|Founded||July 6, 1995|
|Headquarters||Glenside, Pennsylvania, U.S.|
|Key people||Tom Fulp: Founder & CEO
Wade Fulp: Administrator & Public Relations
Rob Rosenbaum & James Holloway: Programmers
Tim Miller: Sysadmin
Jeff Bandelin: Artist and Animator
Bob Rudderow: HTML + CSS Designer
|Slogan(s)||"Everything, By Everyone."|
|Type of site||SWF hosting service|
|Registration||Optional (however, many features are disabled without registration)|
Newgrounds is an American entertainment and social media website and company. Founded on July 6, 1995 by Tom Fulp, the site primarily hosts Adobe Flash animations and games, but also features a music-oriented page, along with an art portal. Tom Fulp remains the site's owner and still regularly produces in-house content. Its offices are headquartered in Glenside, Pennsylvania.
The home page of Newgrounds displays recent submissions chosen by administrators as a special showcase of their favorites. On April 21, 2003 the first front page icon for a user-submitted Flash game was posted under the heading "Tom and Wade Recommend." The game that was posted was Taipan 3000 by Josh "Psycho Goldfish" Tuttle, a remake of a popular Apple II game called Taipan!.
As Newgrounds received more quality submissions the "Tom and Wade Recommend" section grew from 1 to 2, 2 to 4, and 4 to 6 icons. As of 2009, there are 36 icons on the home page; 12 for Flash animations, 12 for games, 4 for music and 8 for art. The rate at which this page was updated also increased, from weeks to days, eventually leading to the removal of the "Tom and Wade recommend" heading and becoming a staple of the Front Page, making it easy for new users to the site to find quality content.
Originally the icons were created by moderators, as were the long Flash descriptions (the same process used for the collections pages), but this proved to be an extremely time-consuming, tedious task. Currently users are given the ability to attach their own icons with their submissions, and write their own brief descriptions.
On January 12, 2004 the home page archive was launched, keeping a month-by-month list of Flash content that was deemed to be worthy of display on the Newgrounds homepage. This includes either those who performed well in the daily awards, or simply those the admin deemed worthy.
On June 27, 2006, the Icon Helpers system was launched for Newgrounds volunteers to make and submit icons for newer flash content that was lacking an icon, making the integration to automated collections pages much more effective.
On a few occasions, while maintenance has been performed on the site, the home page has been replaced by an "under construction" page showing the Newgrounds tank picture being welded by a programming crew. The image is accompanied by a message describing the work done, such as that displayed during the major update that occurred in July 2007, July 2009, 21 October 2009, June 2010, November/December 2010 and the crash of October 2011: "IN UR TANK, UPGRADING UR SERVERZ :3". The October 2011 crash was caused by the Homestuck End of Act 5 Flash, hosted on Newgrounds.
On January 17, 2012 Newgrounds joined in the SOPA Protest, by blocking the front page of the website showing info about and how it would affect Newgrounds, the block lasted for 12 hours afterwards service was resumed.
On February 6, 2012 Newgrounds was shut down while the long-awaited redesign was being implemented. A selection of Newgrounds movies, including some made specifically for the downtime, and a chat feature were available for people to use while the redesign took place. On February 7, 2012 at 7:20PM (Eastern Standard Time), the site launched as confirmed by a tweet. After roughly 8 minutes, the site completely crashed and returned to the maintenance page which featured a selection of Newgrounds movies and a chat feature. However, the site soon re-launched and has been working since then. The chat feature has since been taken down citing security risks.
The Flash portal is utilized by Newgrounds members to submit Flash content. Registered users can submit new Flash games or animations and can vote between 0 and 5 on existing submissions. They can leave textual reviews as well, to which the author can reply. If the submission has been uploaded recently, the user can choose to "Blam" the submission (a vote from 0 - 1) or "Protect" the submission (a vote from 2 - 5). Submissions will be deleted if they receive the following scores or less after a certain amount of votes:
- 50 votes: 1.0
- 100 votes: 1.5
- 150 votes: 1.75
Voting on submissions regularly and depositing experience (10 points earned for voting on 5 submissions in a day) increases the voting power a user carries. For example, a level 35 user's vote is worth 7.65 votes. This power is further increased by successfully voting on submissions during the judgment period. Protecting a submission that passes judgment earns protection points, whilst blamming a submission that gets blammed earns blam points.
Uploaded files must conform to certain requirements:
- The file must have the extension .swf.
- The file may not exceed the given capacity of 20 MB (Megabytes) except by prior agreement with the Administrators - a size that used to be far smaller but has been increasing in line with increasing bandwidth and tolerance for download times.
- Basic quality guidelines are in place - disallowing 'pictures in a slide show format with no interactivity', 'movies or games made from public .FLA files', 'photographs that are illegal' and so on. If these are not met, the submission will be 'whistled' by users.
Finally, when the submission is uploaded it receives its own page on Newgrounds and undergoes 'judgment'.
To aid the production of Flash to be submitted, Newgrounds has a variety of preloaders (loading screens that appear at the beginning of a flash game or video) that can be downloaded and integrated into their Flashes.
On May 27, 2009, the Flash Portal underwent a large redesign, switching to a wide layout. Users that disliked the new layout have been given the option to change it via their account preferences.
Authors self-rate submissions for each of these categories: Profanity, Nudity, Violence, Audio, Text and Adult themes (None, Mild, Excessive and sometimes Explicit depending if it is text or not). The ratings are:
- E (Everyone) = This Flash is suitable for viewers of all ages (aged 10+).
- T (Teens) = This Flash is suitable for viewers aged 13+. Mild Audio, Mild Text, Mild Violence,etc.
- M (Mature) = This Flash is suitable for viewers aged 17+. Explicit Audio, Explicit Text, Intense Violence, Some Drug use, Mild Nudity/Sex,etc.
- A (Adult) = This Flash is suitable for adults only, absolutely NOT for children (viewers aged 18+). Explicit Audio, Explicit Text, Excessive Violence, Excessive Drug Use, Graphic Nudity/Sex,etc.games
The ratings are only intended as a guide; there is no system in place to prevent people from viewing submissions of any specific rating. The system enables the submitter to record a credit for all the audio used in the submission and links directly to any audio taken from the Newgrounds Audio Portal. However, the ratings may be slightly similar to the ESRB ratings.
When a Flash movie or game is submitted to the Flash Portal, it has the chance to win any of the following awards.
- Daily awards:
- Daily Feature/2nd/3rd/4th/5th: The five submissions submitted during a day that have the highest rating at the day's end are given awards and showcased on the front page.
- Weekly awards:
- Weekly Feature/2nd/3rd/4th/5th: The five submissions submitted during a week (Wednesday to Tuesday) that have the highest rating at the week's end are given awards and showcased on the front page.
- Review Crew Pick: This award is given to the submission with the best score in reviews, but requires a large number of reviews to qualify.
- Underdog of the Week: This award is given to the submission with the biggest discrepancy between the review score and the popular vote. The flash submission must also have at least 30 reviews in order to win. This usually reflects a submission considered poor by most but with a cult following.
- Monthly awards:
- King of The Portal: This award is given to the user with the most portal awards during the previous month. Only the Daily Feature, 2nd, and 3rd Place awards count towards becoming KOTP, with each award being worth 3, 2, and 1 point respectively. Whichever user that accumulates the most points during the month will be awarded KOTP.
- Best of the Month: As of February 2005, the 2000 active highest-ranked (based on experience points) Newgrounds users, as well as moderators and nominees, have been able to vote for the best five submissions of the month (later updated to five movies and five games). Any submission that wins at least one of the first five awards above or is selected to appear on the front page within the month is eligible. Each of the ten winners is sent a check of $250, a certificate, store credit in the Newgrounds store, stickers and often another prize that changes from month to month and is often supplied by sponsors. In the case that a prize is won by a Newgrounds-exclusive submission made by NG staff, the prize is passed onto the next ranked down. As of March 2009, the $250 prize has stopped in favour of revenue sharing, although in June 2010, they reintroduced a single $250 prize for the best original movie of the month.
- Yearly awards (Newgrounds Tank Awards), since 2007, decided on from all the submissions in a given year by a panel of judges. Nominations consist of the top monthly winners, winners of themed contests and staff inclusions. Winners receive a heavy bronze statue featuring the Newgrounds tank logo.
|Complete list of Newgrounds Tank Awards winners|
|2007||Movie of the Year: Waterlollies|
|Game of the Year: NG Rumble|
|User of the Year: Luis Castañón|
|Musician of the Year: Selcuk Bor|
|2008||Movie of the Year: Chuck's New Tux!|
|Game of the Year: Fancy Pants Adventures: World 2|
|User of the Year: Renae Pille|
|Musician of the Year: Christian M. Krogsvold|
|2009||Movie of the Year: Tarboy|
|Game of the Year: Level Up!|
|User of the Year: Joshua Tomar|
|Musician of the Year: Hania Lee|
|2010||Movie of the Year: The Pigpen|
|Game of the Year: Depict 1|
|User of the Year: Bahamut|
|Musician of the Year: Matt Cavender|
|2011||Movie of the Year: Ça Ça Mirlaquerr|
|Game of the Year: William and Sly 2|
|User of the Year: Mick Lauer|
|Musician of the Year: Jonathan Gjertsen|
|2012||Movie of the Year: Lucky Day Forever|
|Game of the Year: Abobo's Big Adventure|
|User of the Year: Deathink|
|Musician of the Year: Kor-Rune|
Beginning in 2011, the NewGrounds Annual Tournament of Animation (NATA) began as a 4-6 month long animation competition on NewGrounds. As an offshoot by the same creator of the Tournament of Flash Artists, it is currently sponsored by both Adobe and Tom Fulp. NATA 2012 concluded in early October and the prizes totaled at $2,500 in cash rewards, as well as the Adobe Design software to the Champion. The competition pits animators against each other through scored Rounds where the animators have a certain amount of time to complete their entry. Entries are scored by a panel of judges in Five categories: Artwork (4 Points), Animation (4 Points), Originality (4 Points), Structure (4 Points), and Entertainment (4 Points). Points from each judge tally up to a total of 20 possible points. With five judges, the total points possible for an entry is 100 Points.
|This article is outdated. (June 2013)|
The Audio Portal is a place where artists can submit all types of music. When an artist submits their first song an administrator or audio moderator will have to review it before it gets listed. All the music is free to use (under a BY-NC-SA 3.0 Creative Commons license).
Uploaded files must conform to certain requirements:
- The file must have the extension .mp3.
- The file may not exceed the given capacity of 22 MB.
- The file must be sampled at 44.1 kHz.
Since the 2007 redesign, the Audio Portal has become more flexible and allows artists to edit their submissions or remove them providing they haven't been used in a submission to the Flash Portal or haven't been listened to more than 3000 times. Icons can also be added to audio submissions. Unlike the Flash Portal, audio submissions do not face Judgment from Users but instead appear directly on the Audio Portal Main Page.
The main purpose of the Audio Portal was to prevent users from breaking copyright laws; users were using copyrighted songs in their submissions, thus breaking the law and running the risk of being sued. Therefore, the Audio Portal was introduced so that users could submit their own original work. Animators looking for music could pick a song from a list of many different genres ranging from drum and bass to jazz, therefore all users had a good chance to get the kind of music they were looking for without breaking copyright laws.
However, over the years the Audio Portal grew from simply being a resource for the flash portal to draw music and loops from to a full blown portal with a life on its own - with notable users using it as a nursing grounds to increase their talents and then set off in the world under major record labels. Kingbastard and [API] are two examples of this.
Over time however an issue of "Zero-Voting" or "Zero-Bombing" began to occur. Users would "zero vote" other members in order for their own songs to rise to the top. This issue was magnified with the arrival of the 2007 redesign, which allowed users to vote every day in the art portal on submissions, whilst before the redesign they could only vote once on a submission ever. This also had the unexpected backlash of users fiving up their own submissions, which resulted in a neverending loop of users needing to five their own songs to counteract the massive amount of zeros that were being dished out to their submissions by others. This led to an extreme depression across the audio portal, with many high-ranking musicians leaving the portal in disgust, claiming only to return when the "system was fixed".
Currently many users await the much anticipated 2011 site redesign to see if these problems do indeed get resolved.
The Audio portal was shut down three separate times early in its lifetime, and is now a permanent feature. Wade Fulp has stated that this experience had a negative impact on many audio contributing users. This incident is cited as one of the reasons Ross was hired. Audiences can rate songs from the audio portal and send them to other users, too.
When submitting a piece of music, the user can choose out of a list of predefined genres in order to better classify his song and make it easier for other people to sort through a list and find what they are looking for. The most popular genres are those which are basically electronic music, such as Techno, Trance and Dance. When browsing through the Audio Portal, a person can choose to sort the list of Audio by genre in order to facilitate the search.
|Complete list of Genres|
|Drum N Bass||Dubstep|
|Heavy Metal||Hip Hop - Modern|
|Hip Hop - Olskool||House|
|Video Game||Voice Acting|
In the Newgrounds Audio Portal there are also occasional contests in which money and shirts can be won. Some user-created music from the Audio Portal was used in The Behemoth's console video games Alien Hominid and Castle Crashers.
Recently, The Monthly Audio Contest (MAC) was reinstated. These monthly contests have historically been run by notable members of the audio portal community and are considered to play an important role in fostering and strengthening the collective spirit of the audio portal community. The MACs are run collectively by the Audio Portal's moderators.
Another competition worth mentioning on the Newgrounds Audio Portal is the Newgrounds Audio Death Match (or NGADM). In the form of a knock-out based competition, an unlimited number of people can join for the auditions, which last for approximately a month, after which 64 finalists (32 until 2013) are chosen from these auditioneers. These finalists then have to pass through a series of 6 rounds, where they get paired up with random opponents, and compete with a completely new song per round to see who can do better in the eye of the six judges. With this system, the finalists get narrowed down to 2 for the final round. Winners get a forum signature custom-made for the competition, Newgrounds store credit as well as a frontpage (See Achievements). The NGADM is annual, supported by Tom Fulp and is in its fifth year now. It is currently administrated by two Newgrounds users named Step and Echo. Below are the winners of the NGADM for the past five years:
When submitting to the portal, there are 3 achievements a user can strive for. One is the weekly top 5 - which is determined by highest score combined with amount of votes, taken between the hours of 12:00 and 12:05 AM Wednesday morning. Only songs submitted that week may qualify for this. The second achievement is the weekly top 30, which is determined the same way as the weekly top 5, but applies to all songs submitted ever. The third Achievement is to be featured on the frontpage of newgrounds. This is decided by the mods who shows up here, not by the user.
Unfortunately this system has led to what people coin the "Tuesday night zero voting spree" in which a flurry of zero voting occurs across the board in order to raise chances of one's own song entering the top 5 or the top 30. However it does have the benefit of keeping scores on newgrounds in the audio portal around the 4.40 range, much like fires in a forest help maintain growth and renewal.
Being on either of these three achievements, or all 3, results in exponential amounts of views, votes downloads, and reviews of a song. Much more than one would have if they were simply on the audio portal genre charts. However being on these charts tends to expose your songs to more "realistic" voters, and most song's scores end up suffering as a result, with their song only being on the top 30 or top 5 once or twice in its lifetime.
Unfortunately with the introduction of the top 30 rankings on the individual genre charts means significantly less to users these days, with songs having a score of 5 generally being wiped off the top of the list by older users who see these users as simply attempting to raise their scores to the top. The charts fluctuate an extreme amount and placement on the charts no longer indicates any measure of quality in a song, as it did post 2007 redesign.
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (September 2014)|
The admins of Newgrounds maintain a group of collections of submissions. General groups such as Games or Toons are subdivided into types or years. The collections help viewers of Newgrounds navigate the website easier and find what they are looking for. For example, the Clock Crew collection contains Flash videos pertaining to the Clock Crew, a specific group on Newgrounds. Series collections are also allotted to popular serial Flash, such as Neurotically Yours, Salad Fingers, and Eddsworld. The admins create the collections and decide which submissions go into the collection, but viewers can vote on which collections they think a given submission should be put into, which may influence this decision.
Newgrounds has made recent moves to move to a user run Genre system for organizing flash, though this system is still in a data-collection phase.[clarification needed]
Newgrounds Forum (BBS)
The Newgrounds Forum has a community with many unique postings a day. Its community discusses various topics in 16 forum categories ranging from site related Flash submissions to personal and off-topic discussion. The most popular section on the forum is "General" discussion which, as of September 4, 2013, houses more than 704,000 topics. The entire BBS currently contains more than 1,105,842 topics. In the Flash or Art forum there is a far more serious and moderated discussion as the staff strongly encourage a creative community. The most registered users to ever be on the BBS at the same time was 774 (July 17, 2007, at 5:23 PM).
Newgrounds also has a fluctuating number of forum mods.
The forums are often used to run competitions and community projects. Competitions are generally held for Audio, Art, Music, and Writing on monthly basis by an assortment of administrators, moderators, and regular users. Prizes are funded by Newgrounds and have generally been cash, store credit or hardware. In a more unofficial capacity, the NG News forums have been annually used to give away Wacom Tablets to artists who could not afford them otherwise, but have contributed promising art over the last year. These prizes have enabled or motivated many artists to contribute to the world of Flash movies, collaborate, and release hard editions of their product in online stores.
Initially, Newgrounds sold stickers and other merchandise through a watered down version of today's store and cafepress. In 2007, Newgrounds started a basic store that was hosted completely on site, selling shirts and stickers of different Newgrounds series such as Pico and Tankmen. On August 19, 2008, Newgrounds launched its official store, selling more products than ever, including those made by other Newgrounds artists. Items for sale included many T-shirts representing or displaying popular and successful artists or their work upon them as well as keychains, stickers, discs, toys, comics, posters, patches and DVDs depicting popular Flash series. The store only accepts credit cards. The Newgrounds community banded together to create works like a yearly calendar and writing anthologies. The Newgrounds store exited the physical goods market on March 5, 2014, after members of the staff resigned to work on other projects.
Since the Newgrounds API was released and users were allowed to split their earnings between authors, users have been donating a portion of their earnings to charities by creating and sharing accounts which resemble the names of the charities for donating. This began in 2009, when a user, ForNoReason, took it upon himself to organize flash artists.
- Breast Cancer Awareness supports awareness and research for the cure of breast cancer.
In the media
- Teletubbies: In 1998, Tom Fulp of Newgrounds created a spoof of Teletubbies called Teletubby Fun Land which resulted in a lawsuit from the BBC. This resulted in a boost of notoriety and media exposure, and the game was renamed Telebubby Fun Land.
- Kaboom: The Suicide Bombing Game: In mid-2002, Newgrounds received notoriety for hosting Kaboom!, a game in which the player controls an apparent Palestinian suicide bomber who kills men, women and children in Israel. Despite receiving criticism and calls for its removal from the internet by congresswoman Nita Lowey, the Jewish Anti-Defamation League, and other groups, Newgrounds continued to host the game.
- Oklahoma City Escapades: Newgrounds received more negative attention in 2004 by refusing to remove Oklahoma City Escapades from its site, which is a game that was developed by Joshua Bend, that spoofs the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. It was eventually removed when Bend deleted his account.
- Jeff Weise: Jeff Weise, infamous for the Red Lake High School massacre, posted a violent animation on Newgrounds.com. Its existence was discovered and reported after the massacre.
- Adam Fulton (Livecorpse): Adam Fulton was an animator with 100 submissions who committed suicide after a surreal series of events leading to a three-day manhunt for his arrest. These events were described in a two-part suicide e-mail, which were released to the mass media and can be found on a front-page post made by Tom Fulp on Newgrounds.
- Numa Numa Dance: Gary Brolsma first published his "Numa Numa Dance" on Newgrounds on December 6, 2004, where it has since been viewed more than 15 million times, and copied onto hundreds of other websites and blogs. He has also received mainstream media coverage from Good Morning America, The Tonight Show and Best Week Ever, and, according to The New York Times, was an "unwilling and embarrassed Web celebrity." On September 8, 2006, he reappeared with a professionally produced video titled "New Numa". The release of the video has prompted the New Numa Contest which offers up to $45,000 in prizes. On November 14, 2007, he posted yet another Numa video on YouTube, entitled Numa Three: Crazy Loop!, this time using a song that did not have the word "Numa" in it and in English.
- Attack of the Show! From July 5–8, 2005, Tom Fulp was a co-host on Attack of the Show!; he would showcase and describe popular Newgrounds Flash submissions.
- The Virginia Tech Massacre media blowout: V-Tech rampage, Virginia Tech Shootout!, and others achieved fame from allegations of making fun of the Virginia Tech massacre.
- The Torture Game 2: Newgrounds currently hosts a game in which a player tortures a lifeless rag doll-like human. The game sparked controversy, receiving short airtime on Fox News.
- Wallace and Gromit: To promote the Wallace and Gromit short A Matter of Loaf and Death, Aardman Animations submitted a Wallace and Gromit mini-game on the site.
- Sirtom93 Arrest: Sirtom93, an active user on the Newgrounds BBS posted a thread on Newgrounds, on March 17, 2009, describing how he would burn down his school with gasoline and was caught and arrested after Administrators and users collected his personal information and forwarded it to the local police. The newspaper in Sirtom's area did not mention Newgrounds by name.
- Time: Time's website ranked Newgrounds as one of the Top 50 Websites of 2010.
- The Room game: In September 2010, Newgrounds owner Tom Fulp released a flash game tribute to the movie, The Room, and became popular and part of multiple press.
- Videogames: The videogames released so far from The Behemoth have credited Newgrounds. Newgrounds is also credited in Team Meat's Super Meat Boy which, like Alien Hominid, was originally a flash game on Newgrounds, and various Newgrounds characters make cameos.
Newgrounds hosts and participates in many events throughout the year to give users a chance to meet each other or to interact in general. Some events are organized by regulars but usually by forum moderators and site administrators.
- "newgrounds.com traffic ranking". Alexa Internet. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- "Cheltenham Township Business Directory". January 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- "Newgrounds News Post"
- Fulp, Tom (2009-05-26). "Wide Layout". Retrieved 2009-05-28.
- Fulp, Tom (2008-05-30). "1st Annual Tank Awards winners". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
- "2nd Annual Tank Awards winners". Newgrounds. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
- Recording of Live Broadcast
- 2010 Awards
- 2011 Awards
- NATA 2012 on NewGrounds
- About - NATA Official Site
- Fulp, Tom (2007-09-28). "User Reviews, Audio Tools, Rankings". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Fulp, Tom (2003-02-13). "NG Audio! Go! Go!". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
- "NG BBS". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- "Newgrounds Charity Project". Newgrounds. 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- "Yellow Ribbon Fund". Newgrounds. 2009-08-12. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- "Breast Cancer Awareness". Newgrounds. 2009-08-12. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- "CareCharity". Newgrounds. 2010-01-15. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- Fulp, Tom (1998). "Teletubby Fun Land". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Fulp, Tom (1999-08-03). "First NG Battle - NG vs. BBC". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Park, Michael Y. (2002-05-08). "Videogame Enrages Israeli Supporters". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- J.D. Mullane (2005-02-10). "Ticking off the heartland from Falls". Bucks County Courier Times. Calkins Media. Archived from the original on 2005-08-29. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Davey, Monica; Jodi Wilgoren (2005-03-24). "Signs of Danger Were Missed in a Troubled Teenager's Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Fulp, Tom (2004-06-16). "LiveCorpse Suicide". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- Brolsma, Gary (2004-12-06). "Numa Numa Dance". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Feuer, Alan; Jason George (2005-02-26). "Internet Fame Is Cruel Mistress for a Dancer of the Numa Numa". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Brolsma, Gary (2006-09-08). "New Numa". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Fulp, Tom (2005-06-20). "G4 Co-Hosting!". Newgrounds. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- "Torture Game 2". Fox News. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Pupil arrested for planning school attack ... after internet user in Canada tips off police in Norfolk". Mail Online. 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- Wardrop, Murray (2009-03-18). "Pupil arrested over school attack after threat posted on internet". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- "50 Best Websites 2010". Time. 2010-08-25.
- The Room Press Update