Nicolai Anders von Hartwiss
|Nicolai Anhorn von Hartwiss|
|Born||Nikolaus Ernst Bartholomäus Anhorn von Hartwiss
24 May 1793
|Died||6 December 1860
|Residence||Artek near Ayu-Dag, Crimea|
|Education||University of Dorpat (= Tartu)|
|Occupation||botanist and plant breeder|
|Employer||Nikita Imperial Botanic Garden, Yalta, Crimea|
|Title||Director of the Botanic Garden|
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Feodorovna Baroness von Rosen|
|Parents||Heinrich Ernst Anhorn von Hartwiss of Livonia and Christiane Anhorn von Hartwiss (his first cousin)|
Nicolai Anhorn von Hartwiss (Николай Андерс фон Хартвис; 1793–1860) was a Livonian-born Russian botanist, plant explorer and plant breeder.
Von Hartwiss was born Nikolaus Ernst Bartholomäus Anhorn von Hartwiss in 1793 at his father's estate at Kokenhof near Wolmar, Livonia (now Valmiera, Latvia). The family Anhorn von Hartwiss (double name) comes from Switzerland. His grandfather Silvester Samuel (1708–1782) descended from Swiss Protestant pastors and emigrated to Russia. His father, Heinrich Ernst was a registered member of the Livonian nobility (reg. 1769). He married his first cousin Christina Louisa. Nikolaus was their tenth child. By that time Livonia (roughly present day Latvia and the southern part of Estonia) had been absorbed (under the Governorate of Livonia) into the Russian Empire, but the nobility still retained its ancient Baltic German forms and spoke Low German.
He was an officer of the Russian Army in the Napoleonic Wars 1812–1818, discharged with wounds. This implies that he was (and remained) a subject of the Tsar, not in any sense a Russian citizen.
Von Hartwiss at one time gained practical gardening experience laying out fields of flowers, fruit trees and both exotic and domestic trees on his father's estate. In 1819–1824 he lived in Riga, gardening and fruit growing, with a collection of 500 varieties of fruit trees and roses.
In 1824 he was appointed by Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, governor-general of New Russia, to the Russian Imperial Botanical Garden at Nikita in Yalta on the south coast of the Crimea. In 1827 he became its second director, which he remained until he died. He extended the Garden's collection of plant varieties from more than a thousand to about three thousand, including the largest collection of fruit varieties in Europe.
He and his first wife, Elizabeth Feodorovna Baroness von Rosen, had an estate called Artek near Bear Mountain (Ayu-Dag) in the Crimea. After the death of his first wife in 1855 he married a young girl from Riga in Simferopol on 2 Feb. 1858, Leontine Werther, who died at the end of the same year giving birth to a daughter.
Von Hartwiss collected plants in Georgia and the Crimea. Some species were named by him, some named after him. "Three long expeditions [were made] to the Caucasus in search of new ornamental plants for the Crimea … Caucasian fir, spruce, … Caucasian basswood, rhododendrons, azaleas and other flowering shrubs."
- (Boraginaceae) Cordia hartwissiana Regel
- (Cupressaceae) Juniperus hartwissiana Steven ex Koeppen
- Strandzha oak (Fagaceae) Quercus hartwissiana Steven
- (Paeoniaceae) Paeonia hartwissiana Hort. ex Trautv.
Von Hartwiss imported many plants for the Botanic Garden, including roses. In 1827 he began to breed roses. These were partly for the Garden itself, but also for the Alupka Palace of Count (later Prince) Michael Vorontsov. Some thirty of his roses were sold from the Alupka Palace nursery.
Von Hartwiss bred more than 100 varieties of roses at the Nikita Garden. Two are still growing at the Alupka Palace: 'Comtesse Elizabeth Woronzof' 1829 and 'Belle de Nikita' 1829. There may also be his rose 'Mignonette d'Alupka' 1829, thought by some to be the rose imported into France and sold as 'Maréchal Niel'. Hartwiss's hand-written 1834 catalogue of roses at Nikita lists scores of roses bred there identified only by description. The Crimean Rose Society – including roses bred after 1834 – lists 127 named varieties.
|Baronne Julie de Berkheim||<1834||China hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Belle de Livonie||1827||Alba hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Belle de Nikita||1829||China hybrid||Pink||Yes|
|Belle de Riga||<1834||Gallica hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Blanche de Riga||<1834||Alba hybrid||White||Lost|
|Bouquet de Nikita||1829||Sempervirens hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Comtesse Elizabeth Woronzof||1829||China hybrid||Chamois with pink||Yes|
|Comtesse Nathalie Tchernischoff||<1834||semperflorens hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Comtesse Pahlen||<1834||semperflorens hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Foncée-brillante de Livonie||<1834||Gallica hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Incomparable de Livonie||<1834||Gallica hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Mignonette d'Alupka||1829||Hybrid Noisette||Cream||Yes|
|Ombrée de Riga||<1834||Gallica hybrid||unknown||Lost|
|Princesse Anne Golitzin||<1834||Grevilliae hybrid||Rich red||Lost|
|Woldemar Hagen||<1834||Gallica hybrid||unknown||Lost|
- ru.wikipedia.org/.../Список_ботаников_по_их_сокращениям Scientific abbreviations in botany
- Galichenko, Anna Abramovna (2001). "The Correspondence of N. Hartwiss with M.S. Vorontsov". Nobility in the history of the Russian state: Proceedings of the third Vorontsov lectures (in Russian) (Simferopol). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Galichenko, Anna Abramovna (2001). "Nicholas Hartwiss and the rose collection of the Imperial Botanic Garden at Nikita". Bulletin of the State Botanic Garden Nikita (in Russian) (Yalta) 83. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Klimenko, Zinaida Konstantinovna et al (2006). "Nikolai Andreyevich Hartwiss, second director of the Nikita Botanic Garden". Bulletin of the Nikita State Botanic Garden (in Russian) (Yalta) 92. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Christiansen, Eric (1997). The Northern Crusades (New ed. ed.). London: Penguin. p. 92. ISBN 0140266534.
- Davies, Norman (2011). Vanished kingdoms : the history of half-forgotten Europe. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-846-14338-0. Especially the chapter "Litva".
- Anderson, Benedict (1996). Imagined communities : reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (Rev. ed., 7. impr. ed.). London [u.a.]: Verso. p. 87. ISBN 0860915468.
- Arbatskaya, Yu. and K. Vikhlyaeva (2011). Rosa 'Alupka'. The detective on the botanical trail. (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Arbatskaya, Yu. (2012). Sad Ghost: the Hartwiss Park in Artek (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Gartenfl. (1857) 342. (IK)
- Ueb. Pfl. Acclimat. in Russl. 6. (IK)
- "Stranzhda Natural Park". Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou xxx. (1857) I. 387. (IK)
- "Quercus hartwissiana". Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada viii. (1883) 61, nomen. (IK)
- "Author Query for 'Hartwiss'". International Plant Names Index.
- Galichenko, Anna Abramovna. "Inhaling the scent of Roses". 'World of estate culture. Eighth Crimean International Scientific Readings (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012. No date.
- Arbatskaya, Yu. (c. 2011). Old roses on the south coast of Crimea (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Heritage Roses in Crimea (Ukraine)". Association Rose Amateurs of Crimea. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Klimenko, Zinaida Konstantinovna (2010). "Summary of Rose Breeding 1824–2010 in the Nikita Botanic Garden". Bulletin of the Nikita Botanic Garden (in Russian) 100: 49–55.
- Help Me Find Roses entry for Hartwiss
- Baronne Julie de Berkheim at helpmefind.com
- Belle de Livonia at helpmefind.com
- Belle de Nikita at helpmefind.com
- Belle de Riga at helpmefind.com
- "'Blanche de Riga'". Help Me Find. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Bouquet de Nikita at helpmefind.com
- Comtesse Elizabeth Woronzof at helpmefind.com
- Comtesse Nathalie Tchernischoff at helpmefind.com
- Foncée-brillante de Livonia on helpmefind.com
- Incomparable de Livonia on helpmefind.com
- Alupka at helpmefind.com
- Ombre de Riga on helpmefind.com
- Princesse Anne Golitsin at helpme find.com
- Help Me Find Roses entry on von Hartwiss
- (Russian and English) "Heritage Roses in Crimea (Ukraine)". Crimean Rose Society. Retrieved 10 January 2014.