Newport News Shipbuilding
Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), originally Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company (NNS&DD), was the largest privately owned shipyard in the United States prior to being purchased by Northrop Grumman in 2001. Known as Northrop Grumman Newport News (NGNN), and later Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News (NGSB-NN), the company is located in Newport News, Virginia, and often participates in projects with the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, Virginia, also located adjacent to Hampton Roads. In March 2011 Newport News Shipbuilding, along with the shipbuilding sector of Northrop Grumman spun-off to form a new company called Huntington Ingalls Industries
The shipyard is a major employer (largest industrial employer in the state of Virginia) not only for the lower Virginia Peninsula, but also portions of Hampton Roads south of the James River and the harbor, portions of the Middle Peninsula region, and even some northeastern counties of North Carolina.
Industrialist Collis P. Huntington (1821–1900) provided crucial funding to complete the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad (C&O) from Richmond, Virginia to the Ohio River in the early 1870s. Although originally built for general commerce, this C&O rail link to the midwest was soon also being used to transport bituminous coal from the previously isolated coalfields, adjacent to the New River and the Kanawha River in West Virginia. In 1881, the Peninsula Extension of the C&O was built from Richmond down the Virginia Peninsula to reach a new coal pier on Hampton Roads in Warwick County near the small unincorporated community of Newport News Point. However, building the railroad and coal pier was only the first part of Huntington's dreams for Newport News.
In 1886, he built a shipyard to repair ships servicing this transportation hub. In 1891, Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company delivered its first ship, a tugboat named Dorothy. By 1897, NNS had built three warships for the U.S. Navy: Nashville, Wilmington, and Helena.
When Collis died in 1900, his nephew Henry E. Huntington inherited much of his uncle's fortune. He also married Collis' widow Arabella Huntington, and assumed Collis's leadership role with Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company. Under Henry Huntington's leadership, growth continued.
In 1906, the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought launched a great naval race worldwide. Between 1907 and 1923, Newport News built six of the U.S. Navy's total of 22 dreadnoughts -- Delaware, Texas, Pennsylvania, Mississippi, Maryland, and West Virginia -- and all but the first would still be in active service in World War II.
In 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet on its round-the-world voyage. Seven of its 16 battleships were built by NNS. In 1914, NNS built the SS Medina for the Mallory Steamship Company; as the MV Doulos she was until 2009 the world's oldest active ocean-faring passenger ship.
In the early years, leaders of the Newport News community and those of the shipyard were virtually interchangeable. Shipyard president Walter A. Post served from March 9, 1911 to Feb. 12, 1912, when he died. Earlier, he had come to the area as one of the builders of the C&O Railway's terminals, and had served as the first mayor of Newport News after it became an independent city in 1896. It was on March 14, 1914 that Albert L. Hopkins, a young New Yorker trained in engineering, succeeded Post as President of the company. In May 1915 while traveling to England on shipyard business, aboard the RMS Lusitania, Hopkins' tenure and life ended prematurely when that ship was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat off Queenstown on the Irish coast. His assistant Fred Gauntlett, was also on board, but was able to swim to safety. Homer Lenoir Ferguson was a manager when Hopkins died, and assumed the presidency the following July. He saw the company through both world wars, became a noted community leader, and was a co-founder of the Mariners' Museum with Archer Huntington. He served until July 31, 1946, after the second World War had ended on both the European and Pacific fronts.
Just northwest of the shipyard, Hilton Village, one of the first planned communities in the country, was built by the federal government to house shipyard workers in 1918. The planners met with the wives of shipyard workers. Based on their input 14 house plans were designed for the projected 500 English-village-style homes. After the war, in 1922, Henry Huntington acquired it from the government, and helped facilitate the sale of the homes to shipyard employees and other local residents. Three streets there were named after Post, Hopkins, and Ferguson.
The Lusitania incident was among the events that brought the United States into World War I. Between 1918 and 1920, NNS delivered 25 destroyers, and after the war, NNS began building aircraft carriers. Ranger was delivered in 1934, and NNS went on to build Yorktown and Enterprise.
Between the World Wars, NNS also completed a major reconditioning and refurbishment of the ocean liner SS Leviathan. Before the war she had been the German liner Vaterland, but the start of hostilities found her laid up in New York Harbor and she had been seized by the US Government in 1917 and converted into a troopship. War duty and age meant that all wiring, plumbing, and interior layouts were stripped and redesigned while her hull was strengthened and her boilers converted from coal to oil while being refurbished. Virtually a new ship emerged from NNS in 1923, and the SS Leviathan became the flagship of United States Lines.
By 1940, the Navy had ordered a battleship, seven more aircraft carriers and four cruisers. During World War II, NNS built ships as part of the U.S. Government's Emergency Shipbuilding Program, and swiftly filled requests for "Liberty ships" that were needed during the war. It founded the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company, an emergency yard on the banks of the Cape Fear River and launched its first Liberty ship before the end of 1941, building 243 ships in all, including 186 Liberties. For its contributions during the war, the Navy awarded the company its "E" pennant for excellence in ship construction. NNS ranked 23rd among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.
In the post-war years, NNS built the famous passenger liner SS United States, which set a transatlantic speed record that still stands today. In 1954, NNS, together with Westinghouse and the Navy, developed and built a prototype nuclear reactor for a carrier propulsion system. NNS designed the Enterprise in 1960. In 1959 NNS launched its first nuclear-powered submarine, Shark as well as the ballistic missile submarine Robert E. Lee.
In the 1970s, NNS launched two of the largest tankers ever built in the western hemisphere and also constructed three liquefied natural gas carriers -- at over 390,000 deadweight tons, the largest ever built in the United States. NNS and Westinghouse Electric Company jointly form Offshore Power Systems to build floating nuclear power plants for Public Service Electric and Gas Company. In the 1980s, NNS produced a variety of Navy products, including Nimitz-class aircraft carrier nuclear aircraft carriers and Los Angeles-class submarine nuclear attack submarines. Since 1999 the shipyard has produced only warships for the Navy.
Submarine construction problems 
In 2007, the US Navy found that workers had used incorrect metal to fuse together pipes and joints on submarines under construction and this could have led to cracking and leaks. In 2009, it was found that bolts and fasteners in weapons-handling systems on four Navy submarines, including New Mexico (SSN-779), North Carolina (SSN-777), Missouri (SSN-780), and California (SSN-781), were installed incorrectly, delaying the launching of the ships whilst the problems were corrected.
Mergers, Realignment, and Spin-off 
On 7 November 2001, Northrop Grumman entered an agreement to purchase Newport News Shipbuilding for a total of $2.6 billion. This acquisition created a $4 billion shipyard called Northrop Grumman Newport News. 
On 28 January 2008, Northrop Grumman Corporation realigned its two shipbuilding sectors, Northrop Grumman Newport News and Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, into a single sector called "Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding".  On March 15, 2011, Northrop Grumman announced the spin-off of the this sector into a separate company, Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.
Ships built 
Ships built at the Newport News yard include:
- Tugboat Dorothy, the shipyard's first vessel, delivered in 1891, on display in yard
- SS Georgia a crude oil tanker, launched in 1908
- USS Virginia (BB-13), lead battleship of its class, launched in 1904
- USS Texas (BB-35), battleship of the New York class, launched in 1912, the only surviving dreadnought battleship.
- Cargo ship SS Medina for the Mallory Steamship Company in 1914, currently the passenger ship MV Doulos Phos, in service until 2009
- Wickes-class destroyers (Lamberton; Radford; Montgomery; Breese; Gamble; Ramsay) for the Navy in 1918
- USS West Virginia, Colorado-class battleship, launched in 1921
- Turbo-electric ocean liners for Dollar Steamship Company:
- Turbo-electric passenger and cargo liners for United Fruit Company, (later Mizar-class stores ships):
- USS Ranger (CV-4), the first purpose-built aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, launched in 1933
- Yorktown-class aircraft carriers:
- USS Indiana (BB-58), South Dakota-class battleship, launched in 1941
- Essex-class aircraft carriers:
- USS Essex (CV-9), launched in 1942
- USS Yorktown (CV-10), launched in 1943
- USS Intrepid (CV-11), launched in 1943
- USS Hornet (CV-12), launched in 1943
- USS Franklin (CV-13), launched in 1943
- USS Ticonderoga (CV-14), launched in 1944
- USS Randolph (CV-15), launched in 1944
- USS Boxer (CV-21), launched in 1944
- USS Leyte (CV-32), launched in 1945
- Liberty ship transports for the Allies during World War II
- Midway-class aircraft carriers:
- Ocean liners for United States Lines:
- Forrestal-class aircraft carriers:
- Submarine USS Shark (SSN-591) in 1959, the yard's first nuclear-powered submarine
- Ballistic missile submarine USS Robert E. Lee (SSBN-601), launched in 1959
- USS Enterprise (CVN-65), launched in 1960, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
- USS America (CV-66), launched in 1964
- USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), launched in 1967
- All ten Nimitz-class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers:
- USS Nimitz (CVN-68), launched in 1972
- USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69), launched in 1975
- USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70), launched in 1980
- USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), launched in 1984
- USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), launched in 1988
- USS George Washington (CVN-73), launched in 1990
- USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74), launched in 1993
- USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75), launched in 1996
- USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), launched in 2001
- USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), launched in 2006
- Gerald R. Ford-class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers:
- Los Angeles-class nuclear-powered submarines
- Virginia-class nuclear-powered submarines
- Virginia-class nuclear-powered cruisers
- USTS Empire State VI Bronx, New York.
- Belote, Randy. "NG Media Relations". Globe News. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- "Newport News Shipbuilding Fact Sheet". HuntingtonIngalls.com. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- "Mr. Albert Lloyd Hopkins". Saloon (First Class) Passenger List. The Lusitania Resource. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Ruegsegger, Bob. "Authenticity Regs & More". Great War Association. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "Hilton Village 1969 Nomination Form, p2-3". National Register of Historic Places Inventory. US Department of the Interior. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
- "Ships Built By Newport News Shipbuilding". Huntington-Ingalls. Retrieved 1 January 2012.[dead link]
- Frost, Peter, "Northrop Moving Forward On Submarine Investigation", Newport News Daily Press, Sep 30, 2009.
- America's Largest Military Shipbuilder Begins Operations as a New, Publicly Traded Company Under the Name of Huntington Ingalls Industries
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