equipment to improve friction in 1838.[34] The boilers ran at a pressure of 50 pounds per square inch (340 kPa) and the tenders carried eighteen sacks of coke, made at Derwenthaugh,[d] on the Redhaugh branch,[35] from coal from Heaton Main.[36] Mineral trains ran at an average speed of 10 miles per hour (16 km/h), but locomotives such as "Wellington" hauling eight passenger carriages, a total load of 30 12 long tons (31.0 t), could reach speeds of 39.5 miles per hour (63.6 km/h) and in service ran at an average of 23.9 miles per hour (38.5 km/h).[37] In 1837 "Eden" ran at 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) from Milton to Carlisle.[38]

The carriages were divided into three compartments, those for first class passengers painted yellow picked out in black and seated 18 passengers. The second class carriages were open to the sides and seated 22–24 passengers.[e] On busy days passengers were carried in goods trucks fitted with seats.[39] Some carriages had benches fitted to the roofs to allow passengers a better view, although it was noted that smoke and cinders from the engine made the experience uncomfortable.[40]

A blank N&CR paper ticket printed in 1837

Originally paper tickets were written out by the clerk in a time consuming process, so some railways, such as the Brandling Junction Railway, closed the station doors five minutes before trains were due to depart.[41] With such as system it was difficult to keep accurate records, and Thomas Edmondson, the station master at Milton, printed numbered card tickets that were dated by a press first used in 1837.[42]

In 1838 passengers travelled 3.1 million miles on the N&CR, raising to over 4 million miles the following year.[43] In November 1840 there were five trains a day between Newcastle and Carlisle, and one train between Newcastle and Haydon Bridge.[f] The mixed trains, which conveyed passengers and goods, stopped at every station and took 3 12 hours, whereas the fast trains stopped at some stations and took 3 hours. The fare on the non-stopping trains were 2.164d[g] per mile for first class and 1.672d per mile for second class; on the mixed trains this was reduced to 1.967d and 1.475d per mile respectively.[46] The N&CR ran excursion trains first in 1840, first on specific services for visitors to a Polytechnic Exhibition that had opened in Newcastle, and also on Sunday 14 June, a special service was run for the employees of R & W Hawthorn with tickets sold at half price, with a certain number having been guaranteed.[47] In 1847 there were six trains a day taking about 3 14 hours, and two trains on Sundays, which were criticised by church leaders.[48]

Expansion[edit]

Newcastle Central Station in 1850

In anticipation of increased traffic after the opening of the Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway (N&DJR), in 1844 the N&CR doubled the remaining single line sections, between Stocksfield and Hexham and Rose Hill and Milton, and enlarged Farnley Scar Tunnel near Corbridge, where the line was closed for several days after the roof collapsed on 28 December.[49][h]

Agreement was reached in 1845 with the York & Newcastle Railway (as the N&DJR had become) and Newcastle & Berwick Railway to build Newcastle Central railway station, and on 6 November 1846 the N&CR extended their services over a 44-arch viaduct to a temporary station at Forth Banks.[49] Newcastle Central was built to a Doric classical style by its architect John Dobson, with a roof constructed from three 60 feet (18 m) wide bays. When the station was opened by Queen Victoria on 29 August 1850 its only access was from the east end, and N&CR services entered from the west after 1 January 1851.[50]

Authority had been given for a branch line from Haltwhistle to Alston on 26 August 1846, amended three years later with the addition of a branch from Lambley to the Hartleyburn & Brampton at Halton Lea Gate. The line was opened between Haltwhistle and Shafthill for goods in March and for passengers in July 1851. After the completion of Lambley Viaduct, 110 feet (34 m) high and made up of nine 58-foot (18 m) wide arches, the line opened to Alston on 5 January 1852, the branch to the Hartleyburn & Brampton opening on 17 November 1852.[51][52] The N&CR installed electric telegraph on its lines between 1852 and 1853.[53]

The Border Counties Railway (BCR) was authorised on 13 July 1854[i] for 34 12-mile (55.5 km) branch north from Hexham to Woodburn, and this opened as far as Chollerford in 1858. The North British Railway financed an extension from Reedsmouth to the Border Union Railway at Riccarton and bought the BCR in 1860. The line was open throughout for goods on 24 June 1862 and for passengers the following week.[54][55]

The Newcastle & Carlisle was approached with an offer to lease by the Caledonian Railway in 1848, and the company receiving another offer soon afterwards from the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway (YN&BR)[j] In July the N&CR accepted the YN&BR offer of 6 per cent per year, increasing to 7 per cent after three years, and the YN&BR worked the railway between 1 August 1848[57] and 1 January 1850, when the N&CR returned to independence because Parliament had failed to support the lease following the departure of Hudson as chairman of the YN&BR.[58] The North Eastern Railway (NER) was created on 31 July 1854 with the merger of the YN&BR with the Leeds Northern and York & North Midland railways. [59] In 1856 The N&CR reached an arrangement with the NER to pass to them all traffic due for Liverpool, rather than sending it via Carlisle, and agreement to merge the two companies was reached in January 1859, approved by the NER board on 18 February 1859.[60] Following legal action from two shareholders the Court of Chancery ruled in July 1859 that the agreement had exceeded the powers of the two companies and the N&CR began running services again.[61][62] An application to Parliament in 1860 to amalgamate the two companies failed after North British Railway successfully opposed the bill, citing the routing of Liverpool traffic that had been agreed by the two companies.[63]

In 1859 a company had been formed to link the N&CR at Scotswood with the Stockton & Darlington Railway at Hownes Gill via the Derwent Valley; by 1860 this had grown into the Newcastle, Derwent & Weardale Railway, backed by the rival North British and London & North Western railways who were providing two thirds of the capital. Opposed by the NER, a bill was approved by the House of Commons in 1861, although the line was eventually rejected by the House of Lords.[64][65] The NER successfully returned to Parliament the following year with another amalgamation bill, together with its own plans for a line through the Derwent Valley, and the Newcastle & Carlisle and North Eastern railways were merged by Royal Assent on 17 July 1862.[66] Throughout its twenty-seven year history it had paid between 4 and 6 percent as a dividend to its shareholders.[25]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 1 May 1844, the boiler of locomotive Adelaide exploded at Carlisle, Cumberland, injuring two people.[67]
  • In 1844 or 1845, a train collided with a cow at Ryton, County Durham and was derailed, killing the driver.[68]
  • On 28 January 1845, the boiler of locomotive Venus exploded whilst it was hauling a freight train.[69]

North Eastern Railway[edit]

Hexham signal box, built by the NER c. 1896, is a Grade II listed structure.[70]

The 1862 Act also gave the NBR running rights over the N&CR between Hexham and Newcastle, the NER gaining reciprocal rights over the NBR between Berwick-upon-Tweed and Edinburgh.[66] Initially the NBR ran four trains a day between Newcastle and Hawick via Border Counties Junction at Hexham, although by 1904 this had been reduced to three trains a day.[71] The N&CR station in Carlisle was almost a mile away from city centre and inconvenient for passengers.[72] The joint Liverpool & Carlisle Railway and Caledonian Railway station in the centre of the city, Carlisle Citadel, had opened in 1847[73] and the 1862 Act made the NER a tenant. Passenger services began to terminate at the central station on 1 January 1863, and on the same day trains between Milton and Carlisle switched to running on the left hand track, although it was another fourteen months before right-hand running was fully abolished.[72]

The Hexham and Allendale Railway obtained its Act of Parliament on 19 June 1865 and the NER purchased shares worth £10,000. The 12 14-mile (19.7 km)[74] branch to Allendale left the former Newcastle and Carlisle Railway line at Hexham.[75] The line opened to goods and mineral traffic between Hexham to Langley on 19 August 1868 and to Catton Road (later Allendale) on 13 January 1868. The company was in financial difficulty and opening to passenger traffic was delayed until 1 March 1869.[74] The railway was purchased by the North Eastern Railway on 13 July 1876.[75]

The bridge over the Tyne at Scotswood was replaced by the current girder bridge in 1868 after the original wooden one was destroyed by fire in 1860.[76] The Scotswood, Newburn & Wylam Railway received permission on 16 June 1871 for a 6 14 miles (10.1 km) line between Scotswood and Wylam on the north side of the Tyne.[77] The line was complete in 1876 and the line was worked by the NER, who absorbed the railway on 29 June 1883.[78] A station opened at North Wylam, just across a bridge from Wylam station, and this served as a terminus for local trains from Newcastle.[79]

The service over the branch to Brampton Town was provided by a horse-drawn carriage until 1881, when a locomotive as provided, until services ceased after a Board of Trade inspection in 1890. The track was re-laid and the line was reopened to passengers in 1913. Services were suspended between 1917–20, during the First World War, and the branch closed on 29 October 1923.[80]

As a result of the Railways Act 1921, on 1 January 1923 the North Eastern Railway became part of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER). Britain's railways were nationalised on 1 January 1948 and the former Newcastle and Carlisle Railway lines were placed under the control of British Railways.[81]

A diesel train at Brampton station in 1962

The passenger service on the Allendale branch had been withdrawn on 22 September 1930 and the line was closed in November 1950.[82] The passenger service from Hexham to the north over the former Border Counties Railway was withdrawn in 1956,[55] and several stations were closed in the 1950s.[83][k] Diesel Multiple Units began to replace trains hauled by steam locomotives from 1955.[84] In 1963 Dr Beeching published his report "The Reshaping of British Railways", which recommended closing the network's least used stations and lines. The Alston branch was already being considered for closure,[85] and to this was added the local services from Newcastle to Hexham and Haltwhistle.[86] In 1966 British Railways proposed that North Wylam station remain open and that September suspended services over the line south of the Tyne for engineering works, but this was rejected and services restarted in May 1967. The following year BR suggested closing the line to the north of the Tyne, which was successful with passenger traffic being withdrawn on 11 March 1968.[87][better source needed] The branch line to Alston closed in 1976.[88]

The railway was diverted to avoid Farnley Scar Tunnel in 1962;[89] the tunnel portals remain and both are listed monuments.[90] Scotswood bridge closed in 1982 and trains now cross the King Edward VII Bridge and pass through Dunston before rejoining the former N&CR Redheugh branch at Derwent.[91]

Legacy[edit]

The Wetheral Viaduct is a Grade I listed structure

Today the Tyne Valley Line follows much of the former N&CR route between the two cities. The unelectrified line is double track with fourteen intermediate stations. The train service is provided by Northern Rail with typically two trains per hour between Newcastle and Hexham, one of which is semi-fast and continues to Carlisle. There is additionally a half-hourly local service between MetroCentre and Newcastle. Line speeds are predominately 60–65 miles per hour (97–105 km/h) and trains typically take 1 hour 32 minutes to travel from Newcastle to Carlisle;[92] several services each day continue via the Glasgow South Western Line to Glasgow Central or Dumfries.[93] The line links the East Coast and West Coast Main Lines, and is used by diverted long distance trains when these lines are blocked to the north. It is planned to carry out any necessary infrastructure works to allow the diversion of Intercity Express Programme Class 800 and 801 units over the line by 2019.[92]

A number of structures and buildings constructed by the N&CR are on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The Wetheral Viaduct[94] and Newcastle Central station[95] are listed Grade I and the skew Gelt Bridge,[96] the Lambley Viaduct[97] and the buildings at Wylam station[98] are listed Grade II*.[l]

The South Tynedale Railway operates seasonal services on a 3 12 miles (5.6 km) narrow gauge railway laid on the former Alston branch track bed between Alston and Lintley.[100]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 10 Geo IV Cap. s72
  2. ^ As long as the locomotives burnt coke rather than coal.[10]
  3. ^ Station was renamed Brampton in 1870, Brampton Junction in 1885 and Brampton (Cumbria) in 1971.[17]
  4. ^ Called Downhalf in Whishaw (1842, p. 347).
  5. ^ In Whishaw (1842, p. 344) these are described as white picked out in green, but Tomlinson (1915, p. 403) states green picked out in white, referencing Whishaw and Atkinson & Philipson Books.
  6. ^ The Bradshaw for March 1843 shows four through trains, two of these having connections or through carriages for Redheugh.[44]
  7. ^ A pre-decimal penny in 1840 was worth about the same as 33p today.[45]
  8. ^ Hoole (1974, p. 197) states that the tunnel was doubled 1846–47.
  9. ^ Although Allen (1974, p. 124) gives the year as 1845.
  10. ^ The YN&BR and been formed by the merger of the York & Newcastle and Newcastle & Berwick railways on 9 August 1847.[56]
  11. ^ Naworth closed in 1952, Ryton in 1954, and How Mill and Scotby in 1959.[83]
  12. ^ Buildings and structures are given one of three grades: Grade I for buildings of exceptional interest, Grade II* for particularly important buildings of more than special interest and Grade II for buildings that are of special interest.[99]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 36–37.
  2. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 99–101.
  3. ^ Allen 1974, p. 34.
  4. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 191–198.
  5. ^ a b Tomlinson 1915, p. 199.
  6. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 200–201.
  7. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 261.
  8. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 262.
  9. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 263.
  10. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 266.
  11. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 263–265.
  12. ^ a b Hoole 1974, p. 196.
  13. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 265.
  14. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 266–268, 310.
  15. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 303.
  16. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 303–304.
  17. ^ a b Cobb 2006, pp. 473–474.
  18. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 304–305.
  19. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 310–311.
  20. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 314.
  21. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 316–317.
  22. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 317–318.
  23. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 321.
  24. ^ Whishaw 1842, pp. 336–337.
  25. ^ a b Allen 1974, p. 38.
  26. ^ Whishaw 1842, pp. 339–340.
  27. ^ Whishaw 1842, p. 341.
  28. ^ Whishaw 1842, pp. 343, 529.
  29. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 153.
  30. ^ Whishaw 1842, pp. 342, 346–347.
  31. ^ Whishaw 1842, p. 342.
  32. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 398.
  33. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 423.
  34. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 399.
  35. ^ Whishaw 1842, pp. 346–347.
  36. ^ Whishaw 1842, pp. 349–350.
  37. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 395.
  38. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 396.
  39. ^ Whishaw 1842, p. 344–345.
  40. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 400.
  41. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 418, 421.
  42. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 421–422.
  43. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 369.
  44. ^ Bradshaw's Monthly General Railway and Steam Navigation Guide March 1843 p. 24
  45. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  46. ^ Whishaw 1842, p. 348.
  47. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 372.
  48. ^ Hoole 1986, p. 42.
  49. ^ a b Tomlinson 1915, p. 473.
  50. ^ Allen 1974, p. 86.
  51. ^ Hoole 1974, p. 198.
  52. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 511.
  53. ^ Allen & 1974, p. 112.
  54. ^ Allen 1974, p. 124.
  55. ^ a b Awdry 1990, p. 118.
  56. ^ Allen 1974, p. 90.
  57. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 486–487.
  58. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 501.
  59. ^ Allen 1974, p. 107.
  60. ^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 555, 580.
  61. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 583.
  62. ^ Allen 1974, p. 125.
  63. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 587.
  64. ^ Allen 1974, pp. 125–129.
  65. ^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 594.
  66. ^ a b Allen 1974, p. 132.
  67. ^ Hewison 1983, p. 27.
  68. ^ Hall 1990, p. 23.
  69. ^ Hewison 1983, p. 29.
  70. ^ "The National Heritage List for England (No.1042523)". English Heritage. Retrieved August 2013. 
  71. ^ Hoole 1986, p. 68.
  72. ^ a b Robinson 1986, pp. 38–39.
  73. ^ Robinson 1986, pp. 52–55.
  74. ^ a b Tomlinson 1915, p. 663.
  75. ^ a b Allen 1974, pp. 142–143.
  76. ^ Hoole 1986, p. 28.
  77. ^ Hoole 1974, p. 199.
  78. ^ Awdry 1990, p. 159.
  79. ^ Hoole 1986, p. 65.
  80. ^ Hoole 1974, p. 202.
  81. ^ Hedges 1981, pp. 88, 113–114.
  82. ^ Hoole 1974, pp. 198–199.
  83. ^ a b Cobb 2006, pp. 473–477.
  84. ^ Hoole 1986, p. 46.
  85. ^ Beeching 1963, p. 129.
  86. ^ Beeching 1963, p. 103, map 9.
  87. ^ "North Wylam". Disused stations. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  88. ^ Cobb 2006, p. 473.
  89. ^ Cobb 2006, pp. 475–476.
  90. ^ "The National Heritage List for England (No. 1044779)". English Heritage. Retrieved December 2013. 
    "The National Heritage List for England (No. 1370551)". English Heritage. Retrieved December 2013. 
  91. ^ Cobb 2006, p. 477.
  92. ^ a b Network Rail 2012, pp. 49–53.
  93. ^ "Time: Glasgow – Barrhead, Kilmarnock & Carlisle". ScotRail. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  94. ^ "The National Heritage List for England (No.1087690)". English Heritage. Retrieved December 2013. 
  95. ^ "The National Heritage List for England (No.1355291)". English Heritage. Retrieved December 2013. 
  96. ^ "The National Heritage List for England (No.1335587)". English Heritage. Retrieved December 2013. 
  97. ^ "The National Heritage List for England (No.1042918)". English Heritage. Retrieved December 2013. 
  98. ^ "The National Heritage List for England (No.1370462)". English Heritage. Retrieved December 2013. 
  99. ^ "Protecting, conserving and providing access to the historic environment in England". Department for Culture, Media & Sport. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  100. ^ "Route". South Tynedale Railway. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
    "Timetable". South Tynedale Railway. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 

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