|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
|Hiran Ngoenyang Chiangsaen
|Capital||Hiran (to about 850)
Ngoenyang (from about 850 onwards)
|-||638 - ?||Lavachakkaraj|
|-||1262 - 1292||Mangrai|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|-||Installation of Lavachakkaraj||638|
|-||Capture of Haripunchai||1292|
The Kingdom of Hiran or of Ngoenyang (Thai: อาณาจักรหิรัญเงินยาง) was an early Tai Yuan kingdom in existence from the 7th through 13th centuries AD and was originally centered on Hiran (formerly Vieng Preuksa ) – near today's Amphoe Mae Sai in Chiangrai – and later on Ngoenyang or Chiang Saen, in modern-day Thailand. Ngoenyang was the successor to the Yonok kingdom and was the predecessor of the Lanna kingdom as Mangrai, the 17th king of Ngoenyang, went on to found Lanna. In contrast to most contemporary Tai civilizations, Ngoenyang was mentioned in local chronicles which provide some information about its history.
In 545 AD, an earthquake destroyed the city of Naknakorn and thus the Yonok kingdom. The Tai Yuan then gathered together at Vieng Prueksa and an elective monarchy (Prueksa means 'to discuss') was established there. After 93 years of elective monarchy, however, King Kalavarnadit of Lavo forced Vieng Prueksa to accept Lavachakkraj as their king in 638 AD.
Lavachakkaraj was hypothesized to be a tribal chief in the area who gained the support of the Lavo kingdom. The Lavachakkaraj or Lao dynasty would rule the area for 700 years. Lavachakkaraj renamed Vieng Prueksa as Hiran.
Laokiang, the ninth king of Hiran, founded the city of Ngoenyang (modern Chiang Saen) around 850 AD, moved the capital there, and thus became the first king of Ngoenyang. The territorial claims of the Ngoenyang kingdom extended from Chiang Saen in the west through parts of modern Laos north of Luang Prabang to Thaeng (modern Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam). Ngoenyang fell under the dominion of the Heokam kingdom of the Tai Lue people in the north around 1250 AD, and remained within that orbit until the Mongol invasions again shifted power in the area.
The religion of Ngoenyang kingdom was heavily influenced by the Theravada Buddhism of the Haripunchai kingdom to the south. Around 1250, Laomeng the 16th king of Ngoenyang founded Chiangrai and his son, Mangrai, moved the capital to Chiangrai when he was crowned as the king of Ngoenyang in 1262. In 1281, Mangrai invaded Haripunchai and captured the capital (modern Lamphun).
List of Ruler of Hiran Kingdom Age
1. Phraya Lavajakaraj 2. Phraya LaoKhao KaewMahMueng 3. Phraya LaoSao 4. Phraya LaoTang 5. Phraya LaoGhrom 6. Phraya LaoLheaw 7. Phraya LaoGab 8. Phraya LaoKim
List of Ruler of NgeonYang Kingdom Age
1. Phraya LaoKiang 2. Phraya LaoKiw 3. Phraya LaoTerng 4. Phraya LaoTueng 5. Phraya LaoKhon 6. Phraya LaoSom 7. Phraya LaoGuak 8. Phraya LaoGiw 9. Phraya LaoJong 10. Phraya JomPha Rueng 11. Phraya LaoJerng 12. Phraya Lao NgernRueng 13. Phraya LaoTsin 14. Phraya LaoMing 15. Phraya LaoMueng 16. Mengrai the Great
"หิรัญนครเงินยางเชียงแสน - วิกิพีเดีย." วิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี. Web. 16 Jan. 2011. <http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/หิรัญนครเงินยางเชียงแสน>.