||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (October 2013)|
|Area||108,860 km2 (42,031 sq mi)|
|Coastline||9,656 km (6,000 mi)|
|Highest elevation||814 m (2,671 ft)|
|Highest point||The Cabox|
|Province||Newfoundland and Labrador|
|Largest city||St. John's (pop. 106,172)|
|Population||479,105 (as of 2006)|
|Density||4.30 /km2 (11.14 /sq mi)|
|Ethnic groups||English, Irish, some French, and Scottish|
Newfoundland Red Ensign
Civil ensign of the province and Dominion of Newfoundland (1907–1965)
Newfoundland (i//; French: Terre-Neuve), is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The province's official name was also "Newfoundland" until 2001, when its name was changed to "Newfoundland and Labrador" (the postal abbreviation was later changed from NF to NL).
The island of Newfoundland (originally called Terra Nova, from "New Land" in Latin) was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century, who called the new land "Vinland". The next European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. The island was visited by the Italian John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), working under contract to King Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage.
Cabot's landing has been treated by the British as the founding of the British Empire. On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I of England, thus officially establishing a fore-runner to the much later British Empire. Newfoundland is considered Britain's oldest colony. According to 2006 official Census Canada statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, and 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105.
The island of Newfoundland is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
With an area of 108,860 square kilometres (42,031 sq mi), Newfoundland is the world's 16th-largest island, and Canada's fourth-largest island. The provincial capital, St. John's, is located on the southeastern coast of the island; Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is arguably North America's easternmost point. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo and Bell Island to be 'part of Newfoundland' (as distinct from Labrador). By that classification, Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres (43,008 sq mi).
While there is archeological evidence of ancient indigenous peoples on the island, it was abandoned when the Norse arrived from Scandinavia. L'Anse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland (Cape Norman), which has been dated to be approximately 1000 years old. The site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse-Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted. The island is a likely location of Vinland, mentioned in the Viking Chronicles, although this has been disputed.
The indigenous people on the island at the time of European settlement were the Beothuk, who spoke an Amerindian language of the same name. Later immigrants developed a variety of dialects associated with settlement on the island: Newfoundland English, Newfoundland French. In the nineteenth century, it also had a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland Irish. Scottish Gaelic was also spoken on the island during the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing: in Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a' Trosg, or literally, "Island of the Cod". Similarly, the Irish Gaelic name Talamh an Éisc means "Land of the Fish".
- 1 First inhabitants
- 2 European contact, colonization, and settlement
- 3 Pre-confederation and current provincial anthem
- 4 Flags of Newfoundland
- 5 Points of interest and major settlements
- 6 Fauna and flora
- 7 Newfoundlanders
- 8 Representation in fiction
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The first inhabitants of Newfoundland were the Paleo-Eskimo, who have no known link to other groups in Newfoundland history. Little is known about them beyond archeological evidence of early settlements. Evidence of successive cultures have been found. The Late Paleo-Eskimo, or Dorset culture, settled there about 4,000 years ago. They were descendants of migrations of ancient prehistoric peoples across the High Arctic thousands of years ago, after crossing from Siberia via the Bering land bridge. The Dorset died off or abandoned the island prior to the arrival of the Norse.
No known evidence suggests that Norsemen, who settled Straumfjord at L'Anse aux Meadows in 1006, encountered any other group of people on the island of Newfoundland. The term skraelings for local people in the Icelandic Sagas likely referred to the indigenous Dorset in Labrador and Mi'kmaq in Nova Scotia. Any conflict with skraelings likely occurred in Nova Scotia, not Straumfjord in Newfoundland. The Norse referred to Labrador as Markland and Nova Scotia as Vinland. Straumfjord in Newfoundland was considered a way-point between these areas in North America and Norse settlements in Greenland. It connected their trade back to Iceland, Ireland, the British Isles, and Scandinavia.
After Norse settlement and abandonment of the island, the Beothuk settled Newfoundland, migrating from Labrador on the mainland. There is no evidence that the Beothuk inhabited the island prior to Norse settlement. It is theorised that the Beothuk are related closely to the Innu of Labrador. The tribe became extinct, although people of partial Beothuk descent have been documented. Beothuk means "people" in their language, part of the Algonquian language family.
The tribe is now extinct, with evidence of its culture preserved in museum, historical and archaeological records. Shanawdithit, the last known full-blood Beothuk (a woman), died in St. John's in 1829 of tuberculosis. Santu Toney (born around 1835) was a woman of Mi'kmaq and Beothuk descent. Her father was a Beothuk and mother a Mi'kmaq, both from Newfoundland. Santu died in 1919. The Beothuk may have intermingled and assimilated with Innu in Labrador and Mi'kmaq in Newfoundland. Oral histories also suggest potential historical competition and hostility between the Beothuk and Mi'kmaq.
When other Europeans arrived from 1497 and later, starting with John Cabot, they established contact with the Beothuk. Estimates of the number of Beothuk on the island at this time vary, ranging from 700 to 5,000.
Later both English people and French people settled the island, followed by the Mi'kmaq, an Algonquian -speaking indigenous people from eastern Canada and present-day Nova Scotia. As European and Mi'kmaq settlement became year-round and expanded to new areas of the coast, the area available to the Beothuk to harvest the marine resources they relied upon was diminished. By the beginning of the 19th century, few Beothuk remained. Most died due to infectious diseases carried by Europeans, to which they had no immunity, and starvation. Government attempts to engage with the Beothuk and aid them came too late. The Beothuk were exceptionally hostile to foreigners, unlike the Mi'kmaq, who readily traded with Europeans and got established in Newfoundland.
Conflict between Beothuk and other peoples were documented in three cases, with another probable event. The first confirmed conflict occurred between Beothuk traders and Portuguese explorers. The Beothuk had previously traded with other Europeans and likely thought the Portuguese were similar. This event likely had no effect on Beothuk and European relations by the 19th century. The Beothuk had no written language.
The Beothuk were known to have attacked an English settlement, and on another occasion, attacked an English fishing crew. There are no proven instances of English or French attacks on Beothuk. At times, the Mi'kmaq may have had hostile relations with the Beothuk, and at others peaceful relations. Through fur trade with the French, the Mi'kmaq had acquired guns and boats. Beothuk trade with Europeans was much less common, and they relied on traditional bows and arrows and other weapons in conflict.
European contact, colonization, and settlement
Newfoundland is the site of the only authenticated Norse (mostly Greenlandic Icelanders) settlement in North America. It was discovered by Norwegian explorer Dr. Helge Ingstad and his wife, archaeologist Dr. Anne Stine Ingstad, at L'Anse aux Meadows in 1960. The site of multi-year archaeological digs in the 1960s and 1970s, the settlement dating to more than 500 years before John Cabot, contains the earliest known European structures in North America. Designated as a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is believed to be the Vinland settlement of explorer Leif Eiriksson. (The Icelandic Skálholt Vinland Map of 1570 refers to the area as "Promontorium Winlandiæ" and correctly shows it on a 51°N parallel with Bristol, England). The Norse stayed for a relatively short period of time, believed to be between 999 and 1001 AD.
There is speculation about other early European travelers or "discoverers" of the island. The Irish Saint Brendan, who has been popularized in the Newfoundland song, "Saint Brendan's Voyage", was said to have reached Newfoundland. Welsh folklore recounts that the explorer and prince Madoc landed in America in 1170. No detail is given of his route or the lands that were attributed to his discovery. The Scots claim that the Earl of Orkney, Prince Henry Sinclair discovered the New World in the late 14th century. The Portuguese also lay claim to discovering the New World in 1431 when Prince Henry the Navigator discovered the Azores. The Paris Map c. 1490 depicts a group of three islands southwest of Iceland at roughly the same latitude as Ireland, Newfoundland and possibly some other, nearby islands (such as Cape Breton). These three islands are known as 'Islands of the Seven Cities.' Newfoundland has also been called 'The Isle of Brasile,' said to be discovered by seven bishops. Documents from the voyages made by Bristol merchants in 1480 speak of a trip in search of the Isle of Brasile, to no avail.
After the departure of the Norse, the island was inhabited by aboriginal populations for nearly 500 years. In 1497 the island was discovered by the Italian navigator John Cabot (Zuan/Giovanni Cabotto), working under commission of King Henry VII of England. His landing site is unknown but popularly believed to be Cape Bonavista, along the island's East coast., Another site claimed is Cape Bauld, at the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula. A document found in the Spanish National Archives written by a Bristol merchant reports that Cabot's crew landed 1,800 miles (2,900 km) west of Dursey Head, Ireland (latitude 51° 35'N) which would put Cabot within sight of Cape Bauld. This document mentions an island that Cabot sailed past to go ashore on the mainland. This description fits with the Cape Bauld theory, as Belle Isle is not far offshore.
After Cabot, the first European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage. Late in the 17th century came Irish fishermen, who named the island Talamh an Éisc, meaning "land of the fish", or "the fishing grounds" in Irish Gaelic. This reflected the abundance of fisheries.
In 1583, when Sir Humphrey Gilbert formally claimed Newfoundland as a colony of England, he found numerous English, French and Portuguese vessels at St. John's. There was no permanent population. Gilbert was lost at sea during his return voyage, and plans of settlement were postponed.
On July 5, 1610, John Guy set sail from Bristol, England with 39 other colonists for Cuper's Cove. This, and other early attempts at permanent settlement failed to make a profit for the English investors, but some settlers remained, forming the very earliest modern European population on the island. By 1620, the fishermen of England's West Country dominated the east coast of Newfoundland. French fishermen dominated the island's south coast and Northern Peninsula.
After 1713, with the Treaty of Utrecht, the French ceded control of south and north shores of the island to the British. They kept only the nearby islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, located in the fish-rich Grand Banks off the south coast. Despite some early settlements by the English, the Crown discouraged permanent, year-round settlement of Newfoundland by migratory fishery workers. Thomas Nash was an Irish Catholic fisherman who permanently settled in Newfoundland despite English rule. He established the fishing town of Branch. He and his cousin Father Patrick Power of Callan, County Kilkenny, spread Catholicism in Newfoundland. This settlement attracted a major migration of Irish Catholic immigrants to Newfoundland.
By the late 18th century, permanent settlement increased, peaking in the early years of the 19th century.
The French name for the island is Terre Neuve. The name "Newfoundland"' is one of the oldest European place names in Canada in continuous geographical and cartographical use, dating from a 1502 letter. It was stated in the following 1628 poem:
A Skeltonicall continued ryme, in praise of my New-found-Land
- Although in cloaths, company, buildings faire
- With England, New-found-land cannot compare:
- Did some know what contentment I found there,
- Alwayes enough, most times somewhat to spare,
- With little paines, lesse toyle, and lesser care,
- Exempt from taxings, ill newes, Lawing, feare,
- If cleane, and warme, no matter what you weare,
- Healthy, and wealthy, if men careful are,
- With much-much more, then I will now declare,
- (I say) if some wise men knew what this were
- (I doe beleeue) they'd live no other where.
- From 'The First Booke of Qvodlibets'
- Composed and done at Harbor-Grace in
- Britaniola, anciently called Newfound-Land
- by Governor Robert Hayman – 1628.
The European immigrants, mostly English, Scots, Irish and French, built a society in the New World unlike the ones they had left, and different from the ones other immigrants would build on the North American mainland. As a fish-exporting society, Newfoundland was in contact with many places around the Atlantic rim. But its geographic location and political distinctiveness isolated it from its closest neighbours, Canada and the United States. Internally, most of its population was spread widely around a rugged coastline in small outport settlements. Many were distant from larger centres of population and isolated for long periods by winter ice or bad weather. These conditions had an effect on the cultures of the immigrants. They generated new ways of thinking and acting. Newfoundland and Labrador developed a wide variety of distinctive customs, beliefs, stories, songs, and dialects.
The First World War had a powerful and lasting effect on the society. From a population of about a quarter of a million, 5,482 men went overseas. Nearly 1,500 were killed and 2,300 wounded. On July 1, 1916, at Beaumont-Hamel, France, 753 men of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment went over the top of a trench. The next morning, only 68 men answered the roll-call. Newfoundland lost about one-quarter of its young men in WWI, which had lasting effects on that generation and the next. Even now, when the rest of Canada celebrates the founding of the country on July 1, many Newfoundlanders take part in solemn ceremonies of remembrance.
World War II also had a lasting effect on Newfoundland. In particular, the United States assigned forces to the military bases at Argentia, Gander, Stephenville, Goose Bay and St. John's.
Newfoundland and Labrador is the youngest province in Canada. Newfoundland was organized as a colony in 1825, was self-governing from 1855–1934, and held dominion status from 1907–1949 (see Dominion of Newfoundland). In late 1948, the population of the two colonies voted 52.3% to 47.7% in favour of joining Canada as provinces. Opposition was concentrated among residents of the capital St. John's, and on the Avalon Peninsula. Newfoundland joined Canada on March 31, 1949. Union with Canada has done little to reduce Newfoundlanders' self-image as a unique group. In 2003, 72% of residents responding identified first as Newfoundlanders, secondarily as Canadians. Separatist sentiment is low, though, less than 12% in the same 2003 study.
The referendum campaign was bitterly fought and interests in both Canada and Britain favoured and supported confederation with Canada. Jack Pickersgill, a western Canadian native and politician worked with the confederation camp during the campaign. The Catholic Church, while a minority, lobbied for continued independence. Canada offered financial incentives, including a "baby bonus" for each child in a family. The Confederates were led by the charismatic Joseph Smallwood, a former radio broadcaster, who had developed socialist political inclinations while working for a socialist newspaper in New York City. His policies as premier were closer to liberalism than socialism.
Following confederation, Smallwood led Newfoundland for decades as the elected premier. He was said to have a "cult of personality" amongst his many supporters. Some residents featured photographs of "Joey" in their living rooms in a place of prominence.
Pre-confederation and current provincial anthem
The pre-confederation and current provincial anthem is the "Ode to Newfoundland", written by British colonial governor Sir Charles Cavendish Boyle in 1902 during his administration of Newfoundland (1901 to 1904). It was adopted as the official Newfoundland anthem on May 20, 1904. In 1980, the province re-adopted the song as an official provincial anthem, making this the only province in Canada to officially adopt an anthem. "The Ode to Newfoundland" is still sung at public events in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Flags of Newfoundland
The first flag to specifically represent Newfoundland is thought to have been an image of a green fir tree on a pink background that was in use in the early 19th century. The first official flag identifying Newfoundland, flown by vessels in service of the colonial government, was the Newfoundland Blue Ensign, adopted in 1870 and used until 1904, when it was modified slightly. In 1904, the crown of the Blue Ensign was replaced with the Great Seal of Newfoundland (having been given royal approval in 1827) and the British Parliament designated Newfoundland Red and Blue ensigns as official flags specifically for Newfoundland. The Red and Blue ensigns with the Great Seal of Newfoundland in the fly were used officially from 1904 until 1965, with the Red Ensign being flown as civil ensign by merchant shipping, and the Blue being flown by governmental ships (after the British tradition of having different flags for merchant/naval and government vessel identification).
On September 26, 1907, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom declared the Colony of Newfoundland, as an independent Dominion within the British Empire, and from that point until 1965, the Newfoundland Red Ensign was used as the civil ensign of the Dominion of Newfoundland with the Blue Ensign, again, reserved for government shipping identification. In 1931 the Newfoundland National Assembly adopted the Union Jack as the official national flag, with the Red and Blue Ensigns retained as ensigns for shipping identification.
On March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became a province of Canada but retained the Union Jack in legislature, still designating it as the "national" flag. This was later reaffirmed by the Revised Statutes Act of 1952, and the Union Jack remained the official flag of Newfoundland until 1980, when it was replaced by the current provincial flag. (See Province of Newfoundland and Labrador for continued discussion of provincial flags.)
Points of interest and major settlements
Newfoundland has the most Dorset culture archeological sites. As one of the first places in the New World where Europeans settled, Newfoundland has a rich history of European colonization. St. John's is considered to be the oldest city in Canada and the oldest continuously settled location in English-speaking North America. The St. John's census metropolitan area also includes 12 suburban communities, the largest of which are the city of Mount Pearl and the towns of Conception Bay South and Paradise. The province's third-largest city is Corner Brook, which is situated on the Bay of Islands on the west coast of the island. This was recorded as a discovery by Captain James Cook.
The island of Newfoundland has numerous provincial parks such as Barachois Pond Provincial Park, considered to be a model forest, as well as two national parks.
- Gros Morne National Park is located on the west coast and was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987 due to its complex geology and remarkable scenery. It is the largest national park in Atlantic Canada at 1,805 km2 (697 sq mi) and popular tourist destination.
- Terra Nova National Park, on the island's east side, preserves the rugged geography of the Bonavista Bay region. It allows visitors to explore the historic interplay of land, sea and man.
- L'Anse aux Meadows is an archaeological site located near the northernmost tip of the island (Cape Norman). It is the only known site of a Norse village in North America outside of Greenland, and is designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. It is the only widely accepted site of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It has associations with the attempted colony of Vinland established by Leif Ericson around 1003.
The island has many eco-tourism opportunities, ranging from sea kayaking, camping, fishing and hunting, to hiking. The International Appalachian Trail (IAT) is being extended along the island's mountainous west coast. On the east coast, the East Coast Trail extends through the Avalon Peninsula for 220 km (140 mi), beginning near Fort Amherst in St. John's and ending in Cappahayden, with an additional 320 km (200 mi) of trail under construction.
The Marble Mountain Ski Resort near Corner Brook is a major attraction in the winter for skiers in eastern Canada.
Other major communities include the following towns:
- Gander, home to the Gander International Airport.
- Grand Falls-Windsor, a service centre for the central part of the island.
- Channel – Port aux Basques, the "Gateway to Newfoundland", as it is the closest point on the island to the province of Nova Scotia, as well as the location of the Marine Atlantic ferry terminal connecting the island to the rest of Canada.
- Stephenville, former location of the Ernest Harmon Air Force Base and currently the Stephenville Airport.
Educational institutions include the provincial university, Memorial University of Newfoundland whose main campus is situated in St. John's, along with the Grenfell Campus in Corner Brook, in addition to the College of the North Atlantic based in Stephenville and other communities.
Bonavista, Placentia and Ferryland are all historic locations for various early European settlement or discovery activities. Tilting Harbour on Fogo Island is a Provincial Heritage District, as well as a National Cultural Landscape District of Canada. This is one of only two national historic sites in Canada so recognized for their Irish heritage.
Entertainment opportunities abound in the island's three cities and numerous towns, particularly during summer festivals. For nightlife, George Street, located in downtown St. John's, is closed to traffic 20 hours per day, and is widely understood to have the most pubs per square foot of any street in North America. The Mile One Stadium in St. John's is the venue for large sporting and concert events in the province.
In March, the annual seal hunt (of the harp seal) takes place.
Largest Municipalities (2006 population)
- St. John's (100,646)
- Mount Pearl (24,671)
- Conception Bay South (21,966)
- Corner Brook (20,083)
- Grand Falls-Windsor (13,558)
- Paradise (12,584)
- Gander (9,951)
- Stephenville (6,588)
- Portugal Cove – St. Philip's (6,575)
- Torbay (6,281)
- Marystown (5,436)
- Bay Roberts (5,414)
- Clarenville (5,274)
Fauna and flora
Representation in fiction
Newfoundland has been the setting for numerous modern novels:
- Michael Crummey, Galore, 2011
- Kenneth J. Harvey, Blackstrap Hawco, 2008
- Bernice Morgan, Random Passage, 1992
- Bernice Morgan, Waiting for Time, 1995
- Bernice Morgan, The Topography of Love, 2000
- Peter Neary, and Patrick O'Flaherty, eds. By Great Waters: A Newfoundland and Labrador Anthology (1974)
- E. Annie Proulx, The Shipping News, 1993, adapted as a film of the same name, released in 2001.
- Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador
- Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador
- Category:Newfoundland and Labrador
- "2006 Statistics Canada National Census". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009.
- "Atlas of Canada – Rivers". Natural Resources Canada. October 26, 2004. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- GILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005
- "The British Empire: The Map Room". Retrieved June 21, 2010.
- "2006 Statistics Canada National Census: Newfoundland and Labrador". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009.
- "Atlas of Canada, Islands". Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- "NL Government website: Areas". Retrieved August 26, 2007.
- Bennett, Margaret (1989). The Last Stronghold: Scottish Gaelic Traditions of Newfoundland, Cannongate, 11 May 1989
- Dwelly, Edward (1920). Illustrated Gaelic - English Dictionary, September 2001.
- Kevin Major (August 2002). As Near to Heaven by Sea: A History of Newfoundland and Labrador. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-027864-8.
- Intangible Cultural Heritage | Branch. Mun.ca (2011-06-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Jerry Bannister (2003). The Rule of the Admirals: Law, Custom and Naval Government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. University of Toronto Press. p. 235. ISBN 9780802086136.
- Ninette Kelley; M. Trebilcock (2010). The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. University of Toronto Press. p. 40. ISBN 9781442690813.
- Baker, Melvin (1987). "The Tenth Province: Newfoundland joins Canada, 1949". Horizon 10 (11): 2641–67. Retrieved April 25, 2007.
- Ryan Research and Communications (April 2003). "Provincial Opinion Survey" (PDF). Government of Newfoundland and Labrador's Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada. Retrieved April 25, 2007.
- "THE PROVINCES Chap XIX: Newfoundland". Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "God Guard Thee, Newfoundland". September 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Historic Flags of Newfoundland (Canada)". October 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Sean T. Cadigan. Newfoundland and Labrador: A History (2009) search and text excerpt
- Peter Neary. 1996. Newfoundland in the North Atlantic World, 1929–1949. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, Quebec.
- Henry K. Gibbons. 1997. The Myth and Mystery of John Cabot: The Discoverer of North America, Marten Cat Publishers, Port Aux Basques, Newfoundland.
- Michael Harris. 1992. Rare Ambition: The Crosbies of Newfoundland. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023220-6
- Kevin Major, As Near To Heaven by Sea, (Toronto, 2001)
- John Gimlette, Theatre of Fish, (Hutchinson, London, 2005). ISBN 0-09-179519-2
- Wayne Johnston. 1999. The Colony Of Unrequited Dreams, Vintage Canada, Toronto, Ontario. ISBN 978-0-676-97215-3 (0-676-97215-2)
- Barnes, Capt. William Morris. When Ships Were Ships (And Not Tin Pots), 1931. Available in digital format at Memorial University site.
- Birkenhead, Lord. The Story of Newfoundland (2nd ed., 1920) 192pp edition
- Hatton, Joseph and Moses Harvey, Newfoundland: Its History and Present Condition, (London, 1883) complete text online* MacKay, R. A. Newfoundland: Economic, Diplomatic, and Strategic Studies, (1946) online edition
- Millais, John Guille. The Newfoundland Guide Book, 1911: Including Labrador and St. Pierre (1911)? online edition; also reprinted 2009
- Moyles, Robert Gordon, ed. "Complaints is Many and Various, But the Odd Divil Likes It": Nineteenth Century Views of Newfoundland (1975).
- Pedley, Charles.History of Newfoundland, (London, 1863) complete text online
- Prowse, D. W. , A History of Newfoundland (1895), current edition 2002, Portugal Cove, Newfoundland: Boulder Publications. complete text online
- Tocque, Philip. Newfoundland as It Was and Is, (London, 1878) complete text online
|Look up newfoundland in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newfoundland.|
- The British Empire: The Map Room
- Newfoundland.ws – a Newfoundland and Labrador Directory of NL Websites
- Government of Newfoundland and Labrador.
- Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage (Memorial University of Newfoundland
- Newfoundland Nature Project
- Newfoundland's Student Portal
- Newfoundland and Labrador Tourism
- Newfoundland and Labrador Provincial Archives
- Terra Nova National Park
- Newfoundland History (Marianopolis College)
- Religion, Society, and Culture in Newfoundland and Labrador
- Places to visit and things to do in Newfoundland