Nichiren Shū

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Nichiren Shu)
Jump to: navigation, search
Nichiren Shu's logo. It is said to be based on Nichiren's family crest known as the Tachibana or Mandarin Orange Flower.[1]

Nichiren Shū (日蓮宗 Nichiren-shū?, Nichiren School) is a confederation of four of the original Nichiren Buddhist Schools that date back to Nichiren's original disciples, and part of the fifth:[2][3][4]

  • the Minobu-School (founded by Nikō)
  • the Hama-School (founded by Nisshō)
  • the Ikegami-School (founded by Nichirō)
  • the Nakayama-School (founded by Nichijō (Toki Jōni))
  • the Fuji-School (founded by Nikkō; part only, some of the Fuji-School belongs to Nichiren Shōshū)


The school's Head Temple, Kuon-ji, is located on Mount Minobu where Nichiren lived in seclusion and where he asked to be buried.[5][6] Another important temple of Nichiren Shū is Ikegami Honmon-ji where Nichiren died. Its temples have many of Nichiren’s most important personal artifacts and writings (which are considered National Treasures of Japan) in their safekeeping.

Overview of Nichiren Shū[edit]

Nichiren Shū does not believe Nichiren designated a single successor, as taught for instance by Nichiren Shoshu, but that he designated Six Senior Disciples to succeed him. The Six Senior Disciples designated by Nichiren were: Nissho (1221-1323); Nichiro (1245-1320); Nikko (1246-1333); Nikō (1253-1314); Nitchō (1252-1317); and Nichiji (1250-unknown).[7]

Nichiren Shū states that the Buddha, to take refuge in, is the Eternal Shakyamuni Buddha of the 16th chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Nichiren is regarded as the appearance in this world of Superior Practice Bodhisattva who is given the mission in chapter 21 of the Lotus Sutra[8] to uphold the true Dharma in the Latter Day of the Law. Nichiren is seen as the votary of the Lotus Sutra fulfilling its prophecy in acting as the appearance of Bodhisattva Jōgyō ("Superior Practice"), who leads all bodhisattvas in propagating the Lotus Sutra. Shakyamuni Buddha is regarded as the Eternal Buddha as revealed in the 16th chapter of the Lotus Sutra.

Nichiren Shū regards Nichiren as the messenger of the Eternal Shakyamuni Buddha or Original Buddha, but does not consider him as more important than Shakyamuni. The Original Buddha occupies the central role in Nichiren Shū; Nichiren—referred to as Nichiren Shōnin ("Saint Nichiren")—is the saint who refocused attention on Shakyamuni by rebuking other Buddhist schools for solely emphasizing other buddhas or esoteric practices or for neglecting or deriding the Lotus Sutra. This can be seen in the emphasis of training in Nichiren Shū. The Lotus Sutra is paramount in study and in practice, and Nichiren's writings—called Gosho (御書) or Goibun (御遺文)—are seen as commentaries or guides to the doctrines of Buddhism. They include the Five Major Writings of Nichiren in which he establishes doctrine, belief, and practice, as well as many pastoral letters he wrote to his followers. Nichiren Shū is currently in the process of translating many of the writings of Nichiren into English using the extant documents from Nichiren's life or copies known to have been made by his original disciples. In total there will be 7 volumes published through the University of Hawaii Press.

Nichiren wrote frequently, and readers can verify or correct their understanding of the doctrines of Nichiren Buddhism through his surviving works. Unlike Nichiren Shōshū, Nichiren Shū is far more selective about which Gosho it deems authentic. Many Gosho that are accepted by the Nichiren Shoshu are not accepted as genuine by Nichiren Shū on grounds that scholars have not verified their authenticity. The primary reason for this dispute arises over an inability to verify those various disputed writings as actually having been authored by Nichiren Shonin. This does not mean those gosho or alleged oral transmissions (like the Ongi Kuden) are rejected, but it does mean that they are viewed as secondary to authenticated materials and it is admitted that while they might have pastoral value they can not be definitively asserted as Nichiren's own teaching.

Nichiren Shu Practice and Beliefs[edit]

In the Lotus Sutra, according to Nichiren Shū, there are five kinds of practices that one should perform. They are:

  • to receive and keep the Sutra in each one's body and mind
  • to read the Sutra with the eyes
  • to recite the Sutra
  • to explain the Sutra to others
  • to copy the Sutra

The Primary Practice in Nichiren Shū however, is chanting Odaimoku to an object of devotion. The Secondary Practice is to chant Chapter 2 (Expedient Means) and Chapter 16 (Life Span of the Thus Come One) of the Lotus Sutra, or any other chapter of The Lotus Sutra or the complete Sutra. Nichiren Shū regards the Odaimoku (the mantra Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō) and the mandala or Gohonzon as the summit of the Dharma, but does not ignore other Buddhist practices. Forms of silent meditation (shōdai-gyō), artistic copying of the Odaimoku (shakyō), and the study of fundamental Buddhist concepts such as the Four Noble Truths, Threefold Training, Noble Eightfold Path and Taking Refuge are used as supporting practices in Nichiren Shū.

Object of Devotion in Nichiren Shū[edit]

Shutei Gohonzon issued to adherents of Nichiren Shū, a copy of a Gohonzon inscribed by Nichiren

Nichiren Shū issues calligraphic Gohonzons to its members, but statue arrangements may also be used to represent the Gohonzon. In Nichiren Shū, the following may be used as the Gohonzon:[9]

  • A statue of the Eternal Shakyamuni Buddha.
  • A statue of the Eternal Shakyamuni Buddha, flanked by the Four Bodhisattvas of the Earth.
  • A stupa with Namu-myōhō-renge-kyō inscribed on it, flanked by the Buddhas Shakyamuni and Many Treasures.
  • An inscription of the Odaimoku alone (Ippen Shudai).
  • The Calligraphic Mandala inscribed by Nichiren.

All fully ordained Nichiren-shū ministers are able to inscribe and consecrate mandalas, but in practice few of them do. They usually bestow a copy of a Nichiren inscribed mandala, called the Shutei Gohonzon,[10] upon their members.

Holidays[edit]

Holidays observed in Nichiren Shū:

  • February 15: Nirvana Day. Anniversary of the death of Shakyamuni Buddha
  • February 16: Nichiren’s birthday
  • March 21: Higan.
  • April 8: Buddha's Birthday.
  • July 13-15/August 13-15: Urabon
  • October 13: Oeshiki, Anniversary of the death of Nichiren.
  • December 8: Bodhi Day

Nichiren-shū temples of historic importance[edit]

  • Ikegami Honmon-ji, founded on the site where Nichiren passed and was cremated.
  • Kuon-ji, founded by Nichiren
  • Kyōnin-ji, marks the site where Nichiren was attacked in the year 1281.
  • Ryūkō-ji, marks the site where Nichiren was to be executed.
  • Seichō-ji, originally a temple of the Tendai-shū and later Shingon-shū, the temple was converted into a temple of the Nichiren-shū in 1949 as it played an important role in Nichiren-Buddhism.
  • Tanjō-ji, near the site of Nichiren’s parental home (the original site is under sea level today).

Nichiren Shū Today[edit]

The Nichiren Shū first spread overseas with Japanese immigrants to the United States, then Kingdom of Hawaii, Brazil and other locations in the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. Presently, there are Nichiren Shū temples and Sanghas in the United States, Japan, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, much of South America, India, Korea, Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan), and Europe.[11] Nichiren Shū also ordains non-Japanese and non-Japanese speaking men and women, and continues to expand its presence overseas. Nichiren Shū maintains relations with other Nichiren Schools and non-Nichiren Schools.

In 2010 the Nichiren Shu described itself as a "religious organization consisting of about 5,000 temples, 8,000 ministers and 3.8 million members world wide".[12]

Differences and Similarities with other Nichiren Schools[edit]

Apart from other fundamental issues on dogma,[13][14][15][16] Nichiren Shū does not believe the Dai-Gohonzon, which is revered in Nichiren Shōshū, to be superior to other Gohonzons nor that it has been inscribed by Nichiren at all: "Although the Daigohonzon in itself is a valid Mandala Gohonzon, this concept of a super Gohonzon that empowers all the others blatantly contradicted Nichiren Daishonin's teachings and, consequently, created a great feeling of mistrust with other Nikko temples."[17] This view is very similar to SGI teaching on this matter: "First, the power of any Gohonzon, including the Dai-Gohonzon, can be tapped only through the power of faith. In other words, we should be clear that it is wrong to think that the Dai-Gohonzon alone has some kind of unique mystic power that no other Gohonzon possesses. The Dai-Gohonzon and our own Gohonzon are equal."[18]

The major difference in beliefs, however, centers on the spiritual identity of the founder, Nichiren. Nichiren Shū regards Nichiren as Superior Practice Bodhisattva and teaches that Shakyamuni "... is known as “the” Buddha, not because he attained something that ordinary people cannot attain, but because he was the first person in recorded history to awaken to the truth and to show the way whereby others could do so as well. In that sense, the title “Buddha” is reserved for Shakyamuni simply because he happened to be the one to fulfill the role of teacher and model for all those who follow his path."[19] Nichren Shoshu believes that Nichiren was the "Original Buddha of kuon ganjo"[20] while SGI views Nichiren as simply an ordinary person who attained Buddhahood "I, Nichiren, vowed ... to attain Buddhahood".[21] Another difference is the belief, as taught for instance by Nichiren Shōshū, that Nichiren allegedly designated Nikko his successor; Nichiren Shū, however, disputes this as a claim based on counterfeit documents.[22] Also the authenticity of some of the writings attributed to Nichiren are disputed and therefore considered apocryphal within Nichiren Shū.

A similarity, common to most Nichiren schools, is the shared doctrine of The Three Great Hidden Dharmas,[23] referred to in some schools as the Three Great Secret Laws, as "... it was in order to put the insight of Ichinen Sanzen into actual practice that Nichiren Shonin taught The Three Great Secret Dharmas: the Gohonzon, the Essential Focus of Reverence, the Odaimoku, the great Title of the Lotos Sutra; and the Kaidan, the Precept Platform."[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://nichiren-shu.org/Houston/pages/lineage.htm
  2. ^ Nichiren Shu
  3. ^ http://nichiren-shu.org/NONA/pages/lineage.html
  4. ^ http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/sects/nichiren.htm
  5. ^ http://nichiren-shu.org/AboutUs/major/minobu.html
  6. ^ Japan National Tourism Organization [1]
  7. ^ Ryuei Shonin, "On October 8, 1282 at the house of Munenaka Ikegami, Nichiren Shonin designated the Six Senior Disciples (Roku Roso) to carry on his work after his death. These six were: Nissho (1221-1323), Nichiro (1245-1320), Nikko (1246-1333), Niko (1253-1314), Nitcho (1252-1317), and Nichiji (1250-1305?)."http://nichirenscoffeehouse.net/Ryuei/SixDisciples_01.html"
  8. ^ Nichiren Shonin
  9. ^ http://nichirenscoffeehouse.net/Gohonzon/EyeOpeningCeremony.html
  10. ^ Who's Who on the Gohonzon?
  11. ^ Temples Near You
  12. ^ Rev. Chishin Hirai, History of Nichiren Shū, Nichiren Buddhist International Center, The Bridge 53, p.1 (2010) PDF
  13. ^ Nichiren Shū Houston Sangha: ‘The Lineage of Nichiren Buddhism’ http://nichiren-shu.org/Houston/pages/lineage.htm
  14. ^ Rev. Ryuei: ‘The Six Major Disciples of Nichiren’ http://www.nichirenscoffeehouse.net/Ryuei/SixDisciples_01.html
  15. ^ Rev. Tarabini: ‘A response to questions from Soka Gakkai practitioners regarding the similarities and differences among Nichiren Shu, Nichiren Shoshu and the Soka Gakkai’ http://nichiren-shu.org/NONA/comparison.pdf
  16. ^ Choeizan Enkyoji Nichiren Shu (Series1/Part 4/4) Difference Between Nichiren Shu and Shoshu-SGI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S73tXgYpt44&feature=plcp
  17. ^ Rev. Tarabini http://nichiren-shu.org/NONA/comparison.pdf page 5
  18. ^ http://www.sokaspirit.org/resource/world-tribune/about-the-dai-gohonzon
  19. ^ Lotus Seeds, The Essence of Nichiren Shu Buddhism, page 61, (ISBN 0970592000)
  20. ^ http://www.nst.org/glossary/
  21. ^ Nichiren Shū Prayer Book page 20: http://www.tripleworld.org/shindokubook.pdf
  22. ^ Montgomery, Daniel (1991). Fire in the Lotus, The Dynamic Religion of Nichiren, London: Mandala, ISBN 1852740914, p. 147-151, p. 169
  23. ^ Rev. Ryuei: ‘The Three Great Hidden Dharmas’ http://www.nichiren-shu.org/Sanfrancisco/pages/study/nine.htm
  24. ^ Lotus Seeds, The Essence of Nichiren Shu Buddhism, page 72, (ISBN 0970592000)

External links[edit]