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Nicene Christianity refers to Christian doctrinal traditions that adhere to the Nicene Creed (credo being Latin for "I believe") which was originally formulated at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 CE and finished at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 CE.
The main rival doctrine of Nicene Christianity was Arian Christianity, which would mostly disappear by the 7th century. The main point of dissent was Christology, specifically Trinitarianism. Other non-trinitarian currents were considered heresies during the medieval period, most notably Islam.
Mainstream Christian churches, including all of Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and most Protestant denominations, adhere to the creed and are thus examples of "Nicene Christianity". There are some examples of revived Nontrinitarianism (Unitarianism), such as the Unitarian Church of Transylvania or the Oneness Pentecostals.
Nicene Christianity often overlaps with Chalcedonian Christianity which extends doctrinal adherence through the Councils of Ephesus in 430 CE and Chalcedon in 451 CE. However, some portions of the Eastern Church adhere to the Nicene Creed, but not the Chalcedonian Definition. The Oriental Orthodox Churches are included in Nicene Christianity, but are non-Chalcedonian.