Newspaper of record
Newspaper of record is a term that typically refers to a major newspaper that has a large circulation and whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered professional and typically authoritative. It may also be used to refer to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorized or maintained by a government to publish public or legal notices, and therefore serves as a "newspaper of public record".
Newspapers of public record
A "newspaper of public record", sometimes referred to as an "official newspaper", refers to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorised by a government to publish public or legal notices. It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice.
A variation of this type are those newspapers controlled by governments or political parties that serve as official newspapers of record reflecting the positions of their controlling bodies. State organs such as the Soviet-era Izvestia (the name of which translates to "delivered messages", derived from the verb izveshchat which means "to inform", "to notify") and the People's Daily in China are examples of this type.
Publication within privately owned periodicals
In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices. Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names. These are referred to as "legally adjudicated newspapers".
Newspapers of record (by reputation)
The most common definition of a "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French terms Presse de référence and de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and its characteristics can be variable. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence and attention to accuracy, and are usually renowned internationally. Despite changes in society, such newspapers have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style and traditions.
Origin of the term
The term is believed to have originated among librarians, who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when, in 1913, it became the first newspaper in the United States to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages. In recognition of the usage, The Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". Over time, historians began to rely on The Times and similar titles as an archival chronicle of past events and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edn. West Publishing. 1990. ISBN 90-6544-631-1.
- "Izvestiia Digital Archive 1917-2010. Online access to the Kremlin’s newspaper of record" (pdf). Minneapolis, MN: East View Information Services. p. 5. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Frederick, Brian (2005-05-09). "Genocide v. Civil Conflict: Comparing Coverage of the Darfur Crisis in the New York Times and the People's Daily". University of Colorado at Boulder. "The New York Times and the People’s Daily were chosen because of their status as their respective countries' "newspaper of record." In the case of the People's Daily, it is the official newspaper of record."
- Mattis, Michael (November 1995). "(Not) Wild about Harry". Prism. "With a circulation over three million the People's Daily is the official newspaper of China's Communist Party. It is the newspaper of record for state socialism in China."
- "Officials Warn Against Rural Instability". China News Digest. 2002-01-11. "On Tuesday the People's Daily, the Communist Party's newspaper of record, published a front-page article and a strongly worded editorial"
- "Research Databases". University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2012-02-10. "People's Daily (Ren Min Ri Bao): Chinese newspaper of record, 1946-present."
- Badiou, Alain. The Rational Kernel of the Hegelian Dialectic. re.press. p. xx. "Among the venues that published philosophically charged writings... during the heat of the GPCR were Renmin Ribao (People’s Daily, the newspaper of record that continues to be so today)"
- See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
- Texas Local Government Code - Section 52.004. Official Newspaper
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- Salles, Chloë (January 2010). "Media Coverage of the Internet: An Acculturation Strategy for Press of Record?". Innovation Journalism 7 (1): 5.
- Martin, Shannon (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 6, 27, 31. ISBN 0275959600.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Okrent, Daniel. "THE PUBLIC EDITOR; Paper of Record? No Way, No Reason, No Thanks". The New York TImes. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
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- "O Estado de S. Paulo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 10 October 2013. "It is the...country’s newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the “New York Times of Latin America” because of its grave editorial demeanour."
- Fabricio, Roberto (16 April 1992). "Brazilian Officers Issue Manifesto". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 10 October 2013. "The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil`s newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil."
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- "What's behind the shake up at 'Canada's newspaper of record'?". rabble.ca. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- Buchanan, Carrie (March 2009). "Sense of Place in the Daily Newspaper". In Gasher, Mike. Aether: The Journal of Media Geography 4: 62–84 . Retrieved 14 October 2012. "[T]he Toronto-based Globe and Mail has had the kind of success in Canada that the New York Times had enjoyed in the U.S., as the leading 'newspaper of record' with a national readership."
- Jiwani, Yasmin (2009). "Helpless Maidens and Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press". University of Toronto Quarterly. 2 78: 728–744. "This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record."
- Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. John Wiley & Sons. 2011. ISBN 144439911X. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
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- Lanchester, John (2008). Family Romance: A Love Story. 0143112953: Penguin. p. 140. "The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong Kong"
- Middle East Institute, 1950, p. 155.|quote=Al Ahram is... what The Times is to Englishmen and the New York Times to Americans
- Perreault, Gregory (2011). "Islam is Everywhere": Coverage of Islam in the English Egyptian Press". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 14. Retrieved 10 October 2013. "This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt"
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- "German language reform resisted". The Washington Times. 29 May 2004.
- "Look back at the Britannica Calendar of Events to find out what happened in the year 2000". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
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- Wilke, Mary; Manicini, Lawrence; Leonard, Spencer (Fall 2007). "Some recent CRL acquisitions related to colonial India". Centre for Research Libraries - Focus on Global Resources.
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- Benesch, Susan (21 March 2013). "The Kenyan Elections: Peace Happened". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2013. "Kenya's newspaper of record, the Daily Nation, published a banner headline "Never Again" over an editorial with a sharp, eloquent warning"
- Christopher, H. Sterling. "A - C., Volume 1". Encyclopedia of Journalism. p. 108.
- Waterfield, Bruno (4 March 2010). "Geert Wilders on course to be next Dutch prime minister". The Daily Telegraph.
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- Dediu, Horace (19 May 2012). "An interview with Kenney Ho of The Chosun Daily of Korea". Asymco. Retrieved 10 October 2013. "The Chosunilbo “has a history of 90 years, has been the most dominant, and influential paper of all time in Korea. It is the No.1 newspaper company in Korea with more than 1.8 million circulation, firmly holding the largest market possession. The paper is recognized Asianwide, where there are many readers in Japan and China.”"
- Phillips, Lindsay (18 December 2002). "Spanish and U.S. Relationship During the "War on Terror"". EU Notes — Texas A&M University.
- "PRESIDENT'S INTERVIEW WITH AL-ARABIYA RECEIVES GOOD COVERAGE IN SWEDEN". Retrieved 10 October 2013. "Paper of record Dagens Nyheter gave limited coverage, on the paper's website."
- "Immigrants outraged over Sweden’s racial profiling". The Standard. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013. "Dagens Nyheter, Sweden's paper of record."
- "Neue Zürcher Zeitung". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- Reports: Israel to apologize for flotilla raid - Neal Ungerleider - Falafel Mafia - True/Slant
- "Times Digital Archive". Luton Libraries. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
- "The UK's 'other paper of record'". BBC News. 2004-01-19. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- "The New York Times". Encyclopædia Britannica.