Newton (platform)

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This article is about the Apple Newton platform. For the Apple MessagePad series of hardware devices, see MessagePad.
Newton
Developer Apple Inc.
Type Bar PDA
Release date 1987 (1987)
Discontinued February 27, 1998
Input Touch screen
The Apple Newton MessagePad 2100, running Newton OS, alongside an iPhone running iOS, Apple's current handheld platform.

The Newton platform was a personal digital assistant developed by Apple Inc.. Development of the Newton platform started in 1987 and officially ended on February 27, 1998. Some electronic engineering and the manufacture of Apple's Newton devices was done by Motorola. Most Newton devices were based on the ARM 610 RISC processor and all featured handwriting recognition software. Most Newton devices were developed and marketed by Apple (this includes the whole MessagePad line and the eMate 300), but other companies — Motorola, Sharp, and Digital Ocean — also released devices that ran the Newton OS.

Three Newton MessagePad devices with keyboard and LinearFlash PCMCIA memory card accessories.

Development[edit]

The custom ASIC chip inside the original Apple Newton H1000
Inside the Apple Newton Messagepad H1000, with back cover removed.
The original colour Apple logo on the Newton

The Newton project was a PDA platform. The PDA category did not exist for most of Newton's genesis, and the phrase "personal digital assistant" was coined relatively late in the development cycle by Apple's CEO John Sculley,[1] the driving force behind the project. Larry Tesler determined that a powerful, low-power processor was needed for sophisticated graphics manipulation. He found Hermann Hauser, with the Acorn RISC Machine processor, and put together Advanced RISC Machines.[2] Newton was intended to be a complete reinvention of personal computing. For most of its design lifecycle Newton had a large-format screen, more internal memory, and an object-oriented graphics kernel. One of the original motivating use cases for the design was known as the "Architect Scenario", in which Newton's designers imagined a residential architect working quickly with a client to sketch, clean up, and interactively modify a simple two-dimensional home plan.[citation needed]

There is, however, an extensive history of pen computing that predates the Newton, though not generally in the form of what would now be called a PDA.

For a portion of the Newton's development cycle (roughly the middle third), the project's intended programming language was Dylan though in fact the language and environment never matured enough for any applications to be successfully written.[citation needed] Dylan was a small, efficient object-oriented Lisp variant that still retains some interest.[citation needed] Although it was efficient (for its day, and considering its substantial run-time dynamism),[citation needed] Dylan never lived up to its developers' performance expectations and was a tough sell for a development team unaccustomed to Lisp programming.[citation needed] When the move was made to a smaller design (designed by Jonathan Ive),[3][4] Dylan was relegated to experimental status in the "Bauhaus Project" and eventually canceled outright. Its replacement, NewtonScript, had garbage collection and tight integration with the "soup" storage and user-interface toolkit, and was specifically designed to run in small RAM/large ROM environments. It was mostly developed by Walter Smith from 1992 to 1993.

The project missed its original goals to reinvent personal computing,[citation needed] and then to rewrite contemporary application programming.[citation needed] The Newton project fell victim to project slippage, scope creep, and a growing fear that it would interfere with Macintosh sales. It was reinvented as a PDA platform which would be a complementary Macintosh peripheral instead of a stand-alone computer which might compete with the Macintosh.

Although PDAs had been developing since the original Psion Organiser in 1984,[5][6] the Newton has left one particular lasting impression: the term personal digital assistant was first coined to refer to the Newton.[6]

According to former Apple CEO John Sculley, the corporation invested approximately US$100M to develop Newton.[7]

Product details[edit]

Hardware models[edit]

Application software[edit]

Most Newton devices were pre-loaded with a variety of software to help in personal data organization and management. This included such applications as Notes, Names, and Dates, as well as a variety of productivity tools such as a calculator, conversion calculators (metric conversions, currency conversions, etc.), time-zone maps, etc. In later/2.x versions of the Newton OS these applications were refined, and new ones were added, such as the Works word processor and the Newton Internet Enabler, as well as the inclusion of bundled 3rd party applications, such as the QuickFigure Works spreadsheet (a "lite" version of Pelicanware's QuickFigure Pro), Pocket Quicken, the NetHopper web browser, and the EnRoute email client. Various Newton applications had full import/export capabilities with popular desktop office suite and PIM (Personal Information Manager) application file formats, primarily by making use of Apple's bundled Newton Connection Utilities (or the older Newton Connection Kit, which had been sold separately for Newton devices that used the 1.x versions of the OS).

Notes[edit]

The Notes application allowed users to create small documents that could contain text that had been typed, or that had been recognized from handwriting, as well as free-hand sketches, "Shapes", and "ink text".

Photograph of screen displaying Checklist, some bullet points checked and/or "collapsed"

In version 2.0 of the Newton OS, the Notes application (as well as Names) could accept what Apple termed "stationery", 3rd-party created plug-in modules that could extend the functionality of the basic applications.

One of the new types of Notes stationery added to Newton OS 2.0 was a hierarchical, bullet-ed, collapsible, multi-line "Checklist", an implementation of outliner software. This could be used for organizing thoughts, priorities, "to do" lists, planning steps and sub-tasks, etc. Each bullet point could contain as many lines of text as desired. A bullet point could be dragged and placed underneath another bullet point, thus forming a hierarchical outline/tree. When a bullet point was dragged, the entire sub-tree of child bullet points underneath it (if any) would be dragged along as well. If a bullet point had child bullet points, tapping the hollow parent bullet point once would "roll up" or collapse all the children ("windowshade" effect). The parent bullet point would become a solid black circle and all the children would disappear. Tapping the parent bullet point again would make the children re-appear. Because this functionality arrived in Newton OS 2.0, several third parties made similar software before for OS 1.x Newton machines, the most notable of which was Dyno Notepad, released in 1993.

Names[edit]

The Names application was used for storing contacts. Contacts created either on the Newton device or on a Windows or Macintosh desktop PIM could be synchronized to each other.[8][9] Entering a date in Names for fields such as birthday or anniversary automatically created corresponding repeating events in the Dates application. Each contact had an attached free-form notes field available to it, that could contain any mix of interleaved text, ink text, Shapes, or Sketches. Like Notes, Names could be extended by developers, to create special new categories of contacts with specialized pre-defined fields. Names shipped with 3 types of contacts, "people", "companies", and "groups", but a developer could define new types, for instance "client", "patient", etc. Stand Alone Software, Inc. also created a Newton software package called the Stationery Construction Kit, which allowed users to make stationery themselves without aid of any other tools.

Dates[edit]

Dates supplied calendar, events, meeting, and alarms functions, including an integrated "to do" list manager. It offered many different display and navigation styles, including a list view, graphical day "time blocking" view, or a week, month, or year grid. As with Names and Notes, Dates items created either on the Newton or on a Windows or Macintosh desktop PIM could be synchronized to each other.

Operating system and programming environment[edit]

The Newton OS consists of three layers. At the lowest level, a microkernel handles resources like tasks and memory. On top of the microkernel, the bulk of the operating system is implemented in C++, including the communications layer, handwriting recognition, and the NewtonScript environment. The top layer consists of built-in and user installed applications written in NewtonScript.

NewtonScript is an advanced object-oriented programming language, developed by Apple employee Walter Smith.[10] Some programmers complained at the $1000 cost of the Toolbox programming environment. Additionally, it required learning a new way of programming.

The Newton Toolkit (NTK), an integrated environment tailored to the graphical nature of the Newton platform, was developed specifically for developing applications for the Newton platform and included a graphical view editor, a template browser, and an interactive inspector window for debugging. Initially, it was only available for Macintosh computers, and later a Microsoft Windows version was developed. The Technical Lead for the Newton Toolkit was Norberto Menendez; other engineers on the team were Ben Sharpe and Peter Potrebic.

Data storage[edit]

Data in Newton is stored in object-oriented databases known as soups. One of the innovative aspects of Newton is that soups are available to all programs; and programs can operate cross-soup; meaning that the calendar can refer to names in the address book; a note in the notepad can be converted to an appointment, and so forth; and the soups can be programmer-extended—a new address book enhancement can be built on the data from the existing address book. The soup system also made it easy to synchronize data, and the Newton Connection tools could be used for importing and exporting data. Among many file formats are the Rich Text Format, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Works, and many more.

Another consequence of the data-object soup is that objects can extend built-in applications such as the address book so seamlessly that Newton users can sometimes not distinguish which program or add-on object is responsible for the various features on their own system, because the advanced nature of Newton devices makes it easy to accept such add-ons. A user rebuilding their system after extended usage might find themselves unable to manually restore their system to the same functionality because some long-forgotten downloaded extension was missing. Data owned and used by applications and extensions themselves is tossed in the "Storage" area of the "Extras" drawer in 2.x Newton devices; on 1.x systems, they can only be found or removed in the Memory section of the built-in Prefs application, in the Card slip (also built-in), or with third-party tools such as NewtCase. There is no built-in distinction between types of data in that area. For example, an installed application's icon could be sitting right next to a database of addresses used by another installed extension further down the list.

Finally, the data soup concept works well for data like addresses, which benefit from being shared cross-functionally, but it works poorly for discrete data sets like files and documents. Later, the 2.0 release of the Newton OS introduced Virtual Binary Objects to alleviate the problem of handling large data objects.

Package installation, capacity planning, and disaster recovery[edit]

Several software utilities which accommodate data transfer to and from a host system exist for the following platforms:

Newton technology after cancellation[edit]

Before the Newton project was canceled, it was "spun off" into an Apple wholly owned subsidiary company, Newton Inc., but was reabsorbed several months later when Apple CEO Gil Amelio was fired by the board and Steve Jobs took over as then interim CEO. Two ex-Apple Newton developers founded Pixo, the company that created the operating system for the original iPod.

Speculation continued for several years that Apple might release a new PDA with some Newton technology or collaborate with Palm. Feeding a bit of speculation, Apple put the "Print Recognizer" part of the Newton 2.1 handwriting recognition system into Mac OS X v10.2 (known as "Jaguar"). It can be used with graphics tablets to seamlessly input handwritten printed text anywhere there was an insertion point on the screen. This technology, known as "Inkwell", appears in the System Preferences whenever a tablet input device is plugged in. An Easter egg in Print Recognizer on the Newton (write "ROSETTA! ROSETTA! ROSETTA!", and the Newton will insert "ROSETTA! ROSETTA! Hey, that's me!" instead) was present in Inkwell in Mac OS 10.2 and 10.3, but seems to have been removed in 10.4. Larry Yaeger was the author of the original Rosetta recognizer on the Newton, and was also responsible for porting it to Mac OS X.[11] The Rosetta name was later used for Apple's PowerPC software translation layer for Intel-based Macs.

Some of the handwriting recognition technology from the Newton later found its way into Windows CE. The letter preferences menus showing the different ways that people write cursive characters were pixel identical on Windows CE to those previously used on the MessagePad.

At an All Things Digital conference in 2004, Steve Jobs made reference to a new "Apple PDA" (perhaps a successor to the Newton) which the company had developed but had decided not to bring to market.[12] The tablet eventually evolved into the iOS product family[citation needed].

Newton emulation[edit]

Since 2004, the Einstein Project[13] has been working on emulating the Newton for use as an alternate OS on other platforms. It is currently available for the Sharp Zaurus, Apple's Mac OS X, Nokia Maemo, Microsoft Windows, and the Pepper Pad 3. The emulator is an open source project, but requires an original Newton ROM to be installed in order to function. Since September 2010, Einstein also runs on iPhones, iPads, and the Android operating system since March 2011.[14]

Future[edit]

A possible Newton revival was at one time a common source of speculation among the Macintosh user base; when patents for a tablet based Macintosh were applied for,[15] rumor sites jumped at the possibility of a new tablet PC-style Macintosh. This later turned out to be the Apple iPad, which currently runs Apple's proprietary iOS System Software.

In September 2009, Michael Tchao, one of the Newton's marketing product champions, returned to Apple.[16] Michael Tchao is now the VP of iPad Product Marketing.

Development[edit]

Programs have been written for the Newton since its cancellation, including reading ebooks and reading RSS feeds.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

The MessagePad was featured in an August 1993 installment of Garry Trudeau's popular political cartoon Doonesbury, where its handwriting recognition was mocked. The final panel of the strip showed the Newton producing the text "egg freckles" in response to input. This phrase was subsequently included as a trigger for an easter egg in later editions of the MessagePad, producing a panel from the strip when it was entered on the device. Apple subsequently donated a MessagePad to Trudeau.[17]

During an episode of The Simpsons in 1994, a scene also makes fun of the Newton's handwriting recognition. Bullies Kearney has Dolph take a memo on an Apple Newton. When Dolph writes "Beat up Martin" on the screen, the handwriting recognition turns it into "Eat up Martha."[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Story Behind Apple's Newton, Tom Hormby - 2006.02.07, Low End Mac
  2. ^ Kuehl Julie; Martellaro, John; Greelish, David (January 13, 2012). "John Sculley: The Truth About Me, Apple, and Steve Jobs Part 2". The Mac Observer. Retrieved January 20, 2012. "[...] Larry [Tesler] realized that if you’re going to do very sophisticated graphics manipulation on a handheld product, that no processor existed at that time that was both powerful and low powered enough to be able to even attempt that. Larry Tesler found a man in the UK named Hermann Hauser who had founded the Acorn computer company. [...] a new company that we had to put together that was 47 percent owned by Apple, it was 47 percent owned by Olivetti, a name from the past, and the rest of it was owned by Hermann Hauser. And this company we called ARM." 
  3. ^ "Who Is Jonathan Ive? An in-depth look at the man behind Apple's design magic". BusinessWeek. September 25, 2006. 
  4. ^ "Cyber Elite: Jonathan Ive". Time Digital. 2000. Archived from the original on August 19, 2000. 
  5. ^ ISAS seminar on PDAs
  6. ^ a b History of PDAs blog
  7. ^ Kawamoto, Dawn (October 2, 2003). "Riding the next technology wave". Newsmaker. CNET. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  8. ^ Apple Computer. "Newton Connection Utilities ReadMe", Apple, July 24, 1997
  9. ^ Apple Computer. "Newton Connection Utilities Features", Newton Source
  10. ^ Walter Smith’s home page
  11. ^ Handwriting Recognition Technology in the Newton's Second Generation “Print Recognizer” (The One That Worked), By Larry Yaeger - Apple Computer, World Wide Newton Conference, September 4–5, 2004, Slides
  12. ^ Jobs: Apple developed, but did not ship Apple PDA, By Kasper Jade, June 7, 2004, AppleInsider
  13. ^ Open Einstein Project
  14. ^ Apple Newton on Android, March 13, 2011, My Apple Newton
  15. ^ Appleinsider, Euro filing reveals Apple handheld design images, August 13, 2004
  16. ^ Stone, Brad (September 28, 2009). "Apple Rehires a Developer of Its Newton Tablet". Bits. New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  17. ^ Markoff, John (December 18, 1995). "Doonesbury' and Apple Hatch a Comic Surprise". New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  18. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eat_up_Martha#Cultural_references

External links[edit]

Newton technical documents for programmers[edit]

NewtonScript Programming: NewtonScript is the native programming language for all MessagePads

General historical information on pen computing[edit]