Nicomedes IV of Bithynia
There is nothing known about Nicomedes IV's birth or the years before he became king. However, his reign began at the death of his father. The first few years of his kingship were relatively peaceful, but soon King Mithridates VI of Pontus (the maternal grand-uncle of Nicomedes IV), one of Rome's greatest enemies during the late Republic, began harassing Bithynia's borders.
Nicomedes IV's brother, Socrates Chrestus, assisted by Mithridates VI, defeated Nicomedes IV's army in 90 BC, and Nicomedes IV was forced to flee to Italy. He was restored to his throne due to Rome's influence in the region. However, the Roman Senate encouraged Nicomedes IV to raid Mithridates VI's territory, and Mithridates VI struck once again in 88 BC. Nicomedes IV fled once again to Rome.
The East was seen by the Romans as a province providing an abundance of gold and silver. As such, two powerful Romans, Gaius Marius and the Consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla aimed at command in the region. Sulla fled the intrigues of Rome to Anatolia, where he commenced the First Mithridatic War. Sulla fought Mithridates VI on several occasions over the next three years, and finally in 85 BC, Mithridates VI sued for peace, and was allowed to retain his kingship in Pontus after paying a heavy fine.
Nicomedes IV was restored to his throne in Bithynia in 84 BC. The years that followed were relatively peaceful, though Bithynia came more and more under the control of Rome. In 80 BC, young Gaius Julius Caesar was an ambassador to Nicomedes IV's court. Caesar was sent to raise a fleet using Bithynia's resources, but he dallied so long with the King that a rumor of a homosexual relationship surfaced, leading to the disparaging title, "the Queen of Bithynia", an allegation which was made much use of by Caesar's political enemies later in his life.
As one of his last acts as king of Bithynia, in 74 BC, Nicomedes IV bequeathed the entire kingdom of Bithynia to Rome. The Roman Senate quickly voted it as a new province. Rome's old enemy Mithridates VI had other plans for Bithynia, however, and Nicomedes IV's death and bequeathal led directly to the Third Mithridatic War.
|King of Bithynia
94 BC – 74 BC
Left Kingdom to Roman Republic in will
- McGing, The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus p. 143
- Smith p. 1197
- Suetonius ii., 45-53
- Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars: "Caesar".
- Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: "Nicomedes III" (erroneously called so), Boston, (1867).
- B.C. McGing, The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus, BRILL, 1986