Newly industrialized country

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Newly industrialized countries as of 2013.

The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.

NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached developed country status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts. Another characterization of NICs is that of nations undergoing rapid economic growth (usually export-oriented). Incipient or ongoing industrialization is an important indicator of an NIC. In many NICs, social upheaval can occur as primarily rural, or agricultural, populations migrate to the cities, where the growth of manufacturing concerns and factories can draw many thousands of laborers.

NICs usually share some other common features, including:

Historical context[edit]

The term came into use around 1970, when the Four Asian Tigers[1] of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan rose to global prominence as NICs in the 1970s and 1980s, with exceptionally fast industrial growth since the 1960s; all four economies have since graduated into advanced economies and high-income economies. There is a clear distinction between these countries and the nations now considered NICs. In particular, the combination of an open political process, high GNI per capita, and a thriving, export-oriented economic policy has shown that these countries have now not only reached but surpassed the ranks of many developed countries.

All four economies are classified as High-income economies by the World Bank and Advanced economies by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). All of them, like Western European countries, possess Human Development Index considered "very high" by the UN.

Current NICs[edit]

The table below presents the list of countries consistently considered NICs by different authors and experts.[2][3][4][5] Turkey and South Africa are classified as developed countries by the CIA.[6] Turkey was a founding member of the OECD in 1961 and Mexico joined in 1994. The G8+5 group is composed of the original G8 members in addition to China, India, Mexico, South Africa and Brazil.

Note: Green-colored cells indicate higher value or best performance in index, while yellow-colored cells indicate the opposite.

Region Country GDP (PPP)
(Billions of USD, 2011 World Bank)[7]
GDP per capita (PPP)
(international dollars, 2013 IMF)[8]
Income inequality (GINI) 2008-09[9][10] Human
Development
Index
(HDI, 2014)[11]
GDP (real) growth rate as of 2013 Sources
Africa  South Africa 555.340 11,259 63.1 0.658 (medium) 2.5 [3][4][5]
North America  Mexico 1,659.016 15,563 48.3 0.756 (high) 3.9 [2][3][4][5]
South America  Brazil 2,309.138 12,221 54.7 0.744 (high) 0.9 [2][3][4][5]
Asia  China 11,316.224 9,844 45.3 0.719 (high) 7.8 [3][4][5]
 India 4,469.763 4,077 32.5 0.586 (medium) 6.5 [3][4][5]
 Indonesia 1,223.488 5,214 36.8 0.684 (medium) 6.2 [3][4][5]
 Malaysia 447.595 17,748 46.2 0.773 (high) 5.6 [3][4][5]
 Philippines 424.355 4,682 43 0.660 (medium) 7.2 [2][3][4][5]
 Thailand 622.914 9,875 40 0.722 (high) 6.4 [2][3][4][5]
Europe  Turkey[a] 1,288.638 15,353 39 0.759 (high) 4.0 [3][4][5]

According to Goldman Sachs review of emerging economies, by 2050 the largest economies in the world will be as follows: China, USA, India, Brazil, and Mexico.[12]

For China and India, the immense population of these two nations (each with over 1.2 billion people as of June 2014) means that per capita income will remain low even if either economy surpasses that of the United States in overall GDP (relative to OECD per capita figures, but Chinese GDP per capita figure is in the middle high income category by IMF). When GDP per capita is calculated according to purchasing power parity (PPP), this takes into account the lower costs of living in each newly industrialized country.

Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa meet annually with the G8 countries to discuss financial topics and climate change, due to their economic importance in today's global market and environmental impact, in a group known as G8+5.[13] This group is expected to expand to G14 by adding Egypt alongside the five forementioned countries.[14]

Other NICs[edit]

Authors set lists of countries accordingly to different methods of economic analysis. Sometimes a work ascribes NIC status to a country that other authors don't consider NIC. This is the case of nations such as Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Sri Lanka[15] and Russia.[2]

Brief economic analysis[edit]

NICs usually benefit from comparatively low labor costs, which translates into lower input prices for suppliers. As a result, it is often easier for producers in NICs to outperform and outproduce factories in developed countries, where the cost of living is higher, and labor unions and other organizations have more political sway.

This comparative advantage is often criticized by advocates of the fair trade movement.

Issues[edit]

Economic freedom is not always associated with political freedom in nations such as the People's Republic of China, where Internet censorship and human rights violations are common.[16] The case is diametrically opposite for the Republic of India. While being a liberal democracy throughout after its independence, India has been widely criticized for its inefficient governance and slow process of structural reform. Thus, while political freedom in China remains limited, the average Chinese citizen enjoys a higher standard of living than his or her counterpart in some regions of India (While de facto many Chinese citizens's living quality is similar to its counterparts of India, due to the severe income inequality.).[17] South Africa faces an influx of immigrants from countries such as Zimbabwe.[citation needed] Mexico's economic growth is threatened by an ongoing drug war in the north of the country.[18]

See also[edit]

Groupings:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Turkey is physiographically considered a transcontinental country—mostly in Western Asia, partly in Eastern Europe. However, in terms of geopolitical regions, it is considered European.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Japan and the Newly Industrialized Economies
  2. ^ a b c d e f Paweł Bożyk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries". Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 164. ISBN 0-7546-4638-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits of Convergence. Princeton University Press. pp. 126 (Table 5.1). ISBN 0-691-11633-4. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k David Waugh (2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)". Geography, An Integrated Approach (3rd ed.). Nelson Thornes Ltd. pp. 563, 576–579, 633, and 640. ISBN 0-17-444706-X. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k N. Gregory Mankiw (2007). Principles of Economics (4th ed.). ISBN 0-324-22472-9. 
  6. ^ CIA World Factbook
  7. ^ The World Bank: World Development Indicators Database. Gross Domestic Product 2011, PPP. Last revised on 18 September 2012.
  8. ^ Data refer mostly to the year 2013. World Economic Outlook, April 2014, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 25 April 2014.
  9. ^ "GINI Index Data Table". World Bank. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Note: The higher the figure, the higher the inequality.
  11. ^ United Nations report [1]
  12. ^ The N-11: More Than an Acronym - Goldman Sachs
  13. ^ G8 Structure and activities
  14. ^ "France invites Egypt to join G14"[dead link]
  15. ^ John Broman (1996). Popular Development: Rethinking the Theory and Practice of Development. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 81. ISBN 1-557-86316-4. 
  16. ^ China Human Rights | Amnesty International USA. Amnestyusa.org (2013-02-08). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  17. ^ Meredith, R (2008) The Tiger and the Dragon: The Rise of India and China and What it Means for All of Us, W. W Norton and Company ISBN 978-0-393-33193-6
  18. ^ Drug Trafficking, Violence and Mexico's Economic Future - Knowledge@Wharton. Knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.