Nicolai Anders von Hartwiss

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Nicolai Anhorn von Hartwiss
Born Nikolaus Ernst Bartholomäus Anhorn von Hartwiss
24 May 1793
Kokenhof, Livonia
Died 6 December 1860
Artek, Crimea
Residence Artek near Ayu-Dag, Crimea
Nationality Russian
Education University of Dorpat (= Tartu)
Occupation botanist and plant breeder
Employer Nikita Imperial Botanic Garden, Yalta, Crimea
Title Director of the Botanic Garden
Term 1827–1860
Predecessor H.H. Steven
Religion Lutheran
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Feodorovna Baroness von Rosen
Parents Heinrich Ernst Anhorn von Hartwiss of Livonia and Christiane Anhorn von Hartwiss (his first cousin)

Nicolai Anhorn von Hartwiss (Николай Андерс фон Хартвис;[1] 1793–1860) was a Livonian-born Russian botanist, plant explorer and plant breeder.


Von Hartwiss was born Nikolaus Ernst Bartholomäus Anhorn von Hartwiss in 1793 at his father's estate at Kokenhof near Wolmar, Livonia (now Valmiera, Latvia).[2] The family Anhorn von Hartwiss (double name) comes from Switzerland. His grandfather Silvester Samuel (1708–1782) descended from Swiss Protestant pastors and emigrated to Russia. His father, Heinrich Ernst was a registered member of the Livonian nobility (reg. 1769). He married his first cousin Christina Louisa. Nikolaus was their tenth child.[3][4] By that time Livonia (roughly present day Latvia and the southern part of Estonia) had been absorbed (under the Governorate of Livonia) into the Russian Empire, but the nobility still retained its ancient Baltic German forms and spoke Low German.[5][6]

Nikolaus was educated at German-speaking Dorpat (now Tartu) university (1809-1812), where his studies were interrupted by Napoleon.[7][3][4]

He was an officer of the Russian Army in the Napoleonic Wars 1812–1818, discharged with wounds.[3] This implies that he was (and remained) a subject of the Tsar, not in any sense a Russian citizen.[7]

Von Hartwiss at one time gained practical gardening experience laying out fields of flowers, fruit trees and both exotic and domestic trees on his father's estate.[3] In 1819–1824 he lived in Riga, gardening and fruit growing, with a collection of 500 varieties of fruit trees and roses.[4]

In 1824 he was appointed by Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, governor-general of New Russia, to the Russian Imperial Botanical Garden at Nikita in Yalta on the south coast of the Crimea. In 1827 he became its second director, which he remained until he died. He extended the Garden's collection of plant varieties from more than a thousand to about three thousand, including the largest collection of fruit varieties in Europe.[4]

From Nikita he organised plant hunting expeditions into the surrounding territories, especially the Crimea and Abkhazia in the Caucasus.[3][4]

He and his first wife, Elizabeth Feodorovna Baroness von Rosen, had an estate called Artek near Bear Mountain (Ayu-Dag) in the Crimea.[8] After the death of his first wife in 1855 he married a young girl from Riga in Simferopol on 2 Feb. 1858, Leontine Werther, who died at the end of the same year giving birth to a daughter.[4][9]


Quercus hartwissiana, named after von Hartwiss by Steven, first director of the Nikita Gardens.

Von Hartwiss collected plants in Georgia and the Crimea. Some species were named by him, some named after him.[3] "Three long expeditions [were made] to the Caucasus in search of new ornamental plants for the Crimea … Caucasian fir, spruce, … Caucasian basswood, rhododendrons, azaleas and other flowering shrubs."[4]


Plant breeding[edit]

Von Hartwiss imported many plants for the Botanic Garden, including roses. In 1827 he began to breed roses. These were partly for the Garden itself, but also for the Alupka Palace of Count (later Prince) Michael Vorontsov. Some thirty of his roses were sold from the Alupka Palace nursery.[3][17]

Roses bred[edit]

Von Hartwiss bred more than 100 varieties of roses at the Nikita Garden.[3] Two are still growing at the Alupka Palace: 'Comtesse Elizabeth Woronzof' 1829 and 'Belle de Nikita' 1829. There may also be his rose 'Mignonette d'Alupka' 1829, thought by some to be the rose imported into France and sold as 'Maréchal Niel'.[8][18] Hartwiss's hand-written 1834 catalogue of roses at Nikita lists scores of roses bred there identified only by description.[17] The Crimean Rose Society – including roses bred after 1834 – lists 127 named varieties.[19]

Sortable selection of Hartwiss-bred roses[17][20][21][edit]

Name Date Type Colour Extant
Baronne Julie de Berkheim[22] <1834 China hybrid unknown Lost
Belle Lila <1834 Gallica unknown Lost
Belle de Livonie[23] 1827 Alba hybrid unknown Lost
Belle de Nikita[24] 1829 China hybrid Pink Yes
Belle de Riga[25] <1834 Gallica hybrid unknown Lost
Blanche de Riga[26] <1834 Alba hybrid White Lost
Bouquet de Nikita[27] 1829 Sempervirens hybrid unknown Lost
Comtesse Elizabeth Woronzof[28] 1829 China hybrid Chamois with pink Yes
Comtesse Nathalie Tchernischoff[29] <1834 semperflorens hybrid unknown Lost
Comtesse Pahlen <1834 semperflorens hybrid unknown Lost
Foncée-brillante de Livonie[30] <1834 Gallica hybrid unknown Lost
Incomparable de Livonie[31] <1834 Gallica hybrid unknown Lost
Mignonette d'Alupka[32] 1829 Hybrid Noisette Cream Yes
Ombrée de Riga[33] <1834 Gallica hybrid unknown Lost
Princesse Anne Golitzin[34] <1834 Grevilliae hybrid Rich red Lost
Prometheus <1834 Gallica hybrid unknown Lost
Violacea <1834 China-semperflorens hybrid unknown Lost
Woldemar Hagen <1834 Gallica hybrid unknown Lost


  1. ^Список_ботаников_по_их_сокращениям Scientific abbreviations in botany
  2. ^ Galichenko, Anna Abramovna (2001). "The Correspondence of N. Hartwiss with M.S. Vorontsov". Nobility in the history of the Russian state: Proceedings of the third Vorontsov lectures (in Russian) (Simferopol). Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Galichenko, Anna Abramovna (2001). "Nicholas Hartwiss and the rose collection of the Imperial Botanic Garden at Nikita". Bulletin of the State Botanic Garden Nikita (in Russian) (Yalta) 83. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Klimenko, Zinaida Konstantinovna et al (2006). "Nikolai Andreyevich Hartwiss, second director of the Nikita Botanic Garden". Bulletin of the Nikita State Botanic Garden (in Russian) (Yalta) 92. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  5. ^ Christiansen, Eric (1997). The Northern Crusades (New ed. ed.). London: Penguin. p. 92. ISBN 0140266534. 
  6. ^ Davies, Norman (2011). Vanished kingdoms : the history of half-forgotten Europe. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-846-14338-0.  Especially the chapter "Litva".
  7. ^ a b Anderson, Benedict (1996). Imagined communities : reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (Rev. ed., 7. impr. ed.). London [u.a.]: Verso. p. 87. ISBN 0860915468. 
  8. ^ a b Arbatskaya, Yu. and K. Vikhlyaeva (2011). Rosa 'Alupka'. The detective on the botanical trail. (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  9. ^ Arbatskaya, Yu. (2012). Sad Ghost: the Hartwiss Park in Artek (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Gartenfl. (1857) 342. (IK)
  11. ^ Ueb. Pfl. Acclimat. in Russl. 6. (IK)
  12. ^ "Stranzhda Natural Park". Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  13. ^ Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou xxx. (1857) I. 387. (IK)
  14. ^ "Quercus hartwissiana". Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  15. ^ Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada viii. (1883) 61, nomen. (IK)
  16. ^ "Author Query for 'Hartwiss'". International Plant Names Index. 
  17. ^ a b c Galichenko, Anna Abramovna. "Inhaling the scent of Roses". 'World of estate culture. Eighth Crimean International Scientific Readings (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012.  No date.
  18. ^ Arbatskaya, Yu. (c. 2011). Old roses on the south coast of Crimea (in Russian). Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Heritage Roses in Crimea (Ukraine)". Association Rose Amateurs of Crimea. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  20. ^ Klimenko, Zinaida Konstantinovna (2010). "Summary of Rose Breeding 1824–2010 in the Nikita Botanic Garden". Bulletin of the Nikita Botanic Garden (in Russian) 100: 49–55. 
  21. ^ Help Me Find Roses entry for Hartwiss
  22. ^ Baronne Julie de Berkheim at
  23. ^ Belle de Livonia at
  24. ^ Belle de Nikita at
  25. ^ Belle de Riga at
  26. ^ "'Blanche de Riga'". Help Me Find. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  27. ^ Bouquet de Nikita at
  28. ^ Comtesse Elizabeth Woronzof at
  29. ^ Comtesse Nathalie Tchernischoff at
  30. ^ Foncée-brillante de Livonia on
  31. ^ Incomparable de Livonia on
  32. ^ Alupka at
  33. ^ Ombre de Riga on
  34. ^ Princesse Anne Golitsin at helpme

External links[edit]