Nicotiana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Nicotiana
Flowering Nicotiana tabacum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Subfamily: Nicotianoideae
Tribe: Nicotianeae[1]
Genus: Nicotiana
L.
Species

Numerous, see text

Synonyms

Amphipleis Raf.
Blenocoes Raf.
Dittostigma Phil.
Eucapnia Raf.
Langsdorfia Raf.
Lehmannia Spreng.
Perieteris Raf.
Polydiclis (G.Don) Miers
Sairanthus G.Don
Siphaulax Raf.
Tabacum Gilib.
Tabacus Moench
Waddingtonia Phil.[2]

Nicotiana /ˌnɪkɵʃiˈnə/[3] is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family (Solanaceae) indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific. Various Nicotiana species, commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are cultivated as ornamental garden plants. N. tabacum is grown worldwide for production of tobacco leaf for cigarettes and other tobacco products.

Etymology[edit]

The word nicotiana (as well as nicotine) was named in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de' Medici.[4]

Cultivation[edit]

Several species of Nicotiana are grown as ornamental plants. They are popular vespertines, their sweet-smelling flowers opening in the evening to be visited by hawkmoths and other pollinators.

Ecology[edit]

Despite containing enough nicotine and/or other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores,[5] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species and therefore some tobacco plants (chiefly Tree Tobacco, N. glauca) have become established as invasive species in some places.

In the nineteenth century, young tobacco plantings came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris and/or Epitrix pubescens), causing destruction of half the United States tobacco crop in 1876. In the years afterward, many experiments were attempted and discussed to control the flea beetle. By 1880, it was discovered that replacing the branches with a frame covered by thin fabric would effectively protect plants from the beetle. This practice spread until it became ubiquitous in the 1890s.

Lepidoptera whose caterpillars feed on Nicotiana include:

These are mainly Noctuidae and some Sphingidae.

Species[edit]

Nicotiana × sanderae ornamental cultivar

Manmade hybrids[edit]

Formerly placed here[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Nicotiana". Uniprot. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  2. ^ "Nicotiana L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-04-13. Retrieved 2010-06-03. 
  3. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  4. ^ Austin, Gregory. "Chronology of Psychoactive Substance Use". Teachers College Columbia University. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  5. ^ Panter, KE; Keeler, RF; Bunch, TD; Callan, RJ (1990). "Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species". PubMed 28 (12). pp. 1377–1385. PMID 2089736. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx Knapp et al. (2004) Nomenclatural changes and a new sectional classification in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) Taxon. 53(1):73-82.
  7. ^ a b Bot, Ann (2003). Molecular Systematics, GISH and the Origin of Hybrid Taxa in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) 92 (1). pp. 107–127. doi:10.1093/aob/mcg087. 
  8. ^ Clausen, R.E. (1928) Interspecific hybridization in Nicotiana. VII. The cytology of hybrids of the synthetic species, digluta, with its parents, glutinosa and tabacum. Univ. Cal. Pub. Botany. 11(10):177-211.
  9. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Nicotiana". Oxford Journals (United States Department of Agriculture). Retrieved 2010-11-30. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (1999): Nicotiana. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
  • Panter, K.E.; Keeler, R.F.; Bunch, T.D. & Callan, R.J. (1990): Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species. Toxicon 28 (12): 1377-1385. PMID 2089736 (HTML abstract)
  • Ren, Nan & Timko, Michael P. (2001): AFLP analysis of genetic polymorphism and evolutionary relationships among cultivated and wild Nicotiana species. Genome 44(4): 559-571. doi:10.1139/gen-44-4-559 PDF fulltext

External links[edit]

Media related to Nicotiana at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Nicotiana at Wikispecies