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Nicene Christianity refers to Christian doctrinal traditions that adhere to the Nicene Creed (credo being Latin for "I believe") which was originally formulated at the First Council of Nicaea in AD 325 and finished at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381.
The main rival doctrine of Nicene Christianity was Arian Christianity, which would mostly disappear by the 7th century AD. The main points of dissent were Christology. Other non-Nicene currents have been considered heresies since the medieval period.
Mainstream Christian churches, including all of Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, the Anglican Communion and most Protestant denominations, adhere to the creed and are thus examples of "Nicene Christianity". There are some examples of revived Nontrinitarianism (Unitarianism), such as the Unitarian Church of Transylvania, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormonism) or the Oneness Pentecostals.
Chalcedonian Christianity is a large subset of Nicene Christianity, which extends doctrinal adherence through the Councils of Ephesus in AD 430 and Chalcedon in AD 451. Some portions of the Eastern Christianity, such as the Oriental Orthodoxy, adhere to the Nicene Creed, but not the Chalcedonian Definition.