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|Iwi of New Zealand|
|Rohe (location)||North Taranaki, Chatham Islands (Wharekauri / Rekohu)|
Ngāti Mutunga is a Māori iwi of New Zealand. Their original tribal lands (rohe) were in north Taranaki, but they were invaded by Waikato tribes during the Musket Wars after a series of longstanding inter tribal wars stretching back to at least 1807. They in turn joined with Ngati Toa and the smaller Ngati Tama tribe to invade the Wellington region. Here they fought with and defeated the Ngati Ira iwi, took over their land and extinguished their independent existence. The principal marae being at Urenui, and the Chatham Islands. This northern Taranaki land was under the mana of the Great Waikato chief Te Whero Whero until sold to the government.
Invasion of the Chatham Islands
Having left their Taranaki lands behind, the Ngati Mutunga lived an uneasy existence in the modern Wellington region where they were threatened by tensions between Ngati Toa and Ngati Raukawa. In Te Whanganui a Tara (Wellington) they felt less than secure. They burnt the bones of their ancestors and gifted their land to Te Atiawa and Ngati Tama. In November 1835 about 900 people of the Ngati Mutunga and Ngai Tama tribes, invaded the Chatham Islands after kidnapping the mate and holding him to ransom effectively, hijacking the ship Lord Rodney. They had originally planned to invade either Samoa or the Norfolk Islands but in a meeting at Wellington in 1835 decided to invade the Chatham Islands due to their proximity. On their arrival they attacked and slaughtered about 300 adults and an unknown number of children. Large numbers were eaten and women beaten and sexually assaulted. The Moriori who survived were enslaved. They were dragged in ropes to the potato fields and whipped to make them work. It is estimated that in all about 3,000 Moriori died directly or indirectly from the invasion. Despite the Chatham Islands being made part of New Zealand in 1842, Maori kept Moriori slaves until 1863. Moriori had forgone the killing of people in the centuries leading up to the arrival of the Maori, instead settling quarrels up to 'first blood'. This cultural practice is known as 'Nunuku's Law'. The development of this pragmatic dispute settlement process left Moriori wholly unprepared to deal with the Ngati Tama and Ngati Mutanga invaders who came from a significantly different and more aggressive cultural perspective.
Gold prospectors allowed on rohe
In the mid-1870s the iwi allowed gold prospectors to search the Mokau River valley for signs of gold. The Mokau river was the boundary between this iwi and the Maniapoto rohe which was in a struggle with the Maori king (who claimed mana over Rohe Potae). Te Kooti who had been given sanctuary by the Maniapoto fighting chief Rewi Maniapoto, against the express wishes of the Maori king, allowed Te Kooti to go to the river mouth for kai moana (seafood). Te Kooti tried to form an alliance with a local hapu to drive out the prospectors and their Ngati Mutunga guardians.
Full and final treaty settlement for Taranaki
During the conflict in Taranaki over land in the 1860s and subsequently, Ngati Mutunga left en masse from the Chatham Islands, joined with other iwi in rebelling against the Crown's decision to purchase land from Maori. This led to at least 23 Ngati Mutunga taking part in the Parihaka occupation of disputed land and their subsequent arrest. In 1865 Ngati Mutunga land was confiscated under the NZ Settlement Act. However provision was made for Ngati Mutunga people who had not rebelled by the returning of 9,000 acres of land and later in 1870 a further 15,000 acres. The land was returned to individuals. The later land was mainly inland and most was sold. It is unknown how many Ngati Mutunga existed in the rohe as many had taken part in the invasion of the Chatham Islands. Based on the present Ngati Mutunga population of 2,000 (c. 2007) it was possibly about 200.
In 1926–27 the Sim Commission investigated various Taranaki claims and resolved that wrong had been done and awarded 5000 pounds per annum to be paid. It is claimed that this was paid irregularly during the 1930s economic depression.
In 2005–06 a Deed of Settlement to settle outstanding Treaty of Waitangi issues was signed by Ngati Mutanga after being endorsed by 95% of those Ngati Mutunga eligible to vote. This full and final settlement awarded $14.9 million and 10 areas of land of cultural significance to Ngati Mutunga. At the passing of the bill Hansard shows MPs spoke warmly of the Ngati Mutunga positive contribution to bringing to an end the grievances with the Crown, although Maori party MP Te Ururoa Flavell, speaking in Maori only, said that he believed Ngati Mutunga had been given a poor deal by the Crown who he called thieves. He invited Ngati Mutunga to return to parliament to seek further payments in the future, saying they should return to the table to see if the loaf of bread had got bigger.
Famous Ngati Mutanga
Arguably the most well known member of the iwi is Sir Maui Pomare. He was a young boy at Parihaka living with his parents when the armed police moved in to arrest members who had been cutting fences and blocking road construction in a well organized protest. A police horse stood on his foot. He received an excellent education by the standards of the day and was encouraged by relatives to embrace the European world. After attending secondary school in Christchurch and Te Aute college he went to the USA in 1895 and trained as a doctor. He traveled widely before returning to New Zealand in 1900. He became an elected member of parliament and joined with other Maori members to form the Young Maori Party. The party had the goal of improving the lot of Maori people in New Zealand. Pomare was especially interested in improving the health of Maori by teaching basic hygiene to isolated rural Maori. He encouraged Maori to learn English by preventing the use of Maori in schools. He sponsored the Suppression of Tohunga (witch doctors/shaman)Act in order to improve Maori health. Tohunga were common in Maori communities and used plants as medicine to treat common ailments but also used treatments that Pomare knew to be fatal in the treatment of influenza, tuberculosis and pneumonia.
- Tainui.L. Kelly.
- Tainui.L. Kelly.
- Historical Frictions. Maori Claims and Reinvented Histories. M. Belgrave. Auckland University Press.2005.P292.
- Moriori.Michael. King. Penguin .2000 P 60-65.