# Newton–Euler equations

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In classical mechanics, the Newton–Euler equations describe the combined translational and rotational dynamics of a rigid body.[1][2] [3][4][5]

Traditionally the Newton–Euler equations is the grouping together of Euler's two laws of motion for a rigid body into a single equation with 6 components, using column vectors and matrices. These laws relate the motion of the center of gravity of a rigid body with the sum of forces and torques (or synonymously moments) acting on the rigid body.

## Center of mass frame

With respect to a coordinate frame whose origin coincides with the body's center of mass, they can be expressed in matrix form as:

$\left(\begin{matrix} {\bold F} \\ {\boldsymbol \tau} \end{matrix}\right) = \left(\begin{matrix} m {\boldsymbol 1} & 0 \\ 0 & {\bold I}_{\rm cm} \end{matrix}\right) \left(\begin{matrix} \bold a_{\rm cm} \\ {\boldsymbol \alpha} \end{matrix}\right) + \left(\begin{matrix} {\boldsymbol \omega} \times m {\boldsymbol v_{\rm cm}} \\ {\boldsymbol \omega} \times {\bold I}_{\rm cm} \, {\boldsymbol \omega} \end{matrix}\right),$

where

F = total force acting on the center of mass
m = mass of the body
1 = the 3×3 identity matrix
acm = acceleration of the center of mass
vcm = velocity of the center of mass
τ = total torque acting about the center of mass
Icm = moment of inertia about the center of mass
ω = angular velocity of the body
α = angular acceleration of the body

## Any reference frame

With respect to a coordinate frame that is not coincident with the center of mass, the equations assume the more complex form:

$\left(\begin{matrix} {\bold F} \\ {\boldsymbol \tau} \end{matrix}\right) = \left(\begin{matrix} m {\boldsymbol 1} & - m [{\bold c}]\\ m [{\bold c}] & {\bold I}_{\rm cm} - m [{\bold c}][{\bold c}]\end{matrix}\right) \left(\begin{matrix} \bold a_{\rm cm} \\ {\boldsymbol \alpha} \end{matrix}\right) + \left(\begin{matrix} {m \boldsymbol \omega} \times \left({\boldsymbol \omega} \times {\bold c}\right) \\ {\boldsymbol \omega} \times ({\bold I}_{\rm cm} - m [{\bold c}][{\bold c}])\, {\boldsymbol \omega} \end{matrix}\right),$

where c is the location of the center of mass, and

$[\mathbf{c}] \equiv \left(\begin{matrix} 0 & -c_z & c_y \\ c_z & 0 & -c_x \\ -c_y & c_x & 0 \end{matrix}\right)$

denotes a skew-symmetric cross product matrix. The left hand side (forces and moments) of the equation above describes a spatial wrench, see screw theory.

The inertial terms are contained in the spatial inertia matrix

$\left(\begin{matrix} m {\boldsymbol 1} & - m [{\bold c}]\\ m [{\bold c}] & {\bold I}_{\rm cm} - m [{\bold c}][{\bold c}]\end{matrix}\right),$

while the fictitious forces are contained in the term:[6]

$\left(\begin{matrix} {m \boldsymbol \omega} \times \left({\boldsymbol \omega} \times {\bold c}\right) \\ {\boldsymbol \omega} \times ({\bold I}_{\rm cm} - m [{\bold c}][{\bold c}])\, {\boldsymbol \omega} \end{matrix}\right) .$

When the center of mass is not coincident with the coordinate frame (that is, when c is nonzero), the translational and angular accelerations (a and α) are coupled, so that each is associated with force and torque components.

## Applications

The Newton–Euler equations are used as the basis for more complicated "multi-body" formulations (screw theory) that describe the dynamics of systems of rigid bodies connected by joints and other constraints. Multi-body problems can be solved by a variety of numerical algorithms.[2][6][7]

## References

1. ^ Hubert Hahn (2002). Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms. Springer. p. 143. ISBN 3-540-42373-7.
2. ^ a b Ahmed A. Shabana (2001). Computational Dynamics. Wiley-Interscience. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-471-37144-1.
3. ^ Haruhiko Asada, Jean-Jacques E. Slotine (1986). Robot Analysis and Control. Wiley/IEEE. pp. §5.1.1, p. 94. ISBN 0-471-83029-1.
4. ^ Robert H. Bishop (2007). Mechatronic Systems, Sensors, and Actuators: Fundamentals and Modeling. CRC Press. pp. §7.4.1, §7.4.2. ISBN 0-8493-9258-6.
5. ^ Miguel A. Otaduy, Ming C. Lin (2006). High Fidelity Haptic Rendering. Morgan and Claypool Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 1-59829-114-9.
6. ^ a b Roy Featherstone (2008). Rigid Body Dynamics Algorithms. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-74314-1.
7. ^ Constantinos A. Balafoutis, Rajnikant V. Patel (1991). Dynamic Analysis of Robot Manipulators: A Cartesian Tensor Approach. Springer. Chapter 5. ISBN 0-7923-9145-4.